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Financial Burden of Cancer Drug Treatment in Lebanon

  • Elias, Fadia;Khuri, Fadlo R;Adib, Salim M;Karam, Rita;Harb, Hilda;Awar, May;Zalloua, Pierre;Ammar, Walid
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.7
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    • pp.3173-3177
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    • 2016
  • Background: The Ministry of Public Health (MOPH) in Lebanon provides cancer drugs free of charge for uninsured patients who account for more than half the total case-load. Other categories of cancer care are subsidized under more stringent eligibility criteria. MOPH's large database offers an excellent opportunity to analyze the cost of cancer treatment in Lebanon. Materials and Methods: Using utilization and spending data accumulated at MOPH during 2008-2013, the cost to the public budget of cancer drugs was assessed per case and per drug type. Results: The average annual cost of cancer drugs was 6,475$ per patient. Total cancer drug costs were highest for breast cancer, followed by chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), colorectal cancer, lung cancer, and Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), which together represented 74% of total MOPH cancer drug expenditure. The annual average cancer drug cost per case was highest for CML ($31,037), followed by NHL ($11,566). Trastuzumab represented 26% and Imatinib 15% of total MOPH cancer drug expenditure over six years. Conclusions: Sustained increase in cancer drug cost threatens the sustainability of MOPH coverage, so crucial for socially vulnerable citizens. To enhance the bargaining position with pharmaceutical firms for drug cost containment in a small market like Lebanon, drug price comparisons with neighboring countries which have already obtained lower prices may succeed in lowering drug costs.

Disparities by Age, Sex, Tumor Stage, Diagnosis Path, and Area-level Socioeconomic Status in Survival Time for Major Cancers: Results from the Busan Cancer Registry

  • Kwak, Minjung;Kim, Changhoon
    • Journal of Korean Medical Science
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    • v.32 no.12
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    • pp.1974-1983
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    • 2017
  • Our goal was to examine the effect of area-level deprivation on patient survival time for seven major cancers - stomach, colon, liver, lung, breast, cervix, and thyroid cancer. Data on 10,902 subjects who were diagnosed with major cancers from 2010 and 2011 in Busan were collected regarding the survival time along with several important prognostic factors and an area-level deprivation index was constructed from education, income, unemployment, and welfare assistance, to assess the comprehensive area-level socioeconomic status. A multilevel Cox proportional hazard model was used to investigate the effects of multiple risk factors such as gender, age, tumor stage, diagnosis path, and the area-level deprivation. After adjusting for risk factors the area-level deprivation index was found to be significant in associating with higher hazard rate for several cancers. Estimated hazard ratios (95% CI) were 1.08 (0.99-1.18), 1.23 (1.12-1.36), 1.36 (1.21-1.53) for the second, the third, and the fourth quartile of deprivation index groups, respectively, when compared to the least deprived group. When compared with the least deprived group, the more deprived group showed significant decrease in survival time for major cancers. This novel finding may contribute to the literature regarding the association of area-level socioeconomic status and highlight the importance of careful monitoring of socioeconomic characteristics for cancer prevention and care services.

Epidemiological Trends of Cancer Morbidity at a Government Medical College Hospital, Chandigarh, India

  • Sharma, Munesh Kumar;Gour, Neeraj;Pandey, Avadesh;Wallia, Dinesh;Kislay, Dimri
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.7
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    • pp.3061-3064
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    • 2012
  • Aim: An epidemiological shift has resulted in increase in the prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCD). Unlike other NCDs which are easily and definitely preventable, the knowledge of cancer prevention is still limited at present. Various aetiological factors are difficult to control since those are habit forming. Hence an available remedy remains its secondary and tertiary prevention for which appropriate planning is of paramount importance. Evidence based planning requires careful analysis of data with a view to prioritize various cancers. Keeping in view the fact that the adaptation of smoking free status in Chandigarh city might have a far reaching positive effect on the cancer related morbidity of the people, the following study was undertaken to provide base line data to be used for future comparisons. Methods: The registers maintained in the Department of Radiotherapy were checked and those belonging to the years 1999 to 2009 were utilized to analyze the cancer morbidity in respect to age, sex, and year of presentation to health care facility. Results: A total of 4,600 cancer patients (males=2276, females=2324) demonstrated a gradual increase in the number of cancer cases from 150 in the year 1999 to 783 in the year 2009. The most common cancers amongst males were cancer of gastro-intestinal tract (GIT) and lung (including larynx) constituting 37.3% and 27.1% of the total, respectively. In females these were cancers of breast and cervix representing 33.3% & 17.6% of total cancer cases, respectively, and lung cancer constituted 5.3%. The maximum cases of bone cancer (53.8% of all bone cancers) were observed amongst children aged less than 20 years and lung cancer (48.2% of all lung cancers) among the elderly aged 60-69 years. The.

Variation of the Medical Service Utilization of the Dead by Cancers (암 사망자의 의료이용 변이)

  • Hong, Worl-Lan;Lee, Won-Jae;Youn, Kyung-Il
    • Korea Journal of Hospital Management
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.1-19
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    • 2007
  • This study focused on finding the variation of medical service utilization and medical payments of the patients died by three, cancers, stomach, breast, and colon cancer. For this study, data of the one-year episodes of the health insurance subscribers died in 2004 were selected. The frequency of medical visits, the lengths of slays, the days of outpatient visits, the total period of medical services and the total medical payments were compared by the characteristics of the suppliers and utilizers. The data of the patients died by cerebrovascular diseases and cancer in 2004 were selected. To select the dead by cerebrovascular diseases and cancer in 2004, were matched the 2004 reimbursement data of all medical institutions to the data of funeral fee payment by the National Health Insurance Corporation from January 2004 to May 2005 for the death in 2004. The results of the analysis were as follow. The variation of medical service utilization of the dead by cancers were not small in Korea. The current study found that the variation of medical care utilization was influenced by the factors of suppliers, such as types and locations of medical institutions and the factors of users, such as sex and age. It was suspected that the reimbursement by fee-for-service contributed to the variation quite a lot, but we could not compare the variation between the different reimbursement systems in Korea. The results of the study suggested that tile factors of suppliers and utilizers should he reviewed to reduce the under use and over use expressed by variations of medical service utilization. The processes of care, effective communication and management system should be investigated for the equity of medical service utilization. Additionally, prospective payment could he recommended to reduce the high variation of medical service Use. To find the variation caused by under use and over use, further study need to control the severity of diseases, socio-economic status of the users and the system factors.

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Formulation of Ceftriaxone Conjugated Gold Nanoparticles and Their Medical Applications against Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase Producing Bacteria and Breast Cancer

  • El-Rab, Sanaa M.F. Gad;Halawani, Eman M.;Hassan, Aziza M.
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.28 no.9
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    • pp.1563-1572
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    • 2018
  • Gold nanoparticles (AuNP) and their conjugates have been gaining a great deal of recognition in the medical field. Meanwhile, extended-spectrum ${\beta}$-lactamases (ESBL)-producing bacteria are also demonstrating a challenging problem for health care. The aim of this study was the biosynthesis of AuNP using Rosa damascenes petal extract and conjugation of ceftriaxone antibiotic (Cef-AuNP) in inhibiting ESBL-producing bacteria and study of in vitro anticancer activity. Characterization of the synthesized AuNP and Cef-AuNP was studied. ESBL-producing strains, Acinetobacter baumannii ACI1 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa PSE4 were used for testing the efficacy of Cef-AuNP. The cells of MCF-7 breast cancer were treated with previous AuNP and Cef-AuNP at different time intervals. Cytotoxicity effects of apoptosis and its molecular mechanism were evaluated. Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy established the formation of AuNP and Cef-AuNP. Transmission electron microscope demonstrated that the formed nanoparticles were of different shapes with sizes of 15~35 nm and conjugation was established by a slight increase in size. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of Cef-AuNP against tested strains were obtained as 3.6 and $4{\mu}g/ml$, respectively. Cef-AuNP demonstrated a decrease in the MIC of ceftriaxone down to more than 27 folds on the studied strains. The biosynthesized AuNP displayed apoptotic and time-dependent cytotoxic effects in the cells of MCF-7 at a concentration of $0.1{\mu}g/ml$ medium. The Cef-AuNP have low significant effects on MCF-7 cells. These results enhance the conjugating utility in old unresponsive ceftriaxone with AuNP to restore its efficiency against otherwise resistant bacterial pathogens. Additionally, AuNP may be used as an alternative chemotherapeutic treatment of MCF-7 cancer cells.

Expected Years of Life Lost Due to Adult Cancer Mortality in Yazd (2004-2010)

  • Mirzaei, Mohsen;Mirzadeh, Mahboobahsadat;Mirzaei, Mojtaba
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.sup3
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    • pp.101-105
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    • 2016
  • The number of deaths is often measured to monitor the population health status and priority of health problems. However, number of years of life lost (YLL) is a more appropriate indicator in some cases. We have calculated the YLL of adult cancers and its trend over the past few years in Yazd to provide planners with baseline data. Data obtained from death registration system were used to calculate the YLL, based on each individual's age at death, and the standardized expected YLL method was applied with a discount rate of 0.03, an age weight of 0.04, and a correction factor of 0.165. All data were analyzed and prepared in Epi6 and Excel 2007. A total of 3,850 death records were analyzed. Some 550 patients in Yazd province aged ${\geq}20$ die annually due to cancer (male: female ratio 1.3). The average ages at death in lung, CNS, breast cancer and leukemia cases were 68.5, 59, 58.7 and 61, respectively. The age group of 40-59 with 21 % had the highest cancer mortality percentage. Premature cancer deaths have caused 40,753 YLL (5,823 YLL annually). Females lose on average more life years to cancer than do men (11.6 vs 9.8 years). Lung cancer (12.1%), CNS tumors (11.7%) and leukemia (11.4 %) were the leading causes terms of YLL due to all cancers in both sexes. From 2004 to 2010, cancer-caused YLL as a fraction of all YLL increased from 12.8 to 15.2 %. This study can help in the assessment of health care needs and prioritization. Cancer is the major cause of deaths and the trend is increasing. The use of YLLs is a better index for measurement of premature mortality for ranking of diseases than is death counts. Longer periods of observation will make these trends more robust and will help to evaluate and develop, better public health interventions.

The 1998, 1999 Patterns of Care Study for Breast Irradiation After Breast-Conserving Surgery in Korea (1998, 1999년도 우리나라에서 시행된 유방보존수술 후 방사선치료 현황 조사)

  • Suh Chang-Ok;Shin Hyun Soo;Cho Jae Ho;Park Won;Ahn Seung Do;Shin Kyung Hwan;Chung Eun Ji;Keum Ki Chang;Ha Sung Whan;Ahn Sung Ja;Kim Woo Cheol;Lee Myung Za;Ahn Ki Jung
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.192-199
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    • 2004
  • Purpose: To determine the patterns on evaluation and treatment in the patient with early breast cancer treated with conservative surgery and radiotherapy and to improve the radiotherapy techiniques, nationwide survey was peformed. Materials and Methods: A web-based database system for korean Patterns of Care Study (PCS) for 6 common cancers was developed. Two hundreds sixty-one randomly selected records of eligible patients treated between 1998$\~$1999 from 15 hospitals were reviewed. Results: The patients ages ranged from 24 to 85 years(median 45 years). Infiltrating ductal carcinoma was most common histologic type (88.9$\%$) followed by medullary carcinoma (4.2$\%$) and infiltrating lobular carcinoma (1.5$\%$). Pathologic T stage by AJCC was T1 in 59.7$\%$ of the casses, T2 in 29.5$\%$ of the cases, Tis in 8.8$\%$ of the cases. Axillary lymph node dissection was peformed I\in 91.2$\%$ of the cases and 69.7$\%$ were node negative. AJCC stage was 0 in 8.8$\%$ of the cases, stage I in 44.9$\%$ of the cases, stage IIa in 33.3$\%$ of the cases, and stage IIb in 8.4$\%$ of the cases. Estrogen and progesteron receptors were evaluated in 71.6$\%$, and 70.9$\%$ of the patients, respectively. Surgical methods of breast-conserving surgery was excision/lumpectomy in 37.2$\%$, wide excision in 11.5$\%$, quadrantectomy in 23$\%$ and partial mastectomy in 27.5$\%$ of the cases. A pathologically confirmed negative margin was obtained in 90.8$\%$ of the cases. Pathological margin was involved with tumor in 10 patients and margin was close (less than 2 mm) in 10 patients. All the patients except one recieved more than 90$\%$ of the planned radiotherapy dose. Radiotherapy volume was breast only In 88$\%$ of the cases, breast+supraclavicular fossa (SCL) in 5$\%$ of the cases, and breast+ SCL+ posterior axillary boost in 4.2%$\%$of the cases. Only one patient received isolated internal mammary lymph node irradiation. Used radiation beam was Co-60 in 8 cases, 4 MV X-ray in 115 cases, 6 MV X-ray in 125 cases, and 10 MV X-ray in 11 cases. The radiation dose to the whole breast was 45$\~$59.4 Gy (median 50.4) and boost dose was 8$\~$20 Gy (median 10 Gy). The total radiation dose delivered was 50.4$\~$70.4 Gy (median 60.4 Gy). Conclusion: There was no major deviation from current standard in the patterns of evaluation and treatment for the patients with early breast cancer treated with breast conservation method. Some varieties were identified in boost irradiation dose. Separate analysis for the datails of radiotherapy planning will be followed and the outcome of treatment is needed to evaluate the process.

Psychosocial Adjustment of Low-Income Koreans with Cancer (저소득층 암환자들의 심리사회적 적응 과정)

  • Yi, Myung-Sun;Park, Eun-Young;Kim, Dal-Sook;Tae, Young-Sook;Chung, Bok-Yae;So, Hyang-Sook
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.41 no.2
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    • pp.225-235
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    • 2011
  • Purpose: To describe psychosocial adjustment of low-income Koreans who have cancer. Methods: Data were collected during 2008 using individual in-depth interviews with 18 Korean people with cancer. The income status of the participants was low, 11 were recipients of the National Basic Livelihood Protection program. Mean age was 58.3 yr and 11 were female. Five participants had stomach cancer, five, colorectal cancer, and four, breast cancer. Data were analyzed using grounded theory methodology. Results: The core category emerged as 'bearing up alone with double suffering'. 'Poverty and cancer: A double suffering' emerged as a causal condition. The adjustment process consisted of three stages: 'forming a treatment will to live', 'practicing for the cure', and 'restructuring self and repaying favors'. Each stage indicated action-interaction strategies which were employed to bear up alone with double suffering during the illness process. Self-reflection, parental responsibility, and support from the public sector played important roles in overcoming the double suffering. Two types of consequences were identified: Transcended life and strained life suppressed by poverty and cancer. Conclusion: The results provide insights into the psychosocial adjustment process for low income Korean with cancer and can be used in developing and implementing efficient home-care services for these people.

Comparison of Trajectory of Quality of Life in Patients with High Risk Breast Cancer Undergoing Adjuvant Chemotherapy and Autogenous Bone Marrow Transplantation (보조적 표준 항암 화학요법에 비한 자가조혈모세포 이식 유방암 환자 삶의 질 내용 비교)

  • Lee, Eun-Ok
    • Asian Oncology Nursing
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.5-17
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    • 2001
  • It is known that aggressive treatment of chemotherapy, radiation and autogenous stem cell transplantation is effective for prevention of recurrence in the high-risk breast cancer patients. It was assumed that this procedure takes a longer time and decreases the quality of life more than the standard adjuvant chemotherapy. However, there are few studies comparing the quality of life of patients having bone marrow transplantation and adjuvant chemotherapy. Most of the studies were focused on the quality of life in one point of time, such as only during the early treatment stage, only overall quality of life rather than specific dimensions of the quality of life. The purposes of this study are 1) to identify the difference of the quality of life between two different treatment patterns, adjuvant chemotherapy and autogenous stem cell transplantation: 2) to identify the mostly affected dimension and the periods of time affected by the treatment patterns; and 3) to identify the trajectories of quality of life in each treatment pattern. This is a time series design that measures 4 different points of times. At the beginning of the study, 19 patients were placed in the chemotherapy group and 12 in the group of auto-peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. The inclusion criterion was the advanced disease stage of 3 or over with metastasis of more than 5 lymph nodes. The exclusion criteria were 1) anyone who has metastasis to other organ; 2) anyone who had psychological problems. Ferrell's Quality of Life Scale for Cancer Survivors 41 items on a 10 point scale was used. The QOL-CS includes 4 dimensions, which were labeled physical, psychological, social, and spiritual. The Cronbach‘s alpha of this scale was 0.89. Mann-Whitney U test and Friedman test were used to test each hypothesis. In comparison of the two groups, the quality of life of the bone marrow transplantation group dramatically increased at the 3rd and 6th month after transplantation, while the chemotherapy groups results stayed lower. The most affected dimension of the quality of life at the end of the treatment was the physical dimension. However, it and increased along with time, while the psychological dimension values remained low over the long-term period. Intensive nursing care is needed during the entire period of chemotherapy in all patients having chemotherapy, and is also required for right after cases of bone marrow transplantation.

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An Integrative Review Of Oncology Nursing Research In Korea: 1998-2003 (국내 종양간호연구 동향에 관한 연구)

  • Oh, Pok-Ja
    • Asian Oncology Nursing
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.112-121
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    • 2003
  • The purpose of these study was to analyze the contents and trend of researches done on oncology nursing in the past five years in Korea and to suggest its direction for the future research. Methods: 214 nursing studies published from 1998 to 2003 were selected for the analysis. They were examined for the source, design of study, type of subjects, the intervention outcomes of experimental research, the key words and theme of the oncology research. Results: 1. 139(64.9%) of 214 studies were masters thesis and doctoral dissertations. There were 196(91.6%) quantitative researches and 18 qualitative researches. Quantitative research consisted of 28(14.3%) experimental and 168(85.7%) non- experimental studies. Among non-experimental studies, there were 53 correlations, 78 descriptives, 14 comparatives and 23 methodological studies. 2.The main subjects of the study were cancer patients in general(43.7%) and breast cancer patients (18.3%). According to the treatment types, patients receiving chemotherapy were the highest number distribution as 23 of all researches. 3. Social support, fatigue, stress, hope, and quality of life were the most frequently used concepts in correlational studies.4. Education, providing information, oral care, exercise, relaxation and foot massage were the most frequent nursing interventions. Most frequently measured outcomes variable were self-care, pain control, nausea & vomiting, oral discomfort and anxiety. 5. Key words used most frequently were quality of life, educational need, pain controls and fatigue. 6. The themes of qualitative researches were illness experience, family experience and adaptation process. More than 50% of qualitative researches used phenomenologic method. Conclusion: Researches on cancer nursing in Korea have been increased. Descriptive design is being dominant and few experimental studies are being done For the future, it is necessary to conduct international studies to compare, replicate and to establish the effective nursing interventions.

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