• Title, Summary, Keyword: breast cancer risk

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Preventive and Risk Reduction Strategies for Women at High Risk of Developing Breast Cancer: a Review

  • Krishnamurthy, Arvind;Soundara, Viveka;Ramshankar, Vijayalakshmi
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.895-904
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    • 2016
  • Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed invasive cancer among women. Many factors, both genetic and non-genetic, determine a woman's risk of developing breast cancer and several breast cancer risk prediction models have been proposed. It is vitally important to risk stratify patients as there are now effective preventive strategies available. All women need to be counseled regarding healthy lifestyle recommendations to decrease breast cancer risk. As such, management of these women requires healthcare professionals to be familiar with additional risk factors so that timely recommendations can be made on surveillance/risk-reducing strategies. Breast cancer risk reduction strategies can be better understood by encouraging the women at risk to participate in clinical trials to test new strategies for decreasing the risk. This article reviews the advances in the identification of women at high risk of developing breast cancer and also reviews the strategies available for breast cancer prevention.

Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Using the Gail Model: a Turkish Study

  • Erbil, Nulufer;Dundar, Nursel;Inan, Cigdem;Bolukbas, Nurgul
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.303-306
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    • 2015
  • Purpose: This study was conducted to determine risk of developing of breast cancer among Turkish women. Materials and Methods: Using a descriptive and cross-sectional approach, data were collected from 231 women. Breast cancer risk was calculated using the National Cancer Institute's on-line verson of called as the Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Tool or the Gail Risk Assesment Tool. Results: The average age of women was $45.0{\pm}8.06$ years. It was revealed that 6.1% of participants reported having first degree relatives who had had breast cancer, with only four women having more than one first-degree relative affected (1.7%). The mean five-year breast cancer risk for all women was $0.88{\pm}0.91%$, and 7.4% of women had a five-year breast cancer risk >1.66% in this study. Mean lifetime breast cancer risk up to age 90 years was $9.3{\pm}5.2%$. Conclusions: The breast cancer risk assessment tool can help in the clinical management of patient seeking advice concerning screening and prevention. Healthcare providers in Turkey can use this approach to estimate an individual's probability of developing breast cancer.

Compliance with Screening Recommendations According to Breast Cancer Risk Levels in Izmir, Turkey

  • Acikgoz, Ayla;Ergor, Gul
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.1737-1742
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    • 2013
  • Early diagnosis has a major role in improving prognosis of breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to assess the risk status of women 35-69 years of age using risk assessment models and the prevalence of mammography in a community setting. The sample of this cross sectional study consisted of 227 women, 35-69 years of age residing in Izmir, a city located in western region of Turkey. A questionnaire was used to collect data and the Gail and Cuzick-Tyrer models were applied to assess the risk of breast cancer. In this study, 52.7% of women had mammography at least once, and 41.3% of the women over the age of 40 had mammography screening in the last two years. The five years risk for breast cancer was high in 15.8% of women according to the Gail model and ten years risk was high in 21.7% with the Cuzick-Tyrer model. In the present study, the breast cancer risk levels were assessed in a population setting for the first time in Turkey using breast cancer risk level assessment models. Being in 60-69 age group, having low education and not being in menopause were significant risk factors for not having mammography according to logistic regression analysis. Mammography utilization rate was low. Women must be educated about breast cancer screening methods and early diagnosis. The women in the high risk group should be informed on their risk status which may increase their attendance at breast cancer screening.

Interactions of Family History of Breast Cancer with Radiotherapy in Relation to the Risk of Breast Cancer Recurrence

  • Li, Danmeng;Mai, Volker;Gerke, Travis;Pinney, Susan Mengel;Yaghjyan, Lusine
    • Journal of Breast Cancer
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.333-339
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    • 2017
  • Purpose: We examined associations between a family history of breast cancer and the risk of breast cancer recurrence in women who received or did not receive radiotherapy. Methods: Our study included 2,440 women enrolled in the Breast Cancer Registry of Greater Cincinnati. Information on breast cancer risk factors, including detailed family history of breast cancer, characteristics of the primary tumor, treatment received, and recurrence status was collected at baseline and via updates. Associations between a family history of breast cancer and the risk of breast cancer recurrence were examined separately in women treated with and without radiotherapy using survival analysis. Results: Over an average follow-up time of 8.78 years, we found no associations between a family history of breast cancer and the risk of breast cancer recurrence among women with a history of radiotherapy (hazard ratio [HR], 0.96; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.75-1.23). Among women who did not receive radiotherapy, the total number of relatives with breast cancer was positively associated with the risk of breast cancer recurrence (HR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.00-1.47). We found no interactions of radiotherapy with family history (p-interaction >0.05). Conclusion: Radiotherapy for a primary breast cancer in women with a family history of breast cancer does not increase risk of breast cancer recurrence. If these findings are replicated in future studies, the results may translate into an important health message for breast cancer survivors with a family history of breast cancer.

Risk Assessment of Breast Cancer in Guangdong, China: A Community-based Survey

  • Lin, Ying;Shao, Nan;Zhang, Yun-Jian;Wu, Zhuang-Hong;Li, Zhi-Bin;Ren, Ze-Fang;Wang, Shen-Ming
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.6
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    • pp.2759-2763
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    • 2012
  • Objectives: Compared with Western countries, the incidence rates for breast cancer in China are still low. However, breast cancer appears to be hitting Chinese women at a much younger age, with a peak between 40 and 50 years. Furthermore, breast tumors of Asian women have molecular and genetic characteristics that are different from those of Caucasian women. Methods: A community-based study was designed to evaluate the relationship between lifestyles and breast cancer risk in Chinese women residing in Guangzhou. 16,314 subjects completed the questionnaire. Potential confounding factors included sociodemographic characteristics. Results: 33 individuals reported a history of breast cancer, yielding a prevalence rate of 202.3/100000. Associations between subjects' demographic and breast cancer risk factors were assessed. Breast cancer is associated with family history of breast cancer, X-rays received, benign breast disease and hyperlipoidemia or hypercholesteremia with elevated odds ratios. Conclusions: Family history of breast cancer, X-ray received benign breast disease and hyperlipoidemia or hypercholesteremia were significantly associated with risk of breast cancer and may havepotential for breast cancer risk assessment.

No Increase in Breast Cancer Risk in Japanese Women Taking Oral Contraceptives: a Case-Control Study Investigating Reproductive, Menstrual and Familial Risk Factors for Breast Cancer

  • Ichida, Miho;Kataoka, Akemi;Tsushima, Ruriko;Taguchi, Tetsuya
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.9
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    • pp.3685-3690
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    • 2015
  • Background: Low-dose oral contraceptives (OC) were approved by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare in 1999, yet despite their contraceptive and non-contraceptive health benefits, only 5% of the target population use them. Fear of increased cancer risk, particularly breast cancer, is one reason for this. Due to low OC uptake and low screening participation, a paucity of data is available on the risk of OC use and breast cancer in Japanese women. The present study investigated OC use and breast cancer risk, as well as menstrual, reproductive and family factors. Materials and Methods: This was a clinic-based case-control study of women aged 20-69yrs who had undergone breast screening between January 2007 and December 2013 in central Tokyo. In all, 28.8% of the participants had experience with OC use. Cases were 155 women with a pathologically confirmed diagnosis of breast cancer. Controls were the remaining 12,333 women. Results: Increased age was a significant risk factor for breast cancer (p<0.001). A lower risk was found in premenopausal women presently taking OC compared to never users (OR 0.45; 95% CI 0.22-0.90) after adjusting for age, parity and breast feeding, and a family history of breast cancer. Conclusions: Increased age rather than OC use had a greater effect on breast cancer risk. This risk may be decreased in premenopausal women with OC use, but further long-term prospective studies are necessary.

Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load Dietary Patterns and the Associated Risk of Breast Cancer: A Case-control Study

  • Woo, Hae Dong;Park, Ki-Soon;Shin, Aesun;Ro, Jungsil;Kim, Jeongseon
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.9
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    • pp.5193-5198
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    • 2013
  • The glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) have been considered risk factors for breast cancer, but association studies of breast cancer risk using simple GI and GL might be affected by confounding effects of the overall diet. A total of 357 cases and 357 age-matched controls were enrolled, and dietary intake was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) with 103 food items. GI and GL dietary patterns were derived by reduced rank regression (RRR) method. The GI and GL pattern scores were positively associated with breast cancer risk among postmenopausal women [OR (95%CI): 3.31 (1.06-10.39), p for trend=0.031; 9.24 (2.93-29.14), p for trend<0.001, respectively], while the GI pattern showed no statistically significant effects on breast cancer risk, and the GL pattern was only marginally significant, among premenopausal women (p for trend=0.043). The GI and GL pattern scores were positively associated with the risk of breast cancer in subgroups defined by hormone receptor status in postmenopausal women. The GI and GL patterns based on all food items consumed were positively associated with breast cancer.

Identifying Women's Knowledge about Risk Factors of Breast Cancer and Reasons for Having Mammography

  • Guvenc, Inanc;Guvenc, Gulten;Tastan, Sevinc;Akyuz, Aygul
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.8
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    • pp.4191-4197
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    • 2012
  • The aim of this study was to identify breast cancer risk factors and reasons for having mammography of the women who applied for mammography, as well as to determine their level of knowledge about risk factors and level of risk perception, and anxiety concerning breast cancer. This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted from June 15, 2010 through September 10, 2010, in a university hospital in Ankara, Turkey. A questionnaire prepared by the researchers was used to collect the data. The mean age of the women was $52.1{\pm}9.98$ years. Sixteen percent of the women had a family history of breast cancer. The majority of participants had mammograms (75.8%) before and had gained knowledge about breast cancer and its screening (73.7%). The leading source of information about breast cancer was physicians (46.2%). Physician recommendations, having breast-related complaints, and family history of breast cancer were important reasons to obtain mammography. The mean knowledge score about risk factors of breast cancer was $4.15{\pm}2.73$ and the mean anxiety score was $1.65{\pm}1.61$. It was found that some socio-demographic and obstetrical characteristics of women, their family history, and risk perceptions about breast cancer affect their knowledge and anxiety scores about breast cancer. In conclusion, the present study identified a number of factors affecting mammography participation for women. The results of this study can be helpful in promoting screening for breast cancer.

Assessing Breast Cancer Risk among Iranian Women Using the Gail Model

  • Khazaee-Pool, Maryam;Majlessi, Fereshteh;Nedjat, Saharnaz;Montazeri, Ali;Janani, leila;Pashaei, Tahereh
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.8
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    • pp.3759-3762
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    • 2016
  • Background: Breast cancer risk assessment is a helpful method for estimating development of breast cancer at the population level. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, participants consisted of a group of 3,847 volunteers ($mean{\pm}SD$ age: $463{\pm}7.59$ years) in a convenience sample of women referred to health centers affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences in Tehran, Iran. The risk of breast cancer was estimated by applying the National Cancer Institute's online version of the Gail Risk Assessment Tool. Results: Some 24.9% of women reported having one first-degree female relative with breast cancer, with 8.05% of them having two or more first-degree relatives with breast cancer. The mean five-year risk of breast cancer for all participants was $1.61{\pm}0.73%$, and 9.36% of them had a five-year risk of breast cancer >1.66%. The mean lifetime risk of breast cancer was $11.7{\pm}3.91%$. Conclusions: The Gail model is useful for assessing probability of breast cancer in Iranian women. Based on the their breast cancer risk, women may decide to accept further screening services.

Risk Factors of Breast Cancer in Kyzylorda Oblast of Kazakhstan: a Case-Control Study

  • Toleutay, Ulpan;Reznik, Vitaly;Kalmatayeva, Zhanna;Smigelskas, Kastytis
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.10
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    • pp.5961-5964
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    • 2013
  • Background: Breast cancer in Kazakhstan and its Kyzylorda oblast is the most prevalent cancer in women and features increasing trends of incidence. The aim of study was to reveal risk factors for breast cancer among women of Kyzylorda oblast of Kazakhstan. Materials and Methods: A hospital-based case-control study was conducted at Kyzylorda oblast Oncology Center, including 114 cases of breast cancer and 196 controls. Binary logistic regression analysis was performed. Results: Social and behavioral risk factors for breast cancer were evaluated, among which unfavorable living conditions, chronic stress, unilateral breastfeeding, breastfeeding less than 3 months and over 2 years, abortions, and hereditary predisposition were found to be related with increased breast cancer risk. Breastfeeding for 6-24 months was found to be protective. Conclusions: The findings may have significant impact on activity planning aimed towards breast cancer reduction among women in Kazakhstan.