• Title, Summary, Keyword: breast cancer care

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A Comparison on the Life Style and Health Status of Middle Aged Women in Rura and Urban Areal (농촌과 도시 중년여성의 건강실태와 생활양식에 관한 비교)

  • Lee, Soon-Hee;Kim, Sook-Young;Lee, Young-Joo
    • The Journal of Korean Academic Society of Nursing Education
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.120-130
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    • 2002
  • This study was attempted to identify and compare in developing a health promotion program for extending healthy life expectancy of the middle-aged women and protecting health of women in the vulnerable class by comparing and researching life-style and actual conditions of health for the middle-aged women in rural and urban areas. Subjects of this study were 160 middle-aged urban women in Seoul city and chongju city and 155 middle-aged rural women in rural community goisangun. For collecting data, questionnaire was performed with structured questionnaires was used to know their actual conditions of health and life-style. Findings of this study were as follows. 1. In comparing life-style of the urban middle- aged women with the rural community, the percentage of regularly checked-up were higer urban women (46.4%) than the rural women (35%); women who have not checked up were 21.3% and 11.4% in the rural community and cities respectively, but it had a statistically significant difference (p=0.009). For the types of checkup, the rate of uterine cancer checkup than that of breast cancer self-examination or cholesterol test was higher both in the rural community(75.6%) and cities(77.4%). 2. The results of comparing actual conditions of the middle-aged women in the rural urban area were as follows; the recognition of health of the urban women was 'Very healthy (7.2%),' 'Healthy (35.5%),' 'Moderate (46.5%),' and 'Not healthy (10.3%), while the recognition of the rural women was 'Very healthy (2.5%),' 'Healthy (30.0%),' 'Moderate (36.3%),' and 'Not healthy (30.6%)'. These results showed a statistically significant difference (p=.000). Women having any problems in health were 48.1% and 36.8% in the rural and the urban respectively and it had a statistically significant difference (p=.042). For the most of health problems, arthritis accounted for 29.4% in the rural community and arthritis and constipation accounted for 21.3% in the urban. According to findings of this study, it can be concluded that rural women had more health problems, felt they were not healthy themselves and were checked up regularly less than the urban women, and their health care was poor. Therefore, more effective nursing intervention plans should be designed to enhance the performance level of health promotion for rural women.

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The Anticommons: BRCA Gene Patenting Controversy in the United States (유전자와 생명의 사유화, 그리고 반공유재의 비극: 미국의 BRCA 인간유전자 특허 논쟁)

  • Yi, Doogab
    • Journal of Science and Technology Studies
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.1-43
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    • 2012
  • This paper examines the American Civil Liberties Union(ACLU)'s recent legal challenge on patents held by Myriad Genetics on two genes (BRCA1 and BRCA2) associated with a high risk of breast and ovarian cancer. Instead of analyzing the ACLU's objections to the BRCA patents in terms of its legal technicalities and normative ethical principles, this paper seeks to situate this legal case in the broader historical context of the shifting understanding of the relationship between private ownership, economic development, and the public interest in academic sciences. This paper first briefly chronicles a series of scientific developments and key legal decisions involving patenting of life forms, including genetically engineered micro-organisms animals and biological materials of human origins like cell cultures and genes, that led to the US Patent and Trademark Office(USPTO)'s official guidelines on human gene patenting in 2001. At another level, this paper analyzes the expansion of the scope of intellectual property rights in the life sciences in terms of shifting economic and legal assumptions about public knowledge and its role for economic development in the 1970s. I then show how these economic, legal, and ethical ideas that linked private ownership and the public interest have been challenged from the 1990s, calling for revisions in intellectual property laws regarding a wide array of life forms. The tragedy of the anticommons in human gene patenting, according to ACLU, has severely undermined creative scientific activities, medical innovations, access to health care and rights to life among cancer patient groups. ACLU's objection to human gene patenting on several US-constitutional grounds in turn suggests issues regarding intellectual property are critically linked to vital issues pertinent to the creative communities in arts and sciences, such as free exchange of ideas, censorship and monopoly, and free expression and piracy etc.

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Current Status and Future Perspective of PET (PET 이용 현황 및 전망)

  • Lee, Myung-Chul
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine
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    • v.36 no.1
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 2002
  • Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine imaging modality that consists of systemic administration to a subject of a radiopharmaceutical labeled with a positron-emitting radionuclide. Following administration, its distribution in the organ or structure under study can be assessed as a function of time and space by (1) defecting the annihilation radiation resulting from the interaction of the positrons with matter, and (2) reconstructing the distribution of the radioactivity from a series of that used in computed tomography (CT). The nuclides most generally exhibit chemical properties that render them particularly desirable in physiological studies. The radionuclides most widely used in PET are F-18, C-11, O-15 and N-13. Regarding to the number of the current PET Centers worldwide (based on ICP data), more than 300 PET Centers were in operation in 2000. The use of PET technology grew rapidly compared to that in 1992 and 1996, particularly in the USA, which demonstrates a three-fold rise in PET installations. In 2001, 194 PET Centers were operating in the USA. In 1994, two clinical and research-oriented PET Centers at Seoul National University Hospital and Samsung Medical Center, was established as the first dedicated PET and Cyclotron machines in Korea, followed by two more PET facilities at the Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Ajou Medical Center, Yonsei University Medical Center, National Cancer Center and established their PET Center. Catholic Medical School and Pusan National University Hospital have finalized a plan to install PET machine in 2002, which results in total of nine PET Centers in Korea. Considering annual trends of PET application in four major PET centers in Korea in Asan Medical Center recent six years (from 1995 to 2000), a total of 11,564 patients have been studied every year and the number of PET studies has shown steep growth year upon year. We had 1,020 PET patients in 1995. This number increased to 1,196, 1,756, 2,379, 3,015 and 4,414 in 1996,1997,1998,1999 and 2000, respectively. The application in cardiac disorders is minimal, and among various neuropsychiatric diseases, patients with epilepsy or dementia can benefit from PET studios. Recently, we investigated brain mapping and neuroreceptor works. PET is not a key application for evaluation of the cardiac patients in Korea because of the relatively low incidence of cardiac disease and less costly procedures such as SPECT can now be performed. The changes in the application of PET studios indicate that, initially, brain PET occupied almost 60% in 1995, followed by a gradual decrease in brain application. However, overall PET use in the diagnosis and management of patients with cancer was up to 63% in 2000. The current medicare coverage policy in the USA is very important because reimbursement policy is critical for the promotion of PET. In May 1995, the Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA) began covering the PET perfusion study using Rubidium-82, evaluation of a solitary pulmonary nodule and pathologically proven non-small cell lung cancer. As of July 1999, Medicare's coverage policy expanded to include additional indications: evaluation of recurrent colorectal cancer with a rising CEA level, staging of lymphoma and detection of recurrent or metastatic melanoma. In December of 2001, National Coverage decided to expand Medicare reimbursement for broad use in 6 cancers: lung, colorecctal, lymphoma, melanoma, head and neck, and esophageal cancers; for determining revascularization in heart diseases; and for identifying epilepsy patients. In addition, PET coverage is expected to further expand to diseases affecting women, such as breast, ovarian, uterine and vaginal cancers as well as diseases like prostate cancer and Alzheimer's disease.

The Perception of Aseptic Foods in Cancer Patients (멸균식 개발에 대한 암환자의 인식조사)

  • Lee, Kyung-A;Son, Eun-Joo;Song, Beom-Seok;Kim, Jae-Hun;Lee, Ju-Woon;Lyu, Eun-Soon
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.42 no.2
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    • pp.203-211
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    • 2013
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the perception of aseptic foods (sterilized foods with radiation technology) in cancer patients in Busan. The subjects were 192 cancer patients at a hospital. This study was performed through interviews using questionnaires. Patients had perception scores on the need to develop aseptic foods (4.30 points out of 5.00), use aspetic foods (4.06/5.00), and intake aseptic foods (4.04/5.00). Patients less than 59 years old had significantly higher perception scores than those over 60 years old (p<0.05). The scores on aseptic food indicated the importance of various factors, including sanitation (4.86/5.00), good materials (4.82/5.00), nutritional value (4.79/5.00), unused of monosodium glutamate (MSG) (4.66/5.00), taste (4.61/5.00), and reasonable prices (4.60/5.00). The patients who were college graduates showed significantly higher scores and importance in good materials, proper packaging unit, simple cooking methods, food diversity, and familiar foods (p<0.05). In the aseptic menu items, patients wanted to include seasoned raw vegetables (4.11/5.00), a set menu (including cooked grain, soup, and a side dish) (4.08/5.00), seasoned cooked vegetables (4.04/5.00), low sodium kimchi (3.98/5.00), and fermented sauces (3.92/5.00). The patients with gastrointestinal cancer and other cancers (e.g. breast, thyroid, and renal cancer) had significantly higher necessity scores than lung patients for stew, seasoned raw vegetables, salad, low sodium kimchi, and a set menu (p<0.05).

A Web-based 'Patterns of Care Study' System for Clinical Radiation Oncology in Korea: Development, Launching, and Characteristics (우리나라 임상방사선종양을 위한 웹 기반 PCS 시스템의 개발과 특성)

  • Kim, Il Han;Chie, Eui Kyu;Oh, Do Hoon;Suh Chang-Ok;Kim, Jong Hoon;Ahn, Yong Chan;Hur, Won-Joo;Chung, Woong Ki;Choi, Doo Ho;Lee, Jae Won
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.291-298
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    • 2003
  • Purpose: We report upon a web-based system for Patterns of Care Study (PCS) devised for Korean radiation oncology. This PCS was designed to establish standard tools for clinical quality assurance, to determine basic parameters for radiation oncology processes, to offer a solid system for cooperative clinical studies and a useful standard database for comparisons with other national databases. Materials and Methods: The system consisted of a main server with two back-ups in other locations. The program uses a Linux operating system and a MySQL database. Cancers with high frequencies in radiotherapy departments in Korea from 1998 to 1999 were chosen to have a developmental priority. Results: The web-based clinical PCS .system for radiotherapy in www.pcs.re.kr was developed in early 2003 for cancers of the breast, rectum, esophagus, larynx and lung, and for brain metastasis. The total number of PCS study items exceeded one thousand. Our PCS system features user-friendliness, double entry checking, data security, encryption, hard disc mirroring, double back-up, and statistical analysis. Alphanumeric data can be input as well as image data. In addition, programs were constructed for IRB submission, random sampling of data, and departmental structure. Conclusion: For the first time in the field of PCS, we have developed a web-based system and associated working programs. With this system, we can gather sample data in a short period and thus save, cost, effort and time. Data audits should be peformed to validate input data. We propose that this system should be considered as a standard method for PCS or similar types of data collection systems.

Oestrogenic Activity of Parabens In Vitro Estrogen Assays (에틸, 프로필, 이소프로필, 부틸, 이소부틸 파라벤의 In Vitro 검색시험 연구에서의 내분비독성)

  • Lee Sung-Hoon;Kim Sun-Jung;Park Jung-Ran;Jo Eun-Hye;Ahn Nam-Shik;Park Joon-Suk;Hwang Jae-Woong;Jung Ji-Youn;Lee Yong-Soon;Kang Kyung-Sun
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.100-106
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    • 2006
  • The use of underarm and body care cosmetics with oestrogenic chemical excipients (particularly the parabens) and the hypothesized association with breast cancer incidence, particularly in women. It is noted that the type of cosmetic product is irrelevant (e.g. antiperspirant/deodorant versus body lotion, moisturizers or sprays versus creams) and attention must focus on issues of actual exposure to chemicals through continued dermal application of body care products and the endocrine/hormonal activity and toxicity of the chemicals in the formulations. To evaluate the estrogenic activities of parabens such as ethylparaben, butylparaben, propylparaben, isobutylparaben and isopropylparaben, we used recombinant yeasts containing the human estrogen receptor [Saccharomyces cerevisiae ER+LYS 8127], human breast cancer MCF-7 cell lines and human estrogen receptor ${\alpha}\;and\;{\beta}$. In E-screen assays, isopropylparaben is the most estrogenic paraben, and in ER competition assay, isobutylparaben is the most estrogenic paraben. We evaluated isopropylparaben was most active in the recombinant yeast assay, followed by propylparaben, ethylparaben, isobutylparaben and butylparaben. Results from this study demonstrate that parabens are observed in human endocrine system. Therefore, we have shown that the parabens is induced the estrogenic activities similar to $17{\beta}$-estradiol and Bisphenol-A.

Effect of a Needle Aspiration in Patients with Lymphedema (암 수술 후 발생한 림프부종 환자의 바늘 흡인술 효과)

  • Yang, Gu-Hwan;Kwak, Sung-Wook;Kim, Sun-Hyn;Shin, Young-Tae;Hwang, Hee-Jin;Park, No-Hyeok;Yeom, Chang-Hwan
    • The Korean Journal of Hospice and Palliative Care
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.27-31
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    • 2009
  • Purpose: Lymphedemas are tissue fluid swellings, usually on the arms or legs, and occur as a result of impaired lymphatic drainage. Presently, the most effective treatment available is complete decongestive physiotherapy (CDP). However, this therapy is ineffective in some patients and surgery may be indicated. Herein, we examined the efficacy of minimally invasive needle aspiration of the most enlarged areas in hypodermic adipose tissues, of patients who had failed CDP. Methods: We included 21 patients who were diagnosed with lymphedema stage II-III in the upper or lower extremities and visited the lymphedema clinic at a university hospital from September 1, 2003 to February 28, 2004. All patients had been treated with CDP at least once, but had failed to respond to the therapy for more than one year. Nine patients had breast cancer and 12 had cervical cancer. We identified the area with the most severe edema by using MRI and performed a 16-gauge angio-needle aspiration on the area. The patients were followed up for 3 months. Effectiveness of the treatment was evaluated by comparing the volume of edema before and after the treatment using Wilcoxon signed rank-test. Results: The mean reduction ratio of the volume of edema comparison normal volume was 41.1${\pm}$35.3% (P=0.001). There were no major or minor operative complications except localized hemorrhage. Conclusion: We conclude that a needle aspiration prior to other surgical treatments is relatively safe and effective for those patients who are unresponsive to CDP.

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Removal of an Infected Permanent Pacemaker through a Right Atriotomy without Cardiopulmonary Bypass Via a Right Thoracotomy (체외순환 없이 우측 개흉술을 통한 우심방 절개 만으로 감염된 영구심박동기의 제거 치험)

  • Choi, Kwang-Ho;Yoon, Young-Chul;Park, Kyung-Taek;Lee, Yang-Haeng;Hwang, Youn-Ho;Cho, Kwang-Hyun
    • Journal of Chest Surgery
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    • v.43 no.4
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    • pp.421-423
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    • 2010
  • A 52-year-old female presented with pain and swelling owing to recurrent inflammation on a generator pocket. She had undergone a permanent pacemaker implantation (DDD type) 7 years previously. We planned to insert a new pacemaker after removal of the previous generator and wires through a surgical approach. However, she had a history of the left modified radical mastectomy (MRM) with radiation therapy for breast cancer. For this patient, it would be difficult to care for the postoperative wound if we approached via the median sternotomy. Therefore, we decided to use a right atrial approach via a right thoracotomy. We removed the previous pacing wires through an atriotomy and inserted a new pacemaker using epicardial pacing leads without cardiopulmonary bypass.

Gated Conductivity Imaging using KHU Mark2 EIT System with Nano-web Fabric Electrode Interface (나노웹 섬유형 전극 인터페이스와 KHU Mark2 EIT 시스템을 이용한 생체신호 동기 도전율 영상법)

  • Kim, Tae-Eui;Kim, Hyun-Ji;Wi, Hun;Oh, Tong-In;Woo, Eung-Je
    • Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.39-46
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    • 2012
  • Electrical impedance tomography(EIT) can produce functional images with conductivity distributions associated with physiological events such as cardiac and respiratory cycles. EIT has been proposed as a clinical imaging tool for the detection of stroke and breast cancer, pulmonary function monitoring, cardiac imaging and other clinical applications. However EIT still suffers from technical challenges such as the electrode interface, hardware limitations, lack of animal or human trials, and interpretation of conductivity variations in reconstructed images. We improved the KHU Mark2 EIT system by introducing an EIT electrode interface consisting of nano-web fabric electrodes and by adding a synchronized biosignal measurement system for gated conductivity imaging. ECG and respiration signals are collected to analyze the relationship between the changes in conductivity images and cardiac activity or respiration. The biosignal measurement system provides a trigger to the EIT system to commence imaging and the EIT system produces an output trigger. This EIT acquisition time trigger signal will also allow us to operate the EIT system synchronously with other clinical devices. This type of biosignal gated conductivity imaging enables capture of fast cardiac events and may also improve images and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) by using signal averaging methods at the same point in cardiac or respiration cycles. As an example we monitored the beat by beat cardiac-related change of conductivity in the EIT images obtained at a common state over multiple respiration cycles. We showed that the gated conductivity imaging method reveals cardiac perfusion changes in the heart region of the EIT images on a canine animal model. These changes appear to have the expected timing relationship to the ECG and ventilator settings that were used to control respiration. As EIT is radiation free and displays high timing resolution its ability to reveal perfusion changes may be of use in intensive care units for continuous monitoring of cardiopulmonary function.

Radiation Oncology Digital Image Chart 8nd Digital Radiotherapv Record System at Samsung Medical Center (디지털 화상 병력 시스템과 디지털 방사선치료 기록 시스템의 개발과 사용 경험)

  • Huh Seung Jae;Ahn Yong Chan;Lim Do Hoon;Cho Chung Keun;Kim Dae Yong;Yeo Inhwan;Kim Moon Kyung;Chang Seung Hee;Park Suk Won
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.67-72
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    • 2000
  • Background :The authors have developed a Digital image chart(DIC) and digital Radiotherapy Record System (DRRS). We have evaluated the DIC and DRRS for reliability, usefulness, ease of use, and efficiency. Materials and Methods :The basic design of the DIC and DRRS was to build an digital image database of radiation therapy Patient records for a more efficient and timely flow of critical image information throughout the department. This system is a submit of comprehensive radiation oncology management system (C-ROMS) and composed of a picture archiving and communication system (PACS), a radiotherapy information database, and a radiotherapy imaging database. The DIC and DRRS were programmed using Delphi under a Windows 95 environment and is capable of displaying the digital images of patients identification photos, simulation films, radiotherapy setup, diagnostic radiology images, gross lesion Photos, and radiotherapy Planning isodose charts with beam arrangements. Twenty-three clients in the department are connected by Ethernet (10 Mbps) to the central image server (Sun Ultra-sparc 1 workstation). Results :From the introduction of this system in February 1998 through December 1999, we have accumulated a total of 15,732 individual images for 2,556 patients. We can organize radiation therapy in a 'paperless' environment in 120 patients with breast cancer. Using this system, we have succeeded in the prompt, accurate, and simultaneous access to patient care information from multiple locations throughout the department. This coordination has resulted in improved operational efficiency within the department. Conclusion :The authors believe that the DIC and DRRS has contributed to the improvement of radiation oncology department efficacy as well as to time and resource savings by providing necessary visual information throughout the department conveniently and simultaneously. As a result, we can also achieve the 'paperless' and 'filmless' practice of radiation oncology with this system.

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