• Title, Summary, Keyword: bottle-fed

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Umbilical cord care differences in the time of cord separation and the skin condition of periumbilical area (신생아 제대관리방법에 따른 제대탈락 시기와 제대주위 피부상태 비교)

  • Park Young Ae;Kim Dong Yeon;Choi Mun Jin;Park Ho Ran
    • Child Health Nursing Research
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.158-166
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    • 2000
  • The purpose of this study was to confirm the efficient umbilical cord care of healthy newborns in nursery. In order to determine the efficient care, the time of umbilical cord separation and the skin condition of periumbilical area were evaluated. The data were collected in sample of 529 normal, healthy newborns of C hospital in Seoul, from September 1st, 1999 to January 16th, 2000. The babies were randomly selected and allocated into four groups-alcohol swab/tub bath, alcohol swab/partial bath, natural dry/tub bath, natural dry/partial bath- by the methods of care. The mothers of babies were also surveyed by questionnaire about general characteristics. The data were analyzed by SAS program. The results of this study were as follows : 1. The average gestation period of newborns was 39+3 weeks. The average birth weight was 3.27Kg. In gender of babies, boys were 51.7% and girls were 48.3%. The 65% of newborns were born normal vaginal delivery, 35% were C-section. The feeding methods were 55.3% of the babies fed by mixed type, 22.9% by breast, and 21.8% by bottle. There was no significance among four groups by general characteristics. 2. The average time of umbilical cord separation was 8.27 days(SD=2.3). The time was no difference significantly among four groups(F=1.68, P=0.17). 3. The prevalence of the umbilical care complication did not show differences among four groups( 2=3.93, P=0.27). In conclusion, Nurses have preferred the traditional alcohol swab/partial bath method in care of newborns. But there was no difference among the ways to take care of umbilicus according to this study. The way to naturally is more efficient due to reduce the time and expense in umbilical care for normal babies of nursery. This also matched the change in approach to healthy population from intervention to nonintervention way. This could be suggested in education for normal and healthy babies care at home and nursery as a useful way. Endly, the further study about bacterial colony nda infection rate at umbilicus by ways of care is needed.

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Effect of Lactobacillus mucosae on In vitro Rumen Fermentation Characteristics of Dried Brewers Grain, Methane Production and Bacterial Diversity

  • Soriano, Alvin P.;Mamuad, Lovelia L.;Kim, Seon-Ho;Choi, Yeon Jae;Jeong, Chang Dae;Bae, Gui Seck;Chang, Moon Baek;Lee, Sang Suk
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.27 no.11
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    • pp.1562-1570
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    • 2014
  • The effects of Lactobacillus mucosae (L. mucosae), a potential direct fed microbial previously isolated from the rumen of Korean native goat, on the rumen fermentation profile of brewers grain were evaluated. Fermentation was conducted in serum bottles each containing 1% dry matter (DM) of the test substrate and either no L. mucosae (control), 1% 24 h broth culture of L. mucosae (T1), or 1% inoculation with the cell-free culture supernatant (T2). Each serum bottle was filled anaerobically with 100 mL of buffered rumen fluid and sealed prior to incubation for 0, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h from which fermentation parameters were monitored and the microbial diversity was evaluated. The results revealed that T1 had higher total gas production (65.00 mL) than the control (61.33 mL) and T2 (62.00 mL) (p<0.05) at 48 h. Consequently, T1 had significantly lower pH values (p<0.05) than the other groups at 48 h. Ammonia nitrogen ($NH_3$-N), individual and total volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration and acetate:propionate ratio were higher in T1 and T2 than the control, but T1 and T2 were comparable for these parameters. Total methane ($CH_4$) production and carbon dioxide ($CO_2$) were highest in T1. The percent DM and organic matter digestibilities were comparable between all groups at all times of incubation. The total bacterial population was significantly higher in T1 (p<0.05) at 24 h, but then decreased to levels comparable to the control and T2 at 48 h. The denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profile of the total bacterial 16s rRNA showed higher similarity between T1 and T2 at 24 h and between the control and T1 at 48 h. Overall, these results suggest that addition of L. mucosae and cell-free supernatant during the in vitro fermentation of dried brewers grain increases the VFA production, but has no effect on digestibility. The addition of L. mucosae can also increase the total bacterial population, but has no significant effect on the total microbial diversity. However, inoculation of the bacterium may increase $CH_4$ and $CO_2$ in vitro.

Current feeding practices and maternal nutritional knowledge on complementary feeding in Korea (이유기 보충식 현황과 어머니 인식 조사)

  • Yom, Hye Won;Seo, Jeong Wan;Park, Hyesook;Choi, Kwang Hae;Chang, Ju Young;Ryoo, Eell;Yang, Hye Ran;Kim, Jae Young;Seo, Ji Hyun;Kim, Yong Joo;Moon, Kyung Rye;Kang, Ki Soo;Park, Kie Young;Lee, Seong Soo;Shim, Jeong Ok
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.52 no.10
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    • pp.1090-1102
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    • 2009
  • Purpose:To evaluate current feeding practices and maternal nutritional knowledge on complementary feeding. Methods:Mothers of babies aged 9-15 months who visited pediatric clinics of 14 general hospitals between September and December 2008 were asked to fill questionnaires. Data from 1,078 questionnaires were analyzed. Results:Complementary food was introduced at 4-7 months in 89% of babies. Home-made rice gruel was the first complementary food in 93% cases. Spoons were used for initial feeding in 97% cases. At 6-7 months, <50% of babies were fed meat (beef, 43%). Less than 12-month-old babies were fed salty foods such as salted laver (35%) or bean-paste soup (51%) and cow's milk (11%). The following were the maternal sources of information on complementary feeding: books/magazines (58%), friends (30%), internet web sites (29%), relatives (14%), and hospitals (4%). Compared to the 1993 survey, the incidence of complementary food introduction before 4 months (0.4% vs. 21%) and initial use of commercial food (7% vs. 39%) had decreased. Moreover, spoons were increasingly used for initial feeding (97% vs. 57%). The average maternal nutritional knowledge score was 7.5/10. Less percentage of mothers agreed with the following suggestions: bottle formula weaning before 15-18 months (68%), no commercial baby drinks as complementary food (67%), considering formula (or cow's milk) better than soy milk (65%), and feeding minced meat from 6-7 months (57%). Conclusion:Complementary feeding practices have considerably improved since the last decade. Pediatricians should advise timely introduction of appropriate complementary foods and monitor diverse information sources on complementary feeding.

Effects of Sen Tangle (Laminaria japonica) Extract and Fucoidan Components on Lipid Metabolism of Stressed Mouse (스트레스 부하 마우스의 지질대사에 미치는 다시마(Laminaria japonica)와 후코이단 성분의 영향)

  • CHOI Jin-Ho;KIM Dae-Ik;PARK Soo-Hyun;KIM Dong-Woo;KIM Chang-Mok;KOO Jae-Geun
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.124-128
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    • 2000
  • This study was designed to investigate the effects of sea tangle(Laminaria japonica) extract (Dasi-Ex group: dry base $4.0{\%}$) and fucoidan-added (Fuco-I, II, III group: fucoidan of $1.0{\%}, 2.0{\%}, 3.0{\%}$ added to Dasi-EX) drinks on lipid metabolism of stressed mice. ICR male mice ($20 {\pm} 2 g$) were fed experimental diets and given free through water bottle filled with these beverages instead of water for 18 days including sociopsychological stress of 4 days. Dasi-Ex and Fuco-I, II, III groups resulted in slight decreases $3{\$}$ in body weight gain and $6{\~}12{\%}$ in feed and gross efficiencies compared with control groups. Serum protein contents were slightly increased $1{\~}5{\%}$ by administrations of these beverages compared with control group, reflecting inhibitory effect of sociopsychological stress by increase of protein levels. Significant differences in serum cholesterol contents of Dasi-Ex and Fuco-I groups could not be obtained, but Fuco-II and III groups resulted in marked decreases ($13{\~}17{\%}$) in serum cholesterol contents compared with control group. LDL-cholesterol contents resulted in marked decreases ($about 20 and 25{\%}$, respectively) in Fuco-II and III groups, whereas HDL-cholesterol content was significantly increases ($about 16{\%}$) in Fuco-III group compared with control group. Fuco-I, II and III groups resulted in a marked decreases ($15{\%}, 20{\%} and 40{\%}$, respectively) in atherogenic index (AI) compared with control group. Significant differences in serum lipid peroxide (LPO) contents of Dasi-Ex and Fuco-I groups could not be obtained, but Fuco-II and III groups resulted in a significant decrease about $10{\%}$ in serum LPO contents compared with control group. These results suggested that fucoidan drinks added sea tangle could significantly inhibited chronic degenerative diseases by improvement of effective lipid metabolism or fucoidan component.

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Potentials of Synbiotics for Pediatric Nutrition and Baby Food Applications: A Review (소아 영양 및 유아식 응용을 위한 신바이오틱스의 잠재력: 총설)

  • Jung, Hoo Kil;Kim, Sun Jin;Seok, Min Jeong;Cha, Hyun Ah;Yoon, Seul Ki;Lee, Nah Hyun;Kang, Kyung Jin
    • Journal of Dairy Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.111-118
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    • 2015
  • Probiotic, prebiotic, and synbiotic substances as well as microorganisms were added to infant formula in an attempt to influence the intestinal microflora with an aim to stimulate the growth of lactic acid bacteria, especially bifidobacteria and lactobacilli. Over the last 10 years, new synbiotic infant formulas containing probiotics and prebiotics have been proposed in order to simulate the effect of breast-feeding on the intestinal microflora. Owing to their synergistic effect, the new synbiotics are expected to be more helpful than using probiotics and prebiotics individually. Maintenance of the viability of the probiotics during food processing and the passage through the gastrointestinal tract should be the most important consideration, since a sufficient number of bacteria ($10^8cfu/g$) should reach the intended location to have a positive effect on the host. Storage conditions and the processing technology used for the manufacture of products such as infant formula adversely affect the viability of the probiotics. When an appropriate and cost-effective microencapsulation methodology using the generally recognized as safe (GRAS) status and substances with high biological value are developed, the quality of infant formulas would improve. The effect of probiotics may be called a double-effect, where one is an immunomodulatory effect, induced by live probiotics that advantageously alter the gastrointestinal microflora, and the other comprises anti-inflammatory responses elicited by dead cells. At present, a new terminology is required to define the dead microorganisms or crude microbial fractions that positively affect health. The term "paraprobiotics" (or ghost probiotics) has been proposed to define dead microbial cells (not damaged or broken) or crude cell extracts (i.e., cell extracts with complex chemical composition) that are beneficial to humans and animals when a sufficient amount is orally or topically administered. The fecal microflora of bottle-fed infants is altered when the milk-based infant formula is supplemented with probiotics or prebiotics. Thus, by increasing the proportion of beneficial bacteria such as bifidobacteria and lactobacilli, prebiotics modify the fecal microbial composition and accordingly regulate the activity of the immune system. Therefore, considerable attention has been focused on the improvement of infant formula quality such that its beneficial effects are comparable to those of human milk, using prebiotics such as inulin and oligosaccharides and potential specific probiotics such as bifidobacteria, which selectively stimulate the proliferation of beneficial bacteria in the microflora and the indigenous intestinal metabolic activity of the microflora.

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