• Title, Summary, Keyword: breast cancer

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Clinicopathological Significance of Reduced SPARCL1 Expression in Human Breast Cancer

  • Cao, Fang;Wang, Kuo;Zhu, Rong;Hu, Yong-Wei;Fang, Wen-Zheng;Ding, Hou-Zhong
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.195-200
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    • 2013
  • Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteines-like protein 1 (SPARCL1), an extracellular matrix glycoprotein, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several disorders including cancer. However, little is known about the expression and significance of SPARCL1 in human breast cancer. The aim of this study was to determine the expression pattern and clinicopathological significance of SPARCL1 in a Chinese breast cancer cohort. mRNA and protein expression of SPARCL1 in human breast cancer cell lines and breast cancer tissues was detected using the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, real-time quantitative PCR, and Western blotting, respectively. Immunostaining of SPARCL1 in 282 Chinese breast cancer samples was examined and associations with clinicopathological parameters were analyzed. Compared to the positive expression in immortalized human breast epithelial cells, SPARCL1 was nearly absent in human breast cancer cell lines. Similarly, a significantly reduced expression of SPARCL1 was observed in human breast cancer tissues compared to that in normal breast epithelial tissues, for both mRNA and protein levels (P < 0.001). Immunohistochemical analysis showed that strong cytoplasmic immunostaining of SPARCL1 was observed in almost all normal breast samples (43/45) while moderate and strong immunostaining of SPARCL1 was only detected in 191 of 282 (67.7%) breast cancer cases. Moreover, down-regulation of SPARCL1 was significantly correlated with lymphatic metastasis (P = 0.020) and poor grade (P = 0.044). In conclusion, SPARCL1 may be involved in the breast tumorigenesis and serve as a promising target for therapy of breast cancer.

Mouse models of breast cancer in preclinical research

  • Park, Mi Kyung;Lee, Chang Hoon;Lee, Ho
    • Laboraroty Animal Research
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    • v.34 no.4
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    • pp.160-165
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    • 2018
  • Breast cancer remains the second leading cause of cancer death among woman, worldwide, despite advances in identifying novel targeted therapies and the development of treating strategies. Classification of clinical subtypes (ER+, PR+, HER2+, and TNBC (Triple-negative)) increases the complexity of breast cancers, which thus necessitates further investigation. Mouse models used in breast cancer research provide an essential approach to examine the mechanisms and genetic pathway in cancer progression and metastasis and to develop and evaluate clinical therapeutics. In this review, we summarize tumor transplantation models and genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) of breast cancer and their applications in the field of human breast cancer research and anti-cancer drug development. These models may help to improve the knowledge of underlying mechanisms and genetic pathways, as well as creating approaches for modeling clinical tumor subtypes, and developing innovative cancer therapy.

Knowledge, Perception, Practice and Barriers of Breast Cancer Health Promotion Activities among Community Pharmacists in Two Districts of Selangor State, Malaysia

  • Beshir, Semira A.;Hanipah, Monalina A.
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.9
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    • pp.4427-4430
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    • 2012
  • Breast cancer is the most common cancer and the leading cause of cancer death among women in Malaysia. Despite the campaigns undertaken to raise the awareness of the public regarding breast cancer, breast cancer screening rates are still low in the country. The community pharmacist, as one of the most accessible healthcare practitioners, could play a role in the provision of breast cancer health promotion services to the community. However, there are no documented data regarding the community pharmacists' involvement in breast cancer related health promotion activities. Hence, this study was conducted to examine self-reported knowledge, practice and perception of community pharmacists on provision of breast cancer health promotion services and to investigate the barriers that limit their involvement. This cross-sectional survey conducted between May to September 2010, included a sample of 35 community pharmacists working in the districts of Hulu Langat and Sepang in state of Selangor. A 22-item validated questionnaire that included both closed and Lickert scale questions was used to interview those pharmacists who gave their informed consent to participate in the study. The data was analysed using SPSS. Only 11.3% of the community pharmacists answered all the questions on the knowledge section correctly. The mean overall knowledge of the community pharmacists on risk factors of breast cancer and screening recommendations is 56%. None of the respondents was currently involved in breast cancer health promotion activities. Lack of time (80%), lack of breast cancer educational materials (77.1%) and lack of training (62.9%) were the top three mentioned barriers. Despite these barriers, 94.3% (33) of the community pharmacists agreed that they should be involved in breast cancer health promotion activities. Hence, there is need to equip community pharmacists with necessary training and knowledge to enable them to contribute their share towards prevention and screening of breast cancer.

Identifying Women's Knowledge about Risk Factors of Breast Cancer and Reasons for Having Mammography

  • Guvenc, Inanc;Guvenc, Gulten;Tastan, Sevinc;Akyuz, Aygul
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.8
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    • pp.4191-4197
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    • 2012
  • The aim of this study was to identify breast cancer risk factors and reasons for having mammography of the women who applied for mammography, as well as to determine their level of knowledge about risk factors and level of risk perception, and anxiety concerning breast cancer. This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted from June 15, 2010 through September 10, 2010, in a university hospital in Ankara, Turkey. A questionnaire prepared by the researchers was used to collect the data. The mean age of the women was $52.1{\pm}9.98$ years. Sixteen percent of the women had a family history of breast cancer. The majority of participants had mammograms (75.8%) before and had gained knowledge about breast cancer and its screening (73.7%). The leading source of information about breast cancer was physicians (46.2%). Physician recommendations, having breast-related complaints, and family history of breast cancer were important reasons to obtain mammography. The mean knowledge score about risk factors of breast cancer was $4.15{\pm}2.73$ and the mean anxiety score was $1.65{\pm}1.61$. It was found that some socio-demographic and obstetrical characteristics of women, their family history, and risk perceptions about breast cancer affect their knowledge and anxiety scores about breast cancer. In conclusion, the present study identified a number of factors affecting mammography participation for women. The results of this study can be helpful in promoting screening for breast cancer.

Survival Analysis of Breast Cancer Patients in Northwest Iran

  • Ziaei, Jamal Eivazi;Sanaat, Zohreh;Asvadi, Iraj;Dastgiri, Saeed;Pourzand, Ali;Vaez, Jalil
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.39-42
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    • 2013
  • Background: Breast cancer is the most frequently occurring cancer among Iranian women; however limited studies have been conducted to address survival rates. Objective: The objective was to examine survival rates in Tabriz (Northwest of Iran) and comparing with those of data reported from other cities and countries. Methods: Survival rates were calculated for one, three, five, seven and ten years for 271 breast cancer patients referred to one university clinic during 1997-2008. Results: Survival analysis demonstrated a lower survival rate compared to western countries. Conclusions: Survival rates for our patients are similar/better than other cities in Iran, but lower than certain European countries and the US. Further studies with a higher number of patients are now required.

Clinical Characteristics and Survival Analysis of Breast Cancer Molecular Subtypes with Hepatic Metastases

  • Ge, Qi-Dong;Lv, Ning;Kong, Ya-Nan;Xie, Xin-Hua;He, Ni;Xie, Xiao-Ming;Wei, Wei-Dong
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.10
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    • pp.5081-5086
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    • 2012
  • Background: The liver is one of the most common metastatic sites of breast cancer, hepatic metastases developing in 6%-25% of patients with breast cancer and being associated with a poor prognosis. The aim of this study was to analyze the survival and clinical characteristics of patients with hepatic metastases from breast cancer of different molecular subtypes and to investigate the prognostic and predictive factors that effect clinical outcome. Methods: We retrospectively studied the charts of 104 patients with breast cancer hepatic metastases diagnosed at Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center from December 1990 to June 2009. Subtypes were defined as luminal A, luminal B, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) enriched, triple-negative (TN). Prognostic factor correlations with clinical features and treatment approaches were assessed at the diagnosis of hepatic metastases. Results: The median survival time was 16.0 months, and the one-, two- three-, four-, five-year survival rates were 63.5%, 31.7%, 15.6%, 10.8%, and 5.4%, respectively. Median survival periods after hepatic metastases were 19.3 months (luminal A), 13.3 months (luminal B), 18.9 months (HER2-enriched), and 16.1 months (TN, P=0.11). In multivariate analysis, a 2 year-interval from initial diagnosis to hepatic metastasis, treatment with endocrine therapy, and surgery were independent prognostic factors. Endocrine therapy could improve the survival of luminal subtypes (P=0.004) and was a favorable prognostic factor (median survival 23.4 months vs. 13.8 months, respectively, P=0.011). Luminal A group of patients treated with endocrine therapy did significantly better than the Luminal A group of patients treated without endocrine therapy (median survival of 48.9 vs. 13.8 months, P=0.003). Conclusions: Breast cancer subtypes were not associated with survival after hepatic metastases. Endocrine therapy was a significantly favorable treatment for patients with luminal subtype.

Adherence to Recommended Treatments for Early Invasive Breast Cancer: Decisions of Women Attending Surgeons in the Breast Cancer Audit of Australia and New Zealand

  • Roder, David M.;Silva, Primali De;Zorbas, Helen N.;Webster, Fleur;Kollias, James;Pyke, Chris M.;Campbell, Ian D.
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.1675-1682
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    • 2012
  • Aim: The study aim was to determine the frequency with which women decline clinicians' treatment recommendations and variations in this frequency by age, cancer and service descriptors. Design: The study included 36,775 women diagnosed with early invasive breast cancer in 1998-2005 and attending Australian and New Zealand breast surgeons. Rate ratios for declining treatment were examined by descriptor, using bilateral and multiple logistic regression analyses. Proportional hazards regression was used in exploratory analyses of associations with breast cancer death. Results: 3.4% of women declined a recommended treatment of some type, ranging from 2.6% for women under 40 years to 5.8% for those aged 80 years or more, and with parallel increases by age presenting for declining radiotherapy (p<0.001) and axillary surgery (p=0.006). Multiple regression confirmed that common predictors of declining various treatments included low surgeon case load, treatment outside major city centres, and older age. Histological features suggesting a favourable prognosis were often predictive of declining various treatments, although reverse findings also applied with women with positive nodal status being more likely to decline a mastectomy and those with larger tumours more likely to decline chemotherapy. While survival analyses lacked statistical power due to small numbers, higher risks of breast cancer death were suggested, after adjusting for age and conventional clinical risk factors, (1) for women not receiving breast surgery for unstated reasons (RR=2.29; p<0.001); and (2) although not approaching statistical significance $p{\geq}0.200$), for women declining radiotherapy (RR=1.22), a systemic therapy (RR1.11), and more specifically, chemotherapy (RR=1.41). Conclusions: Women have the right to choose their treatments but reasons for declining recommendations require further study to ensure that choices are well informed and clinical outcomes are optimized.

Perception of Breast Health amongst Malaysian Female Adolescents

  • Che, Chong Chin;Coomarasamy, Jeya Devi;Suppayah, Balakrishnan
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.17
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    • pp.7175-7180
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    • 2014
  • Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women in Malaysia, about one in 19 women being at risk. This study aimed to investigate knowledge and practice of breast self-examination (BSE), as well as knowledge of risk factors for breast cancer amongst female adolescents in Malaysia. Subsequently, relationships between demographic characteristics and knowledge level of BSE, risk factors for breast cancer and BSE practice were assessed. Materials and Methods: A descriptive, cross sectional survey was conducted using a sample of 500 Malaysian adolescents from the age of 15 to 19 years. A self-administered questionnaire was used to gather socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge of BSE, knowledge of risk factors for breast cancer and BSE practices. Results: The findings of this study indicated that female adolescents in Malaysia demonstrated an inadequate knowledge level of BSE and risk factors for breast cancer. Only 27.8% of female adolescents performed BSE regularly. BSE practice, knowledge of BSE and knowledge of risk factors for breast cancer showed significant positive relationships. Conclusions: The study highlighted the importance of planning and implementing breast health education programs for female students in secondary schools in Malaysia. It will also provide the health care providers an avenue to stress on the importance of imparting breast health education to adolescents.

Arab Women's Breast Cancer Screening Practices: A Literature Review

  • Donnelly, Tam Truong;Al Khater, Al-Hareth;Al-Bader, Salha Bujassoum;Al Kuwari, Mohammed Ghaith;Al-Meer, Nabila;Malik, Mariam;Singh, Rajvir;Jong, Floor Christie-De
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.8
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    • pp.4519-4528
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    • 2013
  • Breast cancer incidence and mortality rates are increasing in the Arab world and the involved women are often diagnosed at advanced stages of breast cancer. This literature review explores factors influencing Arab women's breast cancer screening behavior. Searched databases were: Medline, PubMed, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, CINAHL Plus, Google Scholar, Index Medicus for WHO Eastern Mediterranean, and Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention. Breast cancer screening participation rates are low. Screening programs are opportunistic and relatively new to the region. Knowledge amongst women and health care providers, professional recommendation, socio-demographic factors, cultural traditions, beliefs, religious, social support, accessibility and perceived effectiveness of screening influence screening behavior.

Breast Cancer Statistics and Prediction Methodology: A Systematic Review and Analysis

  • Dubey, Ashutosh Kumar;Gupta, Umesh;Jain, Sonal
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.10
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    • pp.4237-4245
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    • 2015
  • Breast cancer is a menacing cancer, primarily affecting women. Continuous research is going on for detecting breast cancer in the early stage as the possibility of cure in early stages is bright. There are two main objectives of this current study, first establish statistics for breast cancer and second to find methodologies which can be helpful in the early stage detection of the breast cancer based on previous studies. The breast cancer statistics for incidence and mortality of the UK, US, India and Egypt were considered for this study. The finding of this study proved that the overall mortality rates of the UK and US have been improved because of awareness, improved medical technology and screening, but in case of India and Egypt the condition is less positive because of lack of awareness. The methodological findings of this study suggest a combined framework based on data mining and evolutionary algorithms. It provides a strong bridge in improving the classification and detection accuracy of breast cancer data.