• Title, Summary, Keyword: breast cancer

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Reducing the Breast Cancer Menace: the Role of the Male Partner in Ghana

  • Ameade, Evans Paul Kwame;Amalba, Anthony;Kudjo, Theresa;Kumah, Mark Kojo;Mohammed, Baba Sulemana
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.19
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    • pp.8115-8119
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    • 2014
  • Background: Breast cancer continues to be the most common type of cancer afflicting many women worldwide. Presently, educational campaigns and research target only women as if men have no role in the management of this disease. The study examined the willingness of male partners to assist in early female breast cancer detection as well as their awareness and knowledge levels. Materials and Methods: Using a semi-structured questionnaire, data was collected from 500 public servants within the Tamale Metropolis and analyzed in SPSS. Results: The level of awareness of breast cancer was very high (98.8%) but there was a low level of knowledge of breast cancer among the male population. Marital status and religion had no effect on attitude, but increasing educational status significantly increased knowledge and positive attitude towards breast cancer examination (${\chi}^2$=4.255, p=0.0391). The majority (92.0%) agreed that men can assist in early breast cancer detection and 96.2% were willing to be provided with breast examination skills. Conclusions: Although level of awareness on female breast cancers among the men was high, they generally lack knowledge of the disease. Majority of male partners want to assist in early breast cancer detection if provided with the necessary skills.

Clinicopathological Significance of Reduced SPARCL1 Expression in Human Breast Cancer

  • Cao, Fang;Wang, Kuo;Zhu, Rong;Hu, Yong-Wei;Fang, Wen-Zheng;Ding, Hou-Zhong
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.195-200
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    • 2013
  • Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteines-like protein 1 (SPARCL1), an extracellular matrix glycoprotein, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several disorders including cancer. However, little is known about the expression and significance of SPARCL1 in human breast cancer. The aim of this study was to determine the expression pattern and clinicopathological significance of SPARCL1 in a Chinese breast cancer cohort. mRNA and protein expression of SPARCL1 in human breast cancer cell lines and breast cancer tissues was detected using the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, real-time quantitative PCR, and Western blotting, respectively. Immunostaining of SPARCL1 in 282 Chinese breast cancer samples was examined and associations with clinicopathological parameters were analyzed. Compared to the positive expression in immortalized human breast epithelial cells, SPARCL1 was nearly absent in human breast cancer cell lines. Similarly, a significantly reduced expression of SPARCL1 was observed in human breast cancer tissues compared to that in normal breast epithelial tissues, for both mRNA and protein levels (P < 0.001). Immunohistochemical analysis showed that strong cytoplasmic immunostaining of SPARCL1 was observed in almost all normal breast samples (43/45) while moderate and strong immunostaining of SPARCL1 was only detected in 191 of 282 (67.7%) breast cancer cases. Moreover, down-regulation of SPARCL1 was significantly correlated with lymphatic metastasis (P = 0.020) and poor grade (P = 0.044). In conclusion, SPARCL1 may be involved in the breast tumorigenesis and serve as a promising target for therapy of breast cancer.

Deficiency of Follistatin-Like Protein 1 Accelerates the Growth of Breast Cancer Cells at Lung Metastatic Sites

  • Zhang, Ying;Xu, Xiaozhou;Yang, Ying;Ma, Jie;Wang, Lulu;Meng, Xiangzhi;Chen, Bing;Qin, Ling;Lu, Tao;Gao, Yan
    • Journal of Breast Cancer
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.267-276
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    • 2018
  • Purpose: Follistatin-like protein 1 (FSTL1) is a secreted glycoprotein that has been shown to play a role in various types of cancer. However, the clinical significance and function of FSTL1 in breast cancer have not been reported. We investigated the role of FSTL1 in breast cancer in this study. Methods: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, western blot analysis, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction were used to monitor the expression of FSTL1 in breast cancer tissue and in serum samples from breast cancer patients. We employed a 4T1 breast cancer model and $Fstl1^{+/-}$ mice for in vivo studies. Hematoxylin and eosin staining, western blot analysis, and RNA sequencing were used to analyze the effect of FSTL1 on primary tumor growth and lung metastasis. Results: We demonstrated that the expression of FSTL1 is reduced in both the breast cancer tissue and the serum of breast cancer patients. We showed that reduced levels of FSTL1 in serum correlate with elevated expression of Ki-67 and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in cancer tissues. Moreover, lowered expression of FSTL1 was associated with decreased survival in breast cancer patients. Experiments on the $Fstl1^{+/-}$ mouse model established that FSTL1 deficiency had no effect on primary tumor growth, but increased the lung metastases of breast cancer cells, resulting in reduced survival of tumor-bearing mice. RNA sequencing found significantly reduced expression of Egln3 and increased expression of EGFR in $Fstl1^{+/-}$ mice. Thus, our results suggest that FSTL1 may affect the expression of EGFR through Egln3, inhibiting the proliferation of breast cancer cells at lung metastatic sites. Conclusion: In conclusion, we suggest a suppressor role of FSTL1 in breast cancer lung metastasis. Furthermore, FSTL1 may represent a potential prognostic biomarker and a candidate therapeutic target in breast cancer patients.

Knowledge, Perception, Practice and Barriers of Breast Cancer Health Promotion Activities among Community Pharmacists in Two Districts of Selangor State, Malaysia

  • Beshir, Semira A.;Hanipah, Monalina A.
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.9
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    • pp.4427-4430
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    • 2012
  • Breast cancer is the most common cancer and the leading cause of cancer death among women in Malaysia. Despite the campaigns undertaken to raise the awareness of the public regarding breast cancer, breast cancer screening rates are still low in the country. The community pharmacist, as one of the most accessible healthcare practitioners, could play a role in the provision of breast cancer health promotion services to the community. However, there are no documented data regarding the community pharmacists' involvement in breast cancer related health promotion activities. Hence, this study was conducted to examine self-reported knowledge, practice and perception of community pharmacists on provision of breast cancer health promotion services and to investigate the barriers that limit their involvement. This cross-sectional survey conducted between May to September 2010, included a sample of 35 community pharmacists working in the districts of Hulu Langat and Sepang in state of Selangor. A 22-item validated questionnaire that included both closed and Lickert scale questions was used to interview those pharmacists who gave their informed consent to participate in the study. The data was analysed using SPSS. Only 11.3% of the community pharmacists answered all the questions on the knowledge section correctly. The mean overall knowledge of the community pharmacists on risk factors of breast cancer and screening recommendations is 56%. None of the respondents was currently involved in breast cancer health promotion activities. Lack of time (80%), lack of breast cancer educational materials (77.1%) and lack of training (62.9%) were the top three mentioned barriers. Despite these barriers, 94.3% (33) of the community pharmacists agreed that they should be involved in breast cancer health promotion activities. Hence, there is need to equip community pharmacists with necessary training and knowledge to enable them to contribute their share towards prevention and screening of breast cancer.

Identifying Women's Knowledge about Risk Factors of Breast Cancer and Reasons for Having Mammography

  • Guvenc, Inanc;Guvenc, Gulten;Tastan, Sevinc;Akyuz, Aygul
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.8
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    • pp.4191-4197
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    • 2012
  • The aim of this study was to identify breast cancer risk factors and reasons for having mammography of the women who applied for mammography, as well as to determine their level of knowledge about risk factors and level of risk perception, and anxiety concerning breast cancer. This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted from June 15, 2010 through September 10, 2010, in a university hospital in Ankara, Turkey. A questionnaire prepared by the researchers was used to collect the data. The mean age of the women was $52.1{\pm}9.98$ years. Sixteen percent of the women had a family history of breast cancer. The majority of participants had mammograms (75.8%) before and had gained knowledge about breast cancer and its screening (73.7%). The leading source of information about breast cancer was physicians (46.2%). Physician recommendations, having breast-related complaints, and family history of breast cancer were important reasons to obtain mammography. The mean knowledge score about risk factors of breast cancer was $4.15{\pm}2.73$ and the mean anxiety score was $1.65{\pm}1.61$. It was found that some socio-demographic and obstetrical characteristics of women, their family history, and risk perceptions about breast cancer affect their knowledge and anxiety scores about breast cancer. In conclusion, the present study identified a number of factors affecting mammography participation for women. The results of this study can be helpful in promoting screening for breast cancer.

Survival Analysis of Breast Cancer Patients in Northwest Iran

  • Ziaei, Jamal Eivazi;Sanaat, Zohreh;Asvadi, Iraj;Dastgiri, Saeed;Pourzand, Ali;Vaez, Jalil
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.39-42
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    • 2013
  • Background: Breast cancer is the most frequently occurring cancer among Iranian women; however limited studies have been conducted to address survival rates. Objective: The objective was to examine survival rates in Tabriz (Northwest of Iran) and comparing with those of data reported from other cities and countries. Methods: Survival rates were calculated for one, three, five, seven and ten years for 271 breast cancer patients referred to one university clinic during 1997-2008. Results: Survival analysis demonstrated a lower survival rate compared to western countries. Conclusions: Survival rates for our patients are similar/better than other cities in Iran, but lower than certain European countries and the US. Further studies with a higher number of patients are now required.

Breast Cancer Statistics and Prediction Methodology: A Systematic Review and Analysis

  • Dubey, Ashutosh Kumar;Gupta, Umesh;Jain, Sonal
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.10
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    • pp.4237-4245
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    • 2015
  • Breast cancer is a menacing cancer, primarily affecting women. Continuous research is going on for detecting breast cancer in the early stage as the possibility of cure in early stages is bright. There are two main objectives of this current study, first establish statistics for breast cancer and second to find methodologies which can be helpful in the early stage detection of the breast cancer based on previous studies. The breast cancer statistics for incidence and mortality of the UK, US, India and Egypt were considered for this study. The finding of this study proved that the overall mortality rates of the UK and US have been improved because of awareness, improved medical technology and screening, but in case of India and Egypt the condition is less positive because of lack of awareness. The methodological findings of this study suggest a combined framework based on data mining and evolutionary algorithms. It provides a strong bridge in improving the classification and detection accuracy of breast cancer data.

Arab Women's Breast Cancer Screening Practices: A Literature Review

  • Donnelly, Tam Truong;Al Khater, Al-Hareth;Al-Bader, Salha Bujassoum;Al Kuwari, Mohammed Ghaith;Al-Meer, Nabila;Malik, Mariam;Singh, Rajvir;Jong, Floor Christie-De
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.8
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    • pp.4519-4528
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    • 2013
  • Breast cancer incidence and mortality rates are increasing in the Arab world and the involved women are often diagnosed at advanced stages of breast cancer. This literature review explores factors influencing Arab women's breast cancer screening behavior. Searched databases were: Medline, PubMed, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, CINAHL Plus, Google Scholar, Index Medicus for WHO Eastern Mediterranean, and Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention. Breast cancer screening participation rates are low. Screening programs are opportunistic and relatively new to the region. Knowledge amongst women and health care providers, professional recommendation, socio-demographic factors, cultural traditions, beliefs, religious, social support, accessibility and perceived effectiveness of screening influence screening behavior.

Differences in Incidence, Mortality and Survival of Breast Cancer by Regions and Countries in Asia and Contributing Factors

  • Kim, Yeonju;Yoo, Keun-Young;Goodman, Marc T
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.7
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    • pp.2857-2870
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    • 2015
  • Although the incidence of breast cancer in Asia remains lower than in North America, Western Europe, and Oceania, rates have been increasing rapidly during the past few decades, and Asian countries now account for 40% of breast cancer cases diagnosed worldwide. Breast cancer mortality has also increased among Asian women, in contrast to decreased mortality in Northern America, Western Europe, and Oceania. These increased rates are associated with higher prevalence of breast cancer risk factors (e.g., reduced parity, delayed childbirth, increased obesity) that have accompanied economic development throughout the region. However, Asian regions (western, south-central, south-eastern, and eastern) and countries differ in the types and magnitude of changes in breast cancer risk factors, and cannot be viewed as a single homogeneous group. The objective of this paper was to contrast the heterogeneous epidemiology of breast cancer by Asian regions and countries, and to suggest potential avenues for future research.

Current Approaches in Development of Immunotherapeutic Vaccines for Breast Cancer

  • Allahverdiyev, Adil;Tari, Gamze;Bagirova, Melahat;Abamor, Emrah Sefik
    • Journal of Breast Cancer
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.343-353
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    • 2018
  • Cancer is the leading cause of death worldwide. In developed as well as developing countries, breast cancer is the most common cancer found among women. Currently, treatment of breast cancer consists mainly of surgery, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, and radiotherapy. In recent years, because of increased understanding of the therapeutic potential of immunotherapy in cancer prevention, cancer vaccines have gained importance. Here, we review various immunotherapeutic breast cancer vaccines including peptide-based vaccines, whole tumor cell vaccines, gene-based vaccines, and dendritic cell vaccines. We also discuss novel nanotechnology-based approaches to improving breast cancer vaccine efficiency.