• Title, Summary, Keyword: breast cancer cell proliferation

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Tectoridin, a Poor Ligand of Estrogen Receptor α, Exerts Its Estrogenic Effects via an ERK-Dependent Pathway

  • Kang, Kyungsu;Lee, Saet Byoul;Jung, Sang Hoon;Cha, Kwang Hyun;Park, Woo Dong;Sohn, Young Chang;Nho, Chu Won
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.351-357
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    • 2009
  • Phytoestrogens are the natural compounds isolated from plants, which are structurally similar to animal estrogen, $17{\beta}$-estradiol. Tectoridin, a major isoflavone isolated from the rhizome of Belamcanda chinensis. Tectoridin is known as a phytoestrogen, however, the molecular mechanisms underlying its estrogenic effect are remained unclear. In this study we investigated the estrogenic signaling triggered by tectoridin as compared to a famous phytoestrogen, genistein in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Tectoridin scarcely binds to ER ${\alpha}$ as compared to $17{\beta}$-estradiol and genistein. Despite poor binding to ER ${\alpha}$, tectoridin induced potent estrogenic effects, namely recovery of the population of cells in the S-phase after serum starvation, transactivation of the estrogen response element, and induction of MCF-7 cell proliferation. The tectoridin-induced estrogenic effect was severely abrogated by treatment with U0126, a specific MEK1/2 inhibitor. Tectoridin promoted phosphorylation of ERK1/2, but did not affect phosphorylation of ER ${\alpha}$ at $Ser^{118}$. It also increased cellular accumulation of cAMP, a hallmark of GPR30-mediated estrogen signaling. These data imply that tectoridin exerts its estrogenic effect mainly via the GPR30 and ERK-mediated rapid nongenomic estrogen signaling pathway. This property of tectoridin sets it aside from genistein where it exerts the estrogenic effects via both an ER-dependent genomic pathway and a GPR30-dependent nongenomic pathway.

The Comparative Effects of Yugmijihwangtang in Donguibogam and Experiment Research Results -Focusing on the Korean Medicine and Traditional Chinese Medicine- (육미지황탕 효능의 동의보감과 실험연구결과의 비교고찰 -한의학과 중의학을 중심으로-)

  • Han, Yoochang;Kim, Myung Dong;Lee, Sundong
    • Herbal Formula Science
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.223-251
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    • 2017
  • Objectives : A lot of experiment results of Yugmijihwangtang(YM) are reported in various kinds of journals. Many of them report on the new effects that are not recorded in the traditional medical texts. So it is necessary to take it into consideration that newly reported effects could be of help to clinical practice, because this process of comparison of Donguibogam and scientific experiment results will have basis to lead into the evidence based medicine. Methods : We compared the effects of in Donguibogam and the experiment results of YM. Results : The effects of YM in Donguibogam are to replenish essence and marrow, and to treat red wen, fatigue, treat hypouresis, urinary sediment, urinary urgency, hematuria, hydrocephalus, speech and movement retardation, yin-deficiency, diabetes mellitus, nonalcoholic fatty liver, melanoma, disability to see near and far sight, tinnitus, hearing loss, alopecia, angiogenesis, cough, cough at night, trachyphonia, and, infantile convulsion. The experiment results of YM since 2000 in both Korea and China are to inhibit atopic dermatitis, renal interstitial fibrosis, anti-oxidant, emphysema, stress, glomerulosclerosis, diabetic nephropathy, chronic glomerulonephritis, hemorrhage, plantar sweating, dermal aging, kidney aging, bone loss, breast cancer, pathological myocardial cell, primary liver cancer, thrombosis, osteoporosis, intrauterine growth retardation, chronic renal failure, IgA nepropathy, slow cerebral development, and hippocampal tissue lesions on the one hand, and to help bone formation, renin-angiotensin- aldosterone system, cerebral recovery, cognitive function and expression, osteoblast proliferation and differentiation, learning and memory, cold-tolerance and oxygen deficit-tolerance and anti-fatigue, endometrial formation, humoral and cell-mediated immunity, immune regulation effect, Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Ovary Axis, and spermatogenesis, on the other hand. Conclusion : When we compared the effects of YM with the experiment results of YM, there existed a considerable gap between them. So, from now on, it is expected that a great effort and consideration are needed to solve these gaps from an academic and clinical point of view.

Estrogen activity of Silkworm (Bombyx mori) Pupa water extract and its fractions

  • Ryu, Jae-Sung;Jo, Gyeong-Jong;Jin, Jung-Woo;Yang, Hyo-Jung;Park, Yong-Il;Na, Ye-Seul;Nam, Kyung-Su;Keum, Kyung-Soo;Choo, Young-Kug
    • Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine
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    • v.8 no.3
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    • pp.228-235
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    • 2008
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the estrogen activity of silkworm (Bombyx mori) pupa extracts and their fractions. Powdered samples of freeze-dried silkworm pupa were extracted at room temperature (RT), $40^{\circ}C$, $60^{\circ}C$, $80^{\circ}C$, and $100^{\circ}C$ in water (D.W), chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol for 6h and then filtered (0.45 um). The extracts were then freeze-dried. The estrogenic activity of these extracts was then investigated by competition binding assays using estrogen receptor ${\alpha}\;(ER{\alpha})$ and $ER{\beta}$, and by evaluating their effects on the proliferation of the human breast cancer cell line, MCF-7. Among the extracts evaluated, water extracts prepared at RT showed the highest binding affinity to $ER{\alpha}$ ($IC_{50}$, 1.76 ug/ml) and $ER{\beta}$ ($IC_{50}$, 0.07 ug/ml). In addition, MCF-7 cells that were treated with 62.5 ug/ml of the RT extract showed the greatest increase in proliferation (2-fold; 1291.79%) when compared to control cells (659.82%). Next, the water extract that was prepared at RT (sample 1) was dissolved in D.W. and further fractionated using a Dowex 50W - 8X ($H^+$) column. The flow-through and wash were then pooled together and freeze-dried (sample 2). The bound materials were then eluted with 20 mM NaCl, after which they were applied to a Dowex 1X2 - 200 ($Cl^-$) column and washed with D.W. to remove the sodium ions. The eluants were then freeze-dried (sample 3). Of these fractions, sample 2 showed the highest binding affinity to ER{\alpha} ($IC_{50}$, 1.44 ug/ml) and $ER{\beta}$ ($IC_{50}$, 1.18 ug/ml). In addition, MCF-7 cells that were treated with sample 2 (15.6 ug/ml) showed the largest increase in growth (1159.39%) when compared to control cells (525.26%). Taken together, these results suggest that the fraction of the RT water extract of silkworm pupa referred to as sample 2 may be useful as a phytoestrogen.

The Role of Phosphofructokinase-2/Fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase 2 (PFKFB2) in Wnt-induced Epithelial-mesenchymal Transition (Wnt에 의한 epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition에서 PFKFB2의 역할)

  • Lee, Su Yeon;Ju, Min Kyung;Jeon, Hyun Min;Kim, Cho Hee;Park, Hye Gyeong;Kang, Ho Sung
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.27 no.11
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    • pp.1245-1255
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    • 2017
  • Most cancer cells produce ATP predominantly through glycolysis instead of through mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, even in the presence of oxygen. The phenomenon is termed the Warburg effect, or the glycolytic switch, and it is thought to increase the availability of biosynthetic precursors for cell proliferation. EMTs have critical roles in the initiation of the invasion and metastasis of cancer cells. The glycolytic switch and EMT are important for tumor development and progression; however, their correlation with tumor progression is largely unknown. The Snail transcription factor is a major factor involved in EMT. The Snail expression is regulated by distal-less homeobox 2 (Dlx-2), a homeodomain transcription factor that is involved in embryonic and tumor development. The Dlx-2/Snail cascade is involved in Wnt-induced EMTs and the glycolytic switch. This study showed that in response to Wnt signaling, the Dlx-2/Snail cascade induces the expression of PFKFB2, which is a glycolytic enzyme that synthesizes and degrades fructose 2, 6-bisphosphate (F2,6BP). It also showed that PFKFB2 shRNA prevents Wnt-induced EMTs in the breast-tumor cell line MCF-7. The prevention indicated that glycolysis is linked to Wnt-induced EMT. Additionally, this study showed PFKFB2 shRNA suppresses in vivo tumor metastasis and growth. Finally, it showed the PFKFB2 expression is higher in breast, colon and ovarian cancer tissues than in matched normal tissues regardless of the cancers' stages. The results demonstrated that PFKFB2 is an important regulator of EMTs and metastases induced by the Wnt, Dlx-2 and Snail factors.

GENE EXPRESSION PATTERNS INDUCED BY $TAXOL^{(R)}$ AND CYCLOSPORIN A IN ORAL SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA CELL LINE USING CDNA MICROARRAY (cDNA Microarray를 이용한 구강편평세포암종 세포주에서 $Taxol^{(R)}$과 Cyclosporin A로 유도된 유전자 발현양상)

  • Kim, Yong-Kwan;Lee, Jae-Hoon;Kim, Chul-Hwan
    • Maxillofacial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.202-212
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    • 2006
  • It is well-known that paclitaxel($Taxol^{(R)}$), which is extracted from the pacific and English yew, has been used as a chemotherapeutic agent for ovarian carcinoma and advanced breast carcinoma and Cyclosporin A, which is highly lipophilic cyclic peptide and isolated from a fungus, has been also used as an useful immunosuppressive drug after transplantation and is associated with cellular apoptosis. Since 1953, in which James Watson, Rosalind Franklin and Francis Crick discovered the double helical structure of DNA, a few kinds of techniques for identifying gene expression have been developed. In postgenomic period, many of researchers have used the DNA microarray which is high throughput screening technique to screen large numbers of gene expression simultaneously. In this study, we searched and screened the gene expression in the oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines treated with $Taxol^{(R)}$, cyclosporin or cyclosporin combined with $Taxol^{(R)}$ using cDNA microarray. The results were as following; 1. It was useful that the appropriate concentration of Cyclosporin A and $Taxol^{(R)}$ used in oral squamous cell carcinoma cell line was under 1${\mu}g/ml$ and 3${\mu}g/ml$. 2. In the experimental group in which $Taxol^{(R)}$ and $Taxol^{(R)}$ + Cyclosporin A were used, the cell growth was extremely decreased. 3. In the group in which Cyclosporin A was used, the MTT assay was rarely decreased which means the activity of succinyl dehydrogenase is remained in mitochondria but in the group in which the mixture of Cyclosporin A and $Taxol^{(R)}$ were used, the MTT assay was extremely decreased. 4. In the each group in which Cyclosporin A(3 ${\mu}g/ml$) and $Taxol^{(R)}$(1 ${\mu}g/ml$) were used, the cell arrest was appeared in $G_2/M$ phase and in the group in which $Taxol^{(R)}$(3 ${\mu}g/ml$) was used, the cell arrest was appeared in both S phase and $G_2/M$ phase. 5. In the oral squamous cell carcinoma cell line treated with $Taxol^{(R)}$, several genes including ANGPTL4, RALBP1 and TXNRD1, associated with apoptosis, SUI1, MAC30, RRAGA and CTGF, related with cell growth, HUS1 and DUSP5, related with cell cycle and proliferation, ATF4 and CEBPG, associated with transcription factor, BTG1 and VEGF, associated with angiogenesis, FDPS, FCER1G, GPA33 and EPHA4 associated with signal transduction and receptor activity and AKR1C2 and UGTA10 related with carcinogenesis were detected in increased levels. The genes that showed increaced expression in the oral squamous cell carcinoma cell line treated with Cyclosporin A were CYR61, SERPINB2, SSR3 and UPA3A which are known as genes associated with cell growth, carcinogenesis, receptor activity and transcription factor. The genes expressed in the HN22 cell line treated with cyclosporin combined with $taxol^{(R)}$ were ALCAM and GTSE1 associated with cancer invasiveness and cell cycle regulation.

Effective Antitumor Activity of a Recombinant Vaccinia Virus Expressing Murine Interleukin 4 (인터루킨-4를 발현하는 재조합 백시니아 바이러스에 의한 암성장의 억제)

  • Yoon, Kee-Jung;Jin, Ning-Yi;Kim, Sun-Young
    • The Journal of Korean Society of Virology
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.71-78
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    • 1998
  • Vaccinia virus is the prototype orthopoxvirus that has been used as a vaccine strain for small pox. This virus has been used to express a variety of cellular and viral genes in mammalian cells at high levels. Interleukin-4 (IL-4) has been found to stimulate the proliferation of T cells and enhance the cytolytic activity of cytotoxic T lymphocytes. To test the immunotherapeutic potential of IL-4 delivered in vivo by poxvirus, a recombinant vaccinia virus expressing the murine IL-4 gene (RVVmIL-4) was constructed. A high level of IL-4 production was confirmed by infecting HeLa cells and measuring IL-4 in cell culture supernatant by ELISA. As a tumor model, two cell lines were used; the murine T leukemic line P388 and the murine breast cancer line TS/A. CDF1 mice were intraperitoneally inoculated with $1\;{\times}\;10^5$ cells of P388. Mice were injected at the same site with $5\;{\times}\;10^5\;PFU$ of recombinant vaccinia virus; first, 3 days after the injection of tumor cells and thereafter once every week for 3 weeks. Intraperitoneal injections of RVVmIL-4 significantly prolonged the survival time of mice inoculated with tumor cells. All mice injected with RVVmIL-4 remained alive for 30 days after the postinoculation of tumor cells, while 100% and 70% of the animals injected with saline or wild type vaccinia virus died, respectively. In another tumor model using TS/A, tumor was established by subcutaneously inoculating $2{\times}10^5$ tumor cells to BALB/c mice. After tumor formation was confirmed on day 4 in all mice, $5\;{\times}\;10^6\;PFU$ of RVVmIL-4 was inoculated subcutaneously three times, once every week for 3 weeks. The TS/A tumor was eradicated in two of the nine mice. Seven of the nine mice treated with RVVmIL-4 developed a tumor, but tumor growth was significantly delayed compared to those treated with saline or wild type vaccinia virus. These results indicate that recombinant vaccinia viruses may be used as a convenient tool for delivering immunomodulator genes to a variety of tumors.

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Relationship between Reactive Oxygen Species and Adenosine Monophosphate-activated Protein Kinase Signaling in Apoptosis Induction of Human Breast Adenocarcinoma MDA-MB-231 Cells by Ethanol Extract of Citrus unshiu Peel (진피 추출물에 의한 인간유방암 MDA-MB-231 세포의 apoptosis 유도에서 ROS 및 AMPK의 역할)

  • Kim, Min Yeong;HwangBo, Hyun;Ji, Seon Yeong;Hong, Su-Hyun;Choi, Sung Hyun;Kim, Sung Ok;Park, Cheol;Choi, Yung Hyun
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.410-420
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    • 2019
  • Citrus unshiu peel extracts possess a variety of beneficial effects, and studies on their anticancer activity have been reported. However, the exact mechanisms underlying this activity remain unclear. In the current study, the apoptotic effect of ethanol extract of C. unshiu peel (EECU) on human breast adenocarcinoma MDA-MB-231 cells and related mechanisms were investigated. The results showed that the survival rate of MDA-MB-231 cells treated with EECU was significantly inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner, which was associated with the induction of apoptosis. EECU-induced apoptosis was associated with the activation of caspase-8 and caspase-9, which initiate extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis pathways, respectively, and caspase-3, a representative effect caspase. EECU suppressed the expression of the inhibitor of apoptosis family of proteins, leading to an increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and proteolytic degradation of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. EECU also enhanced the loss of the mitochondrial membrane potential and cytochrome c release from the mitochondria to the cytosol, along with truncation of Bid. In addition, EECU activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and compound C, an AMPK inhibitor, significantly weakened EECU-induced apoptosis and cell viability reduction. Furthermore, EECU promoted the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which acted as upstream signals for AMPK activation as pretreatment of cells, with the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine reversing both EECU-induced AMPK activation and apoptosis. Collectively, these findings suggest that EECU inhibits MDA-MB-231 adenocarcinoma cell proliferation by activating intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways, which was mediated through ROS/AMPK-dependent pathways.

The Effects of Medicinal Herbs Extracts on Estrogen-like Activities and Osteoblast Proliferation and Differentiation (한약재 추출물의 에스트로겐 유사활성 및 조골세포 증식과 분화에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Mihyang;Kim, Bokyung;Kim, Jae-Deog;Kang, A-Ram;Lee, Chang-Eun;Seo, Jungmin;Lee, Dong-Geun;Jo, Jung-Kwon;Kim, Yuck Yong;Yu, Ki Hwan;Lee, Sang-Hyeon
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.456-463
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    • 2017
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of 3 types of medicinal herbs (Glycyrrhizae radix, Astragali radix and Dioscorea rhizoma) extracts on estrogen-like activities, proliferation and differentiation in osteoblast. Human breast cancer cell line MCF7 was transfected using an estrogen responsive luciferase reporter plasmid for measure the estrogen-like activity. Estrogen-like activities of extracts were in the range of 1.11~5.73 fold to that of negative control. The extract of G. radix showed the strongest estrogen-like activities. The estrogen-like activities of 50 and $500{\mu}g/ml$ extracts of G. radix were similar to that of $10^{-8}$ and $10^{-7}$ M standard solution ($17{\beta}-estradiol$), respectively. G. radix extract showed no cytotoxicity against osteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells at $1{\sim}1,000{\mu}g/ml$. The extract of A. radix showed no significant proliferation of osteoblast. However, the extract of G. radix and D. rhizome showed maximum 148% and 133% proliferation effects. The extract of G. radix also increased alkaline phosphatase activity and the maximum was 122% at $100{\mu}g/ml$ compared to that of control. The nodule formation by the method of the Alizarin red S staining increased compared to control. These results suggest that G. radix is able to perform the bone formation and prevent osteoporosis.

Induction of Growth Inhibition and Apoptosis in Human Cancer Cells by a Brown Algae Extract (갈조류 추출물에 의한 인간 암세포 성장 억제 및 세포 사멸 유도)

  • Choo, Kang-Sik;Lee, Hae-Nim;Shin, Seong-Ah;Kim, Hyeong-Jin;Park, Young-Seok;Kim, Sang-Ki;Jung, Ji-Youn
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.26 no.5
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    • pp.555-562
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    • 2016
  • In this study, we investigated the effects of Undaria pinnatifida (UP), Petalonia binghamiae (PB) and Punctaria latifolia (PL) extracts on the inhibition of proliferation and apoptosis in human gastric and breast cancer cells. AGS, MDA-MB-231 and SK-BR-3 cells were treated with 0, 50, 100, and 200 μg/ml concentrations of the extracts to determine their anti-proliferative effects, using the MTT assay. The UP, PB and PL extracts inhibited proliferation of AGS, MDA-MB-231 and SK-BR-3 cells in a dose-dependent manner, and the PL extract was found to be the most effective. DAPI staining was also performed to determine changes in the cell nucleus. Further, the AGS, MDA-MB-231 and SK-BR-3 cells were treated with 0, 50, 100, and 200 μg/ml of only the PL extract. DAPI staining showed increased chromatin condensation, which is indicative of apoptosis, in the 200 μg/ml group. The expression of the Bax, Bcl-2, and PARP proteins in AGS, MDA-MB-231 and SK-BR-3 cells treated with the PL extract was also determined by western blot analysis. The expression of Bax (a pro-apoptotic protein) and cleaved-PARP was increased, whereas the expression of Bcl-2 (an anti-apoptotic protein) was decreased compared with the control. These findings indicate that the PL extract may have potential as an alternative anticancer drug and nutraceutical.

Estrogeicity of Genistein and Bisphenol A (콩류식품의 주성분인 Genistein과 식품포장재 및 용기에 사용되는 Bisphenol A의 에스트로젠 효과에 관한 연구)

  • 강경선;이영순;신광순
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.106-111
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    • 1998
  • This study has been focused on both estrogenic and proliferating activity of genistein (GEN) and bisphenol A (BPA). GEN and BPA enhance the proliferation of estrogen-dependent MCF-7 human breast cancer cells at concentrations as low as 100 nM of GEN and 8 ng/ml of BP A achieving similar effect to that of estradiol at 1 nM. Expression of the estrogen responsive gene, pS2 was also induced in MCF-7 cells by treatment with genistein at dose as low as 1 nM and BPA at dose as low as 4 ng/ml. Using 21 day-old ovariectomized nude mice, we examined end-bud formation and mammary gland development after treatment with bisphenol A or genistein. Compared with untreated control, mammary gland development and end-bud formation were significantly increased in mice fed genistein or bisphenol A (p<0.05). Taken together, it is concluded that GEN and BP A can act as an estrogen agonist resulting in cell proliferation and induction of the estrogen responsive pS2 gene in MCF-7 cells in vitro and in athymic mice in vivo, respectively. Therefore, it is suggested that GEN and BP A might modulate human endocrine system and these compounds might be considered as a endocrine modulator at the low levels of doses.

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