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A Study on Weaning Practice of Infants in Kangnung Area (강릉지역 영유아의 이유 실태에 관한 조사연구)

  • Kim, Eun-Kyung;Lee, Sun-Hee;Park, Kye-Wol;Chi, Kyung-A
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.14 no.5
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    • pp.555-563
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    • 1999
  • This study was executed for 300 mothers bringing up a child below 3 years in the area of Kangnung to assess the current weaning practice of infants. 24.6% of mother surveyed were breast-fed, 57.8% were formula-fed and 17.5% were mixed-fed. The rate of breast feeding was lower and the rate of bottle feeding was higher in infants whose mothers had more income or higher educational period or full-time job. Most of the respondents knew the significance of supplementary food. 41.4% of the subjects started weaning of their infants at 3-4 months, and 84.1% of them set on weaning in less than 7 months after babies were born. And 39.4% of the subjects finished weaning of their infants in less than one year. The infants of this study preferred the fruits and fishes to meats, vegetables and beans that served to them as supplementary food. Mothers showed deep interest in recipe of weaning food(48.5%), adequate quantity of weaning food(36.3%), information on commercial food for infants(32.2%), and sequence in which semi-solid food are introduced(31.9%). From these results, it is suggested that education program in primary health center for improvement of weaning practice of infants should be implemented reflecting needs of mothers.

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Clinical features of Bednar's aphthae in infants

  • Nam, Seung-Woo;Ahn, Seol Hee;Shin, Son-Moon;Jeong, Goun
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.59 no.1
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    • pp.30-34
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    • 2016
  • Purpose: Although Bednar's aphthae are common and regress spontaneously, these lesions may lead to feeding intolerance and are often misdiagnosed, rendering examinations useless. This study sheds new light on the clinical features of Bednar's aphthae. Methods: Sixteen neonates and infants were newly diagnosed with Bednar's aphthae via routine health check-ups in an outpatient clinic. Medical records were retrospectively reviewed, and the following parameters were analyzed; sex, gestational age, birth weight, mode of delivery, and perinatal problems. A physical examination was carried out during the next outpatient visit to examine the healing process and check for the existence of scars or complications. Results: Initial presentation included changes in feeding habits (n=10), longer feeding time, reduced intake, and increased irritability. In 6 patients, Bednar's aphthae were discovered incidentally, without prior symptoms. Feeding posture and method of feeding are important causes of Bednar's aphthae. Eleven patients were fed in a horizontal position, whereas 5 patients were fed in a semiseated position. Fifteen patients were bottle-fed, whereas 1 patient was exclusively breastfed. After correcting the feeding position, the ulcerative lesions disappeared within 1 month of diagnosis. During the follow-up period, lesions did not recur in any of the patients. Conclusion: This study suggests that Bednar's aphthae are caused by mechanical pressure. A diagnosis of Bednar's aphthae should be considered when lesions are found on the palate of infants and when symptoms seem to be feeding related. Proper education of parents can both treat Bednar's aphthae and easily prevent its recurrence.

A Study of Mothers' Nutritional Knowledge on Weaning of Breast-fed Infants, the Age of 6 Months (평균 6개월 모유영양 영아 어머니의 이유지식에 관한 고찰)

  • Kang Soon Ah;Shin Ho Jeung;Lim Yoong-Ho;Kim Gye Ae;Woo Yean Hee;Jun Yong Hoon;Kim Soon Ki
    • Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.453-461
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    • 2005
  • This study was conducted to investigate the mothers' nutritional knowledge on weaning of 101 infants (8 for 4 mo, 44 for 5 mo, 45 for 6 mo, 4 for 7 mo) at a public health center of Incheon. Informations on the mothers' nutritional knowledge were obtained by questionnaires. In this survey $41.6\%$ of infants were breast-feeding, $43.6\%$ of them were bottle-feeding, and $14.9\%$ of them were mixed feeding right after birth. The rate of breast-feeding right after birth was significantly higher in mothers of high school graduate than mothers of college/university graduate (p < 0.05). The infants of mothers graduated high school began to be weaned significantly earlier than the infants of mothers graduated college/university (p < 0.05). $95.1\%$ of infants (n = 101) began to be weaned 4 to 6 months. $83.1\%$ of infants were fed home-made weaning foods. $66.7\%$ of infants were fed rice gruel, $18.5\%$ of them were fruit juice, $6.2\%$ of them were mixed grain, and $4.9\%$ of them were commercially prepared weaning foods as their first supplementary foods. As main supplementary foods, $32.8\%$ of infants were fed vegetable, $30.5\%$ of them were rice gruel, and $27.7\%$ of them were fruit juice. Mothers' nutritional knowledge related to weaning was significantly higher among mothers of college/ university graduate than mothers of high school graduate (p < 0.05). $86.1\%$ of mothers disagreed with the questionnaire in which breast-fed infants aged over 4 months needed to be fed iron sufficient food. For the improvement of nutritional status especially iron nutritional status of infants, nutritional education for mothers with weaning aged infants has to be increased and related programs have to be operated effectively.

A Survey on Understanding and Actual Condition of Breast-feeding of Woman at Oriental Medicine Hospital Postpartum Care Center (한방병원 산후조리센터 산모를 대상으로 한 모유수유 실태 및 인식조사)

  • Jung, Ji-Ho;Kim, Mi-Ki;Park, Jin-Soo;Shin, Kwon-Sung;Park, Eun-Jung
    • The Journal of Pediatrics of Korean Medicine
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.13-21
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    • 2010
  • at Jeonju Wonkwang University Oriental Medicine hospital postpartum care center. Results The majority of women(79.2%) had planned breast-feeding. However, only 32.1% of women currently have fed breast-feeding. 58% of mothers who did partial breast-feeding and breast-feeding currently have planned to breast-feed more than 7 months. The main reason of bottle-fed is concern of insufficient amount of breast milk(72.2%). Also the main reason of breast-feeding is good for baby's health(90%). The average score on the test of the understanding about the methods and advantages of breast-feeding was $13.98{\pm}1.92$ out of total 18.49.1% of women thought that taking herbal medicine would affect baby during breast-feeding. Also 71.7% of women thought that herbal treatments (acupuncture, herbal medicine) would be helpful when the amount of breast milk is insufficient. Conclusions This survey has showed that in spite of full breast-feeding plan, the percentage of actual breast-feeding rate is low. Timely education is needed to increase breast-feeding rate. It is worth to consider herbal treatment to increase breast milk amount. In addition to that it is necessary to create a hospital environment in which mothers can easily begin breast-feeding as soon as possible after delivery. Moreover, beyond the medical field, political and social supports for breast-feeding are needed.

The Effect of Superovulation of Javanese Thin-Tail Ewes Prior to Mating on Lamb Birth Weight and Preweaning Growth

  • Manalu, W.;Sumaryadil, M.Y.;Sudjatmogo, Sudjatmogo;Satyaningtijas, A.S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.292-299
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    • 2000
  • Forty-four Javanese thin-tail ewes were used to study the effect of superovulation prior to mating and of ration quality on lamb birth weight at parturition. Twenty-two ewes weaning at least one lamb were used to measure lamb preweaning growth. Prior to mating, the experimental ewes were injected twice with prostaglandin, with an 11 d interval between injections to synchronize the estrous cycle. At the last prostaglandin injection, 24 ewes were also injected with 700 IU of pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG) to stimulate superovulation and the remainder were injected with saline as control. During pregnancy and lactation, the experimental ewes were fed either on a low (12% CP and 65% TDN) or a high (15% CP and 75% TDN) quality ration. During lactation, the milk was collected twice a day and was refed to the lambs by bottle feeding immediately after collection. Superovulation or ration quality as a main factor did not significantly affect lamb birth weight. Litter size significantly affected lamb birth weight (p<0.05), and there was an interaction of superovulation and litter size. Nonsuperovulated ewes giving birth to multiple lambs had significantly lower average lamb birth weight (1.34 kg) as compared to those giving birth to a single lamb (1.97 kg) (p<0.05). However, superovulated ewes giving birth to multiple lambs had no significant difference in average lamb birth weight (1.68 kg) as compared to those giving birth to a single lamb (1.91 kg) (p>0.05). Superovulation of ewes prior to mating resulted in a significant improvement in lamb birth weight in the multiple litter size, without significant effect on average preweaning daily gain (p=0.07). Superovulation had a promising use in improving animal production through improvement of prenatal growth during pregnancy and milk production during lactation.

Studies on the feeding value of the waste wood of Leniinus eddodes (표고 재배(栽培) 폐재(廢材)의 사료화(飼料化)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Kim, Bub-Whoe;Lee, Teck-Won;Min, Du-Sik;Kim, Nae-Soo
    • Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.8-14
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    • 1978
  • In order to determine the feeding value of t:1e waste wood of Lentinus eddodes, the waste wood was milled and treated with $Ca(OH)_2$ and cellulase, then raw waste wood and the treated waste wood were fed to broiler chicken and Korean native goates. The results obtained were as follows; 1. The chemical composition of the waste wood was c. protein 2.26%. c. fat 2.57%. c. fiber 44.60 and c. ash 5.58%. No differences were detected between the raw waste wood and $Ca(OH)_2$ or cellulase treated waste wood in chemical composition. 2. In amino acid composition. no cystine and methionine was showed, but trace amount of Vitamin A, $B_1$, and $B_2$, and cholin chloride were detected. 3. Trichoderma viride SANK. No. 16374 was used to decompose the cellulose. 4. In broiler performance, when waste wood meal was subsituted for 5% wheat bran, no adverse effect was showed on weight gain, feed in take and feed efficiency. But $Ca(OH)_2$ and cellulase treated waste wood meal could be subsituted for 8% wheat bran. 5. In Korean native goat performance, feeding waste wood meal subsituted by 50% various bran (25% defatted rice bran and 25% barley bran) had no adverse effect on growth and feed efficiency. 6. Considering the above results, though the waste wood meal could be replaced to part of various bran, there was a bottle-neck to process the waste wood. The waste wood of Lentinus edodes was little feeding value on bed of ruminant.

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Effects of Sea Tangle (Laminaria japonica) and Fucoidan Beverages on Sociopsychological Stress (사회.심리적 스트레스에 미치는 다시마 (Laminaria japonica)와 후코이단 음료의 영향)

  • 최진호;김대익;박수현;김동우;이종수;유종현;정유섭
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.9 no.5
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    • pp.537-547
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    • 1999
  • This study was designed to investigate the effects of sea tangle (Laminaria japonica) extract (Dasi-Ex group: dry base 4.0%) and fucoidan-added (Fuco-I, II, III group: fucoidan of 1.0%, 2.0%, 3.0% added to Dasi-Ex) beverages on the anti-stress action. ICR male mice (20$\pm$2g) were fed basic experimental diets and given free through water bottle filled with these beverages instead of water for 18 days including sociopsychological stress. Body weight gains were consistently lower in Dasi-Ex and Fuco-I,II,III groups compared with control group, expecting in a inhibitory effect of obesity. Dasi-Ex group resulted in a significant decrease of 25% in serum corticosterone (CS) secretion, while Fuco-I,IIand IIIgroups resulted in a marked decreases of 45~55% in serum CS secretion compared with control group. Noradrenaline (NA) secretions were significantly increased about 15% in Dasi-Ex group, and 20~22% in Fuco-I,II,III groups compared with control group. Significant differences in brain MHPG-SO4 levels of Dasi-Ex group could not be obtained, but Fuco-I,II,III groups resulted in a marked decreases of 20~25% in brain MHPG-SO4 ratio of brain, but Fuco-I,II and III groups resulted in a marked increases of 45~60% in NA/MHPG-SO4 ratio of brain compared with control group. These results suggest that fucoidan beverage may play a effective role in a ridding of the sociopsychological stress by pivotal anti-stress effect of fucoidan.

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Effects of Supplemental Mannanoligosaccharides on Growth Performance, Faecal Characteristics and Health in Dairy Calves

  • Kara, Cagdas;Cihan, Huseyin;Temizel, Mutlu;Catik, Serkan;Meral, Yavuz;Orman, Abdulkadir;Yibar, Artun;Gencoglu, Hidir
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.28 no.11
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    • pp.1599-1605
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    • 2015
  • Twenty Holstein calves were used to investigate the effects of mannanoligosaccharides (MOS) supplementation in the whole milk on growth performance, faecal score, faecal pH, selected faecal bacterial populations and health during the preweaning period. Healthy calves selected by clinical examination were allocated to one of the two groups (control [CG] and experimental [EG]) at 5 days old. Each group consisted of 5 male and 5 female calves. Each calf in EG was supplemented with 7 g/d of a MOS product (Celmanax) from 5 days to 56 days of age. MOS supplement was mixed with the whole milk once in the morning and administered to the calves in EG via nipple bottle, whereas the calves in CG were fed the whole milk without MOS. Calves were weaned at 56 days of age. The final body weight, average daily weight gain (ADG) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) were statistically similar (p>0.05) but were higher by 3.70%, 6.66%, and 10.97%, respectively, in MOS than in control calves. Feed efficiency (ADG/ADFI) was also similar in two calves group. While faecal scores did not differ on day 5, 7, 14, 21, 28, 42, 49, and 56 between groups, EG had a higher faecal score (p = 0.05) than CG on day 35. Faecal concentration of Lactobacillus was lower (p<0.05) in EG compared with CG. No differences (p>0.05) in faecal concentrations of Bifidobacterium, Clostridium perfringens, and Escherichia coli were found between groups. Although there were no significant differences (p>0.05) in the incidence of diarrhoea, treatment days for diarrhoea and the costs associated with diarrhoea treatments between groups, collectively, the observed reductions in treatment days and the cost of diarrhoea treatments accompanying increases in final body weight, ADG and ADFI for EG may indicate potential benefit of MOS in treatment of diarrhoea.

TOOTH SURFACE CARIES PATTERNS IN THE PRIMARY DENTITION ACCORDING TO BREAST OR BOTTLE FEEDING (수유 요인에 따른 유치열의 치면별 우식패턴)

  • Im, Kyeong-Wook;Lee, Kwang-Hee;Ra, Ji-Young;An, So-Youn;Kim, Yun-Hee
    • JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY
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    • v.37 no.2
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    • pp.151-158
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    • 2010
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the tooth surface caries patterns in the primary dentition according to breast or bottle feeding. The subjects of study were 815 children, 36 to 71 months old, in Iksan, Cheongju and Ulsan cities. The caregivers of the children were asked which they fed between the breast milk and the infant formula during the 1st year after birth and the duration of feeding. There was no significant difference in dmfs between the breast milk group and the infant formula group(significance level 0.05, same below). Tooth groups, tooth surface groups, teeth, and tooth surfaces which had significantly higher dmfs in the breast milk group than in the infant formula group were upper anterior teeth(tooth groups), upper incisors' buccal and proximal surfaces(tooth surface groups), upper incisors and upper second molars(teeth), upper central incisors' buccal and distal surfaces, upper lateral incisors' buccolingual and proximal surfaces, upper 2nd molars'lingual, proximal, and occlusal surfaces, and lower 2nd molars' buccal and distal surfaces. In the breast milk group, tooth groups, tooth surface groups, teeth, and tooth surfaces which dmfs significantly increased as the duration of the feeding increased were upper anterior teeth and upper molars(tooth groups), upper anterior teeth's proximal surfaces, upper molars' buccolingual, proximal, and occlusal surfaces, lower molars' proximal surfaces(tooth surface groups), upper anterior teeth, upper molars, lower 2nd molars(teeth), upper anterior teeth's proximal surfaces, upper 1st molars'buccolingual, proximal, and occlusal surfaces, upper 2nd molars' buccal surfaces, and lower 2nd molars'mesial surfaces(tooth surfaces). In the infant formula group, dmfs increased after 3 years of feeding, but the difference was not significant. Caries prevention is necessary in case of breastfeeding more than two years.

Effects of Terpenoids-Rich Plant Extracts on Ruminal-fermentation and Methane Production (Terpenoid 함유 식물 추출물의 첨가가 반추위 발효와 메탄 발생에 미치는 영향)

  • Hwang, Hee-Soon;Ha, Dong-Uk;Lee, Su-Kyoung;Lee, Il-Dong;Lee, Shin-Ja;Lee, Sung-Sill
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.629-646
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    • 2013
  • This study was conducted to investigate effects of terpenoids-rich plant extracts (TRPE) on the in vitro ruminal fermentation characteristics and methane production. The ruminal fluid was collected from a cannulated Hanwoo cow fed concentrate and timothy in the ratio of 6 to 4. The TRPE as Mint (Mentha arvensis var. piperascens), Pine (Pinus densiflora), Japan cedar (Cryptomeria japonica), Sichuan pepper (Zanthoxylum piperitum), Hinoki cypress (Chamaecyparis obtuse) and Japanese black pine (Pinus thunbergii) were used in this study. The 15 mL of mixture, contains McDougall buffer and rumen fluid in the ratio of 2 to 1. The mixture was dispensed anaerobically 50 mL serum bottles and it is contained 0.3 g timothy substrate and 5% TRPE. The bottles were incubated at $39^{\circ}C$ for 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours. The pH value decrease by increased incubation times and the pH values at all times were significantly (p<0.05) higher in treatments than in control. The digestibility of dry matter at 3 hours was significantly (p<0.05) higher in mint treatment than in control. Productions of total gas and carbon dioxide at before 12 hours was significantly lower (p<0.05) in treatments than in control. The methane production at 24 hours was significantly (p<0.05) lower in treatments than in control. The concentrations of acetic acid and propionic acid at 24 hours were significantly higher (p<0.05) in mint and pine treatments than in control. In conclusion, the terpenoid-rich plant extracts were shown to decreased methane emission and without adversely affected ruminal fermentation. Therefore, the terpenoid-rich plant extracts as mint and pine were shown to decreased methane production and it has potential possibility for ruminal fermentations.