• Title, Summary, Keyword: breast cancer care

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Attitudes of South Asian Women to Breast Health and Breast Cancer Screening: Findings from a Community Based Sample in the United States

  • Poonawalla, Insiya B.;Goyal, Sharad;Mehrotra, Naveen;Allicock, Marlyn;Balasubramanian, Bijal A.
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.20
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    • pp.8719-8724
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    • 2014
  • Background: Breast cancer incidence is increasing among South Asian migrants to the United States (US). However, their utilization of cancer screening services is poor. This study characterizes attitudes of South Asians towards breast health and screening in a community sample. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey based on the Health Belief Model (HBM) was conducted among South Asians (n=124) in New Jersey and Chicago. The following beliefs and attitudes towards breast cancer screening were assessed-health motivation, breast self-examination confidence, breast cancer susceptibility and fear, and mammogram benefits and barriers. Descriptive statistics and Spearman rank correlation coefficients were computed for HBM subscales. Findings: Mean age of participants was 36 years with an average 10 years stay in the US. Most women strived to care for their health ($3.82{\pm}1.18$) and perceived high benefits of screening mammography ($3.94{\pm}0.95$). However, they perceived lower susceptibility to breast cancer in the future ($2.30{\pm}0.94$). Conclusions: Increasing awareness of breast cancer risk for South Asian women may have a beneficial effect on cancer incidence because of their positive attitudes towards health and breast cancer screening. This is especially relevant because South Asians now constitute one of the largest minority populations in the US and their incidence of breast cancer is steadily increasing.

Folk Remedies used by Patients with Breast Cancer (유방암 환자의 민간요법)

  • 박진미;정복례
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.419-430
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    • 1995
  • There is a need to investigate folk remedies used by patients with breast cancer because there is little information about the subject, even though many Korean women with breast cancer have used folk remedies during and after their treatment. The purpose of this study was to investigate and describe the phenomena and the meaning of folk remedies in order to better understand patients with breast cancer and to suggest directions for comprehensive nursing care. The Questions for the study were as follows What kinds of folk remedies do patients with breast cancer use\ulcorner What are the routes of knowing about folk remedies in patients with breast cancer\ulcorner What are the patterns of the usage of the folk remedies\ulcorner Why do patients with breast cancer use folk remedies\ulcorner What are the meanings of folk remedies to patients with breast cancer\ulcorner To answer these questions, a qualitative research method was used. Thirty-nine patients were recruited from university teaching hospitals from March, 1993 to November 1994. Many of them underwent either modified radical mastectomy or received various adjuvant therapy including chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and hormonal therapy. Data were collected by in-depth interviews, observations, medical records, and analyzed step-by-step using qualitative analysis. The results were as follows : 1. Patients with breast cancer have used many different kinds of folk remedies. 2. Patients with breast cancer did not know the exact effects of the folk remedies. Also the effects could not be exactly proven by the patients. 3. Patients with breast cancer received information about many kinds of folk remedies through various communication systems, such as other patients, their families and relatives, friends, and many types of mass media. 4. To use the folk remedies was one kind of illness behavior that was used by these patients. 5. Folk remedies were used to deal with not only anxiety by the patients themselves but also as the expression of affection and concern by families and relatives. 6. The use of folk remedies was one of the adaptation behaviors in patients with breast cancer whose disease was in the terminal stage. Based on the above findings, one suggestion was made : To continue further studies on folk remedies used by other patients with cancer in order to further explain health and illness behavior of Korean people.

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Experiences of Treatment-Related Side Effects and Supportive Care with Korean Medicine in Women with Breast Cancer - A Focus Group Study (유방암 환자의 항암 치료 부작용 및 한의학적 보완치료 경험에 관한 포커스 그룹 연구)

  • Han, Sola;Jang, Bo-Hyoung;Hwang, Deok-Sang;Suh, Hae Sun
    • The Journal of Korean Obstetrics and Gynecology
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.85-94
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    • 2017
  • Objectives: To explore experiences of treatment-related side effects and supportive care among Korean breast cancer survivors (BCS). Methods: Focus group interview was conducted with six Korean women with breast cancer. Participants were recruited through snow-balling. Interview was audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. NVivo-11 was used to code the data into themes. Results: Two major themes were identified: (1) experiences of Western medicine, including treatment, side effects, needs and costs; (2) experiences of supportive care with Korean medicine, including the same as above. All participants experienced Western medicine in treatment phase and reported impairment of physical, emotional, and social functioning during and after Western medicine treatment. Only three participants used Korean medicine after treatments end. The negative responses from Western medicine doctors were the most important factor keeping participants from accessing Korean medicine when treatment-related side effects occurred. For this reason, some participants used Korean medicine without disclosure. Participants usually acquired information about Korean medicine from online community or other BCS, which was another important factor because it raised concerns about side effects and credibility of Korean medicine. High cost was also reported as barrier in using Korean medicine. During the cancer treatment, participants tended to endure their treatment-related side effects. Conclusions: Korean BCS may be at high risk of physical or emotional distress during treatment period. Findings suggest that there is a high need for supportive care to relieve treatment-related side effects and improve patients' quality-of-life. Furthermore, developing a systematic guidance or credible information sources should be warranted to help patients find the best supportive care options including Korean medicine.

Experiences of Turkish Women with Breast Cancer During the Treatment Process and Facilitating Coping Factors

  • Gunusen, Neslihan Partlak;Inan, Figen Sengun;Ustun, Besti
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.5
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    • pp.3143-3149
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    • 2013
  • Background: Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer among women in Turkey and around the world. Treatment adversely affects women's physical, psychological, and social conditions. The purpose of this study was to identify the experiences of Turkish women with breast cancer and the facilitating coping factors when they receive chemotherapy. Methods: A phenomenological approach was used to explain the experiences and facilitating factors of breast cancer patients during the treatment period. Data were collected through individual semi-structured interviews. The sample comprised 11 women with breast cancer receiving treatment. Results: At the end of the interviews conducted with women with breast cancer, two main themes were identified: adjustment and facilitating coping factors. The adjustment main theme had two sub-themes: strains and coping. Women with breast cancer suffer physical and psychological strains as well as stress related to social and health systems. While coping with these situations, they receive social support, turn to spirituality and make new senses of their lives. The facilitating coping factors main theme had four sub-themes: social support, disease-related factors, treatment-related factors and relationships with nurses. It has been determined that women receiving good social support, having undergone preventive breast surgery and/or getting attention and affection from nurses can cope with breast cancer more easily. Conclusions: Women with breast cancer have difficulty in all areas of their lives in the course of the disease and during the treatment process. Therefore, nurses should provide holistic care, teaching patients how to cope with the new situation and supporting them spiritually. Since family support is very important in Turkish culture, patients' relatives should be informed and supported at every stage of the treatment.

Predictors of Knowledge Level and Awareness towards Breast Cancer among Turkish Females

  • Aydogan, Umit;Doganer, Yusuf C.;Kilbas, Zafer;Rohrer, James E.;Sari, Oktay;Usterme, Necibe;Yuksel, Servet;Akbulut, Halil;Balkan, Salih M.;Saglam, Kenan;Tufan, Turgut
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.275-282
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    • 2015
  • Background: Breast cancer (BC) is the most-common malignancy of women worldwide. Though there are differences among developed and developing countries, BC remains the most common cancer type of women in Turkey. Objective: This study aimed to identify the level of knowledge, awareness, and their potential predictors towards BC in Ankara, Turkey. Materials and Methods: The present descriptive study was conducted on 376 females attending a breast health outpatient clinic. A self-administered questionnaire was designed to evaluate knowledge level about BC and predictors effecting its level. Data analysis was performed using the chi-square test. A value of p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Mean age of the participants was $46.2{\pm}9.93$ (22-75). The majority (92.6 %) were married; 41.5% were educated less than nine years. Most of the women were housewives (82.7%) and, were living in an urban region (86.4%). Predictors of effecting responses to seven knowledge and awareness questions about BC varied from demographic features including older age groups, higher educational levels, being married, living in an urban area, being employee, smoking, having greater BMI to additional attributes associated breast health such as the increased number of births, applying for the purpose of control, positive family history of breast diseases, any diagnoses of breast diseases and performing BSE practice. Conclusions: It was determined that females in Turkey have better knowledge of BC than other developing countries even though it is not at the desired level. These findings revealed that females should be more informed about BC risk factors, prognosis and treatments by primary health-care providers to counteract the ascending burden of this disease.

Impact of Chemotherapy on Hypercalcemia in Breast and Lung Cancer Patients

  • Hassan, Bassam Abdul Rasool;Yusoff, Zuraidah Binti Mohd;Hassali, Mohamed Azmi;Othman, Saad Bin;Weiderpass, Elisabete
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.9
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    • pp.4373-4378
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    • 2012
  • Introduction: Hypercalcemia is mainly caused by bone resorption due to either secretion of cytokines including parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) or bone metastases. However, hypercalcemia may occur in patients with or without bone metastases. The present study aimed to describe the effect of chemotherapy treatment, regimens and doses on calcium levels among breast and lung cancer patients with hypercalcemia. Methods: We carried a review of medical records of breast and lung cancer patients hospitalized in years 2003 and 2009 at Penang General Hospital, a public tertiary care center in Penang Island, north of Malaysia. Patients with hypercalcemia (defined as a calcium level above 10.5 mg/dl) at the time of cancer diagnosis or during cancer treatment had their medical history abstracted, including presence of metastasis, chemotherapy types and doses, calcium levels throughout cancer treatment, and other co-morbidity. The mean calcium levels at first hospitalization before chemotherapy were compared with calcium levels at the end of or at the latest chemotherapy treatment. Statistical analysis was conducted using the Chi-square test for categorical data, logistic regression test for categorical variables, and Spearman correlation test, linear regression and the paired sample t tests for continuous data. Results: Of a total 1,023 of breast cancer and 814 lung cancer patients identified, 292 had hypercalcemia at first hospitalization or during cancer treatment (174 breast and 118 lung cancer patients). About a quarter of these patients had advanced stage cancers: 26.4% had mild hypercalcemia (10.5-11.9 mg/dl), 55.5% had moderate (12-12.9 mg/dl), and 18.2% severe hypercalcemia (13-13.9; 14-16 mg/dl). Chemotherapy lowered calcium levels significantly both in breast and lung cancer patients with hypercalcemia; in particular with chemotherapy type 5-flurouracil+epirubicin+cyclophosphamide (FEC) for breast cancer, and gemcitabine+cisplatin in lung cancer. Conclusion: Chemotherapy decreases calcium levels in breast and lung cancer cases with hypercalcemia at cancer diagnosis, probably by reducing PTHrP levels.

Mammographic Screening of Women Attending a Reference Service Center in Southern Brazil

  • Lopes, Tiara Cristina Romeiro;Gravena, Angela Andreia Franca;de Oliveira Demitto, Marcela;Brischiliari, Sheila Cristina Rocha;Borghesan, Deise Helena Pelloso;Agnolo, Catia Millene Dell;de Barros Carvalho, Maria Dalva;Pelloso, Sandra Marisa
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.1385-1391
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    • 2016
  • Background: To investigate the prevalence of and factors associated with performance of annual mammography by women above 40 years of age. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional retrospective study was conducted at an oncology reference service in Southern Brazil from October 2013 to October 2014 with 525 women aged 40 years or older. Results: The prevalence of annual mammography was 54.1%; annual mammographic screening was performed for women without private medical insurance, who were under hormone replacement therapy and who had used contraception in the past. An association was found between non-performance of breast clinical and self-examination and non-performance of mammographic screening. Conclusions: Use of mammography for breast cancer screening in the public health care setting proved to be accessible; nevertheless, the proportion of screened women was low, and they exhibited poor adherence to the basic measures of care recommended for breast assessment. Thus, control of breast cancer requires implementing actions targeting the population most vulnerable to non-adherence to screening in addition to continuously monitoring and assessing that population to reduce the prevalence of this disease.

Determinants of Advanced Stage at Initial Diagnosis of Breast Cancer in Pakistan: Adverse Tumor Biology vs Delay in Diagnosis

  • Khokher, Samina;Qureshi, Muhammad Usman;Mahmood, Saqib;Sadiq, Sadia
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.759-765
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    • 2016
  • Background: Breast cancer is the most frequent cancer of women in Pakistan with the majority presenting with stage III or IV lesionsat initial diagnosis. Patient and health system related factors are well known determinants of delay in presentation and diagnosis. Additionally, breast cancer being a heterogeneous disease, the various molecular subtypes featuring different aggressiveness also need to be considered. The present study evaluated the association of stage at initial diagnosis of breast cancer with these two factors in local women at a tertiary level health care facility in Lahore, Pakistan. Materials and Methods: Patient and tumor features were recorded separately during diagnostic workup in Breast Clinics at INMOL and at Services Hospital, Lahore. Data were entered in MS Excel and analyzed by descriptive statistics and Chi-Square test. Results: Among the 261 patients, 64% were staged as late breast cancer (LBC), the mean age was 46.8 with standard deviation of 13 years. Some 92% had invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC), 61% had luminal types (LT) of non-aggressive tumor while 39% had the non-luminal types (NLT) of of HER2-enriched or basal aggressive tumors. While 70% of patients presented within one year of symptomatic disease (early report group "ERG"), 30% reported after a mean delay of 4 years with a standard deviation of 3.75 years. The stage distribution among ERG patients was not statistically different from those reporting late (P=0.123). Statistically larger proportion of patients with NLT presented as LBC as compared to the LT (P =0.034). Among the ERG, statistically different stage distribution of disease was observed for the NLT versus LT (P=0.047). Among those presenting late, this difference was insignificant (P=0.416). Conclusions: Breast cancer is a distinct disease in Pakistan with a high frequency of aggressive molecular types affecting younger women, with the majority presenting as LBC. Association of NLT with higher stage at diagnosis is statistically significant whereas time delay in diagnosis is not. Further research is required to define the risk profile and features in local patients. The burden of LBC can be reduced by promoting breast health awareness and by establishing easily accessible dedicated breast care set ups in the hospitals.

Clinicopathologic Profile of Breast Cancer Patients in Pakistan: Ten Years Data of a Local Cancer Hospital

  • Khokher, Samina;Qureshi, Muhammad Usman;Riaz, Masooma;Akhtar, Naseem;Saleem, Afaf
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.693-698
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    • 2012
  • Breast cancer is the most frequent cancer of women worldwide, with considerable geographic and racial/ethnic variation. Data are generally derived from population based cancer registries in the developed countries but hospital data are the most reliable source in the developing countries. Ten years data from 1st Jan 2000 to 31st Dec 2009 of a cancer hospital in Pakistan were here analyzed by descriptive statistics to evaluate the clinicopathologic profile of local breast cancer patients. Among 28,740 cancer patients, 6,718 were registered as breast cancer. The female to male ratio was 100:2. Breast cancer accounted for 23% of all and 41% of female cancers. Some 46% were residents of Lahore, with a mean age of $47{\pm}12$ years. Less than 1% were at Stage 0 and 10%, 32%, 35% and 23% were at Stage I, II, III and IV respectively. Histopathology was unknown in 4% while 91%, 2% and 1% had invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC), invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) and mucinous carcinoma respectively. Rare carcinomas accounted for the rest. Tumor grade 1, 2 and 3 was 11%, 55% and 34% among the known. Profile of breast cancer patients in Pakistan follows a pattern similar to that of other developing countries with earlier peak age and advanced disease stage at presentation. The male breast cancer accounts for higher proportion in the local population. Local women have higher frequency of IDC and lower frequency of ILC and DCIS, owing probably to a different risk profile. Use of hospital information systems and establishment of population based cancer registry is required to have accurate and detailed local data. Promotion of breast health awareness and better health care system is required to decrease the burden of advanced disease.

유방암환자의 통증과 우울의 관계

  • Han, Yeong-In;Han, Jeong-In;Son, Su-Gyeong
    • Korean Journal of Hospice Care
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.22-32
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    • 2005
  • Purpose : The purpose of this study were to identify the relationship of depression and pain in patients with breast cancer. Method : The data was collected from 117 breast cancer patients who were admitted at K University hospital in Busan, from January 4, to January 31, 2003 using questionnaire method. Their depression was measured using depression scale developed by Zung(1965) and translated by Song(1977) and pain was measured using the Revised Melzack Pain Scale developed by Melzack(1975). The data were analysed by the SPSS WIN 11.0 PC program using frequency and percentage, t-test, ANOVA, Pearson Correlation Coefficient. Result : The results of this study were as follows: The mean and standard deviation of the total depression score were 48±7.89 in 20(lowest)-to-80(highest) scoring system. The analysis of the depression according to general characteristics of the breast cancer patients showed correlation at Age(F=5.81, p=.000), Education level (F=7.48, p=.000), Insurance for cancer(t=6.94, p=.010), Period after Dx(F=6.85, p=.001), Duration of pain experience(F=9.74, p=.000), Surgical method(F=3.87, p=.005), Stage(F=10.31, p=.000), and Lesion site(F=20.63, p=.000). The mean and standard deviation of the total pain score were .48± .40 in 0(lowest)-to-4(highest) scoring system. The analysis of the pain according to general characteristics of the breast cancer patients showed differentiation at Education level(F=3.75, p=.007), Income per mouth(F=3.77, p=.010), Period after Dx(F=3.77, p=.002), Duration of pain experience(F=5.48, p=.000), Stage(F=10.39, p=.000), and Lesion site(F=8.10, p=.000). There was a significant positive correlation between depression and pain(r=.37, p=.000) and between depression and discomfort(r=.37, p=.000). Conclusion : Patients with breast cancer experiencing depression and pain. Increase in depression was associated with increase in pain and discomfort. Nurses must provide patients with nursing care about the occurrence of depression and interventions to deal with pain control and prevent discomfort.

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