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Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Using the Gail Model: a Turkish Study

  • Erbil, Nulufer;Dundar, Nursel;Inan, Cigdem;Bolukbas, Nurgul
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.303-306
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    • 2015
  • Purpose: This study was conducted to determine risk of developing of breast cancer among Turkish women. Materials and Methods: Using a descriptive and cross-sectional approach, data were collected from 231 women. Breast cancer risk was calculated using the National Cancer Institute's on-line verson of called as the Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Tool or the Gail Risk Assesment Tool. Results: The average age of women was $45.0{\pm}8.06$ years. It was revealed that 6.1% of participants reported having first degree relatives who had had breast cancer, with only four women having more than one first-degree relative affected (1.7%). The mean five-year breast cancer risk for all women was $0.88{\pm}0.91%$, and 7.4% of women had a five-year breast cancer risk >1.66% in this study. Mean lifetime breast cancer risk up to age 90 years was $9.3{\pm}5.2%$. Conclusions: The breast cancer risk assessment tool can help in the clinical management of patient seeking advice concerning screening and prevention. Healthcare providers in Turkey can use this approach to estimate an individual's probability of developing breast cancer.

A Study on Dietary Patterns, Dietary Behaviors and Life Styles before and after Breast Cancer Surgery

  • Kyung-Ja Chang;Sei-Hyun Ahn
    • Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.3 no.5
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    • pp.722-728
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    • 1998
  • The purpose of this study was to compare dietary patterns, dietary behaviors and life styles before and after breast cancer surgery in Korea. The subjects were 220 females who underwent surgery for stage I-III breast cancer at general hospitals. Food intake, eating habits, snacks, eating-out, use of nutritional supplements and healthy foods, and drinking and smoking habits were studied using a questionnaire. SAS program was used for statistical analysis of the data. The results are as follows : 1) Most subjects were housewives aged more than 40 years. 2) After breast cancer surgery, intakes of fruits and vegetables were increased and those of meat, salty and spicy foods were decreased. 3) There was a significant difference in takes of caffeine beverages, snacks, fast foods and instant foods before and after breast cancer surgery. 4) There was a significant difference in meal regularity and skipping breakfast before and after breast cancer surgery. 5) The frequency of eating-out was decreased and low-fat foods, such as Japanese foods, were preferred after breast cancer surgery. 6) Nutritional supplements and natural healthy foods were used more after breast cancer surgery. 7) Most subjects were non-smokers and drank little alcohol and the rate of regular drinking significantly decreased after breast cancer surgery. Therefore, there was a significant difference in dietary patterns and behaviors resulting form breast cancer. Further more, dietary factors may be a contributing factor in the incidence at breast cancer in Korea.

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Do VDR Gene Polymorphisms Contribute to Breast Cancer?

  • Shaikh, Fouzia;Baig, Saeeda;Jamal, Qamar
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.479-483
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    • 2016
  • Breast cancer is the first or second leading cancer among females across the globe. A large number of studies have been conducted to assess any relationship between vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms and breast cancer development. Epidemiological studies have indicated that ethnic traits exhibited by a group of people with a common ancestry and culture, alter the link between VDR gene and breast cancer. It has been hypothesized that VDR polymorphisms have the capacity to impact both on incidence of breast cancer occurrence and to predict its outcome. A survey was here conducted to assess and compare the impact of vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms Fok1, Bsm1, Taq1, Apa1 and poly (A) on development of breast cancer. Information was obtained from electronic databases including PubMed and Google Scholar for articles published during the period from 1996 to 2015. This search was achieved by using the terms "genetics", "breast cancer", "VDR gene", "polymorphisms". However, due to inconsistent results, no conclusive statements could be presented about the significance of the VDR genotype as far as the development of breast carcinoma is concerned.

Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load Dietary Patterns and the Associated Risk of Breast Cancer: A Case-control Study

  • Woo, Hae Dong;Park, Ki-Soon;Shin, Aesun;Ro, Jungsil;Kim, Jeongseon
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.9
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    • pp.5193-5198
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    • 2013
  • The glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) have been considered risk factors for breast cancer, but association studies of breast cancer risk using simple GI and GL might be affected by confounding effects of the overall diet. A total of 357 cases and 357 age-matched controls were enrolled, and dietary intake was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) with 103 food items. GI and GL dietary patterns were derived by reduced rank regression (RRR) method. The GI and GL pattern scores were positively associated with breast cancer risk among postmenopausal women [OR (95%CI): 3.31 (1.06-10.39), p for trend=0.031; 9.24 (2.93-29.14), p for trend<0.001, respectively], while the GI pattern showed no statistically significant effects on breast cancer risk, and the GL pattern was only marginally significant, among premenopausal women (p for trend=0.043). The GI and GL pattern scores were positively associated with the risk of breast cancer in subgroups defined by hormone receptor status in postmenopausal women. The GI and GL patterns based on all food items consumed were positively associated with breast cancer.

Characteristics of Mammary Paget's Disease in China: a National-wide Multicenter Retrospective Study During 1999-2008

  • Zheng, Shan;Song, Qing-Kun;Zhao, Lin;Huang, Rong;Sun, Li;Li, Jing;Fan, Jin-Hu;Zhang, Bao-Ning;Yang, Hong-Jian;Xu, Feng;Zhang, Bin;Qiao, You-Lin
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.5
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    • pp.1887-1893
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    • 2012
  • The aim of this study was to detail characteristics of mammary Paget's disease (PD) representing the whole population in China. A total of 4211 female breast cancer inpatients at seven tertiary hospitals from seven representative geographical regions of China were collected randomly during 1999 to 2008. Data for demography, risk factors, diagnostic imaging test, physical examination and pathologic characters were surveyed and biomarker status was tested by immunohistochemistry. The differences of demography and risk factors between PD with breast cancer and other lesions were compared using Chi-square test or t-test, with attention to physical examination and pathological characters. The percentage of PD was 1.6% (68/4211) in all breast cancers. The mean age at diagnosis was 48.1, and 63.2% (43/68) patients were premenopausal. There is no difference in demography and risk factors between PD with breast cancer and other breast cancer (P > 0.05). The main pattern of PD in physical exam and pathologic pattern were patients presenting with a palpable mass in breast (65/68, 95.6%) and PD with underlying invasive cancer (82.4%, 56/68) respectively. The rate of multifocal disease was 7.4% (5/68). PD with invasive breast cancer showed larger tumor size, more multifocal disease, lower ER and PR expression and higher HER2 overexpression than those in other invasive breast cancer (P < 0.05). These results suggested that PD in China is a concomitant disease of breast cancer, and that PD with underlying invasive cancer has more multiple foci and more aggressive behavior compared with other breast invasive cancer. We address the urgent needs for establishing diagnostic and therapeutic guidelines for mammary PD in China.

Literacy and Breast Cancer Prevention: a Population-Based Study from Iran

  • Harirchi, Iraj;Azary, Saeedeh;Montazeri, Ali;Mousavi, Seyed Mohsen;Sedighi, Zahra;Keshtmand, Gelavizh;Zarinkolah, Zahra;Soltani, S.M. Amin Khalifeh
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.8
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    • pp.3927-3930
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    • 2012
  • Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide and the leading cause of death from cancer among women. Evidence suggests that early diagnosis and screening interventions might help to improve outcomes. This population-based study was conducted to determine breast cancer awareness and screening behavior among Iranian women and to examine its association with women's literacy. The study was carried out in two provinces, with 1,477,045 population, located in central and eastern part of Iran. Overall, 770 women were studied. Of these, 482 (62.7%) were literate and 287 (37.3%) were not. The results obtained from the data analysis indicated that there was a significant difference between literate and illiterate women. Further analysis of the data using logistic regression showed that literacy was an important contributing factor for breast cancer prevention behavior. The findings suggest that in order to improve women's health and breast cancer outcomes providing equal educational opportunities for women seems necessary.

Hereditary Genes and SNPs Associated with Breast Cancer

  • Mahdi, Kooshyar Mohammad;Nassiri, Mohammad Reza;Nasiri, Khadijeh
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.6
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    • pp.3403-3409
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    • 2013
  • Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women affecting up to one third of tehm during their lifespans. Increased expression of some genes due to polymorphisms increases the risk of breast cancer incidence. Since mutations that are recognized to increase breast cancer risk within families are quite rare, identification of these SNPs is very important. The most important loci which include mutations are; BRCA1, BRCA2, PTEN, ATM, TP53, CHEK2, PPM1D, CDH1, MLH1, MRE11, MSH2, MSH6, MUTYH, NBN, PMS1, PMS2, BRIP1, RAD50, RAD51C, STK11 and BARD1. Presence of SNPs in these genes increases the risk of breast cancer and associated diagnostic markers are among the most reliable for assessing prognosis of breast cancer. In this article we reviewed the hereditary genes of breast cancer and SNPs associated with increasing the risk of breast cancer that were recently were reported from candidate gene, meta-analysis and GWAS studies. SNPs of genes associated with breast cancer can be used as a potential tool for improving cancer diagnosis and treatment planning.

Intrinsic Motivation Factors Based on the Self-Determinant Theory for Regular Breast Cancer Screening

  • Jung, Su Mi;Jo, Heui-Sug
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.23
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    • pp.10101-10106
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    • 2015
  • The purpose of this study was to identify factors of intrinsic motivation that affect regular breast cancer screening and contribute to development of a program for strategies to improve effective breast cancer screening. Subjects were residing in South Korea Gangwon-Province and were female over 40 and under 69 years of age. For the investigation, the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI) was modified to the situation of cancer screening and was used to survey 905 inhabitants. Multinominal logistic regression analyses were conducted for regular breast cancer screening (RS), one-time breast cancer screening (OS) and non-breast cancer screening (NS). For statistical analysis, IBM SPSS 20.0 was utilized. The determinant factors between RS and NS were "perceived effort and choice" and "stress and strain" - internal motivations related to regular breast cancer screening. Also, determinant factors between RS and OS are "age" and "perceived effort and choice" for internal motivation related to cancer screening. To increase regular screening, strategies that address individual perceived effort and choice are recommended.

Reducing the Breast Cancer Menace: the Role of the Male Partner in Ghana

  • Ameade, Evans Paul Kwame;Amalba, Anthony;Kudjo, Theresa;Kumah, Mark Kojo;Mohammed, Baba Sulemana
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.19
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    • pp.8115-8119
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    • 2014
  • Background: Breast cancer continues to be the most common type of cancer afflicting many women worldwide. Presently, educational campaigns and research target only women as if men have no role in the management of this disease. The study examined the willingness of male partners to assist in early female breast cancer detection as well as their awareness and knowledge levels. Materials and Methods: Using a semi-structured questionnaire, data was collected from 500 public servants within the Tamale Metropolis and analyzed in SPSS. Results: The level of awareness of breast cancer was very high (98.8%) but there was a low level of knowledge of breast cancer among the male population. Marital status and religion had no effect on attitude, but increasing educational status significantly increased knowledge and positive attitude towards breast cancer examination (${\chi}^2$=4.255, p=0.0391). The majority (92.0%) agreed that men can assist in early breast cancer detection and 96.2% were willing to be provided with breast examination skills. Conclusions: Although level of awareness on female breast cancers among the men was high, they generally lack knowledge of the disease. Majority of male partners want to assist in early breast cancer detection if provided with the necessary skills.

Deficiency of Follistatin-Like Protein 1 Accelerates the Growth of Breast Cancer Cells at Lung Metastatic Sites

  • Zhang, Ying;Xu, Xiaozhou;Yang, Ying;Ma, Jie;Wang, Lulu;Meng, Xiangzhi;Chen, Bing;Qin, Ling;Lu, Tao;Gao, Yan
    • Journal of Breast Cancer
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.267-276
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    • 2018
  • Purpose: Follistatin-like protein 1 (FSTL1) is a secreted glycoprotein that has been shown to play a role in various types of cancer. However, the clinical significance and function of FSTL1 in breast cancer have not been reported. We investigated the role of FSTL1 in breast cancer in this study. Methods: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, western blot analysis, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction were used to monitor the expression of FSTL1 in breast cancer tissue and in serum samples from breast cancer patients. We employed a 4T1 breast cancer model and $Fstl1^{+/-}$ mice for in vivo studies. Hematoxylin and eosin staining, western blot analysis, and RNA sequencing were used to analyze the effect of FSTL1 on primary tumor growth and lung metastasis. Results: We demonstrated that the expression of FSTL1 is reduced in both the breast cancer tissue and the serum of breast cancer patients. We showed that reduced levels of FSTL1 in serum correlate with elevated expression of Ki-67 and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in cancer tissues. Moreover, lowered expression of FSTL1 was associated with decreased survival in breast cancer patients. Experiments on the $Fstl1^{+/-}$ mouse model established that FSTL1 deficiency had no effect on primary tumor growth, but increased the lung metastases of breast cancer cells, resulting in reduced survival of tumor-bearing mice. RNA sequencing found significantly reduced expression of Egln3 and increased expression of EGFR in $Fstl1^{+/-}$ mice. Thus, our results suggest that FSTL1 may affect the expression of EGFR through Egln3, inhibiting the proliferation of breast cancer cells at lung metastatic sites. Conclusion: In conclusion, we suggest a suppressor role of FSTL1 in breast cancer lung metastasis. Furthermore, FSTL1 may represent a potential prognostic biomarker and a candidate therapeutic target in breast cancer patients.