• 제목, 요약, 키워드: bottle-fed

검색결과 25건 처리시간 0.037초

속초시 영유아의 이유실태조사 (Study on Infant Feeding Practice in Sockcho-City)

  • 이정실;김을상
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.24 no.5
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    • pp.469-476
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    • 1991
  • 속초시에 거주하는 6개월에서 20개월 사이의 영유아 170명(남아 98명, 72명)을 대상으로 1991년 3월 25일에서 4월 5일 사이에 영유아들의 어머니들에게 설문지로 이유실태를 조사한 결과는 다음과 같다. 어머니의 학력수준은 79.4%가 고졸 이상이며 주부가 69.4% 직장근무 17.1%, 부업 및 시간제 근무가 13.5% 이었다. 영유아의 이유이전의 수유방법은 모유영양이 40.0%, 인공영양이 44.1% 및 혼합영양이 15.9%이었다. 모유의 수유기간은 최고 18개월까지로 나타났으며 인공영양아를 제외한 대상자중에서 평균 수유기간은 6.3개월 이었다. 이유의 시작시기는 대상자 전체가 2개월에서부터 12개월로 평균 5.6개월이었으며, 이유의 완료시기는 전체가 6개월에서부터 12개월로 평균 11.4개월 이었다. 제일 먼저 먹인 이유식은 과일 쥬스류가 전체의 78.2%이었다. 식품의 종류별로 이유식의 사용빈도에서 대상자의 75.9%가 곡류를 자주 사용한다고 하여서 당질위주의 이유식이 이루어 졌으며, 육어류와 채소의 사용빈도는 낮았다. 시판이유보충식의 사용여부는 주 3회이상 사용하는 경우가 44.7% 이었으며 대개가 분말 및 액상형태인 제품이었다.

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모유팩 모유수유아 어머니와 인공수유아 어머니간의 모아애착과 모성역할자신감 비교 - NICU의 저출생체중아를 중심으로 - (Comparison of Maternal Attachment and Maternal Role Confidence between Breast Milk in Sanitary Pack Feeding Infant's Mothers and Bottle Feeding Infant's Mothers of Low Birth Weight Infants in NICU)

  • 김영혜;최정녀;주현옥;조영란
    • Child Health Nursing Research
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.386-397
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    • 2006
  • Purpose: This study was performed to compare the difference of maternal attachment and the maternal role confidence between mother who feeds the child with mother's milk in sanitary pack by a nurse instead of her and mother who feeds the child with artificial milk. Methods: The subjects of this study consisted of mothers of premature baby who was in NICU and can not be fed with mother's milk directly. In the sample, 21 mothers were the breast feeding group and 20 were the bottle feeding group. Data were collected from April 3, 2004 to November 2, 2005, and were analyzed using SPSS WIN 10.0. Results: The degree of maternal attachment and maternal role confidence of the breast milk feeding group was higher than that of the bottle feeding group. In accordance with general characteristics, the difference was found in maternal attachment and maternal role confidence both breast feeding group and bottle feeding group. Conclusion: More systematic nursing mediation is required for the lactation of mother's milk in sanitary pack is planned to do positive interaction between mother and the child, which has an influence on the formation of maternal attachment and the of maternal role confidence after hospitalization.

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생물학적 질소·인제거 공정에서 일차 침전지의 영향 (The Role of Primary Clarifier in Biological Processes for Nutrient Removal)

  • 황규대;김태경
    • 한국물환경학회지
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.19-26
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    • 2007
  • The lab-scale BNR processes fed with Municipal Wastewater Before or After Primary Clarifier (MWBPC or MWAPC) were operated to observe the behavior of particle organic matter in terms of nitrification and denitrification efficiency. As a result of the fractionation of the COD from MWBPC or MWAPC using an aerobic respirometric serum bottle reactor, the total mass of biodegradable organic matter from MWBPC is about 52% greater than the mass from MWAPC. Batch reactors were operated to observe the effect of the Particulate Organic Matter (POM) on substrate utilization for denitrification. Although the consumption of POM for denitrification was observed, the increment of the Specific Denitrification Rate (SDNR) was not great. In terms of the effect of POM on nitrification at different HRTs, activate sludge reactors were operated to determine the optimal HRT when MWBPC and MWAPC were fed relatively. All reactors showed a great organic matter removal efficiency. Reactors fed with MWAPC had obtained the nitrification efficiency above 90% when the HRT of 4 hr, at least, was maintained, while reactors fed with MWBPC had same efficiency when the HRT longer than 5 hr was kept. Three parallel $A^2/O$ systems fed with MWBPC or MWAPC relatively were operated to investigate the effects of POM on BNR processes with varying the HRT of an anoxic reactor. For all systems, the efficiency of organic matter removal and denitrification, respectively, was great and about the same. In case of denitrification efficiency, system with MWAPC had 1.5% lower than system with MWBPC at the same HRT of anoxic reactor of 2 hr, and the increasing the HRT of the anoxic reactor by 1 hr in systems fed with MWBPC resulted in a 3.5% increment. The denitrification rate was similar while the consumption of organic matter in systems fed with MWBPC was higher than system fed with MWBPC. It suggests that POM in MWBPC was not be used significantly as a substrate for denitrification in system with the HRT of 3 hr of an anoxic reactor.

한국인의 장내 균총 조성 및 분포 (Composition and Distribution of Intestinal Microbial Flora in Korean)

  • 지근억
    • 한국미생물·생명공학회지
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    • v.22 no.5
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    • pp.453-458
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    • 1994
  • Intestinal microbial flora comprise one third of the large intestinal contents in human. They play a significant effects through beneficial and harmful action on the human health. This is the first study which examined the composition of the microflora of the general population in Korea. Bacteroides, Bifidobacterium, Eubacterium, Peptostreptococcus, Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus, Clostridium perfringens, total aerobic bacteria and total anaerrobic bacteria were counted using various selective and non-selective media. Among the bacteria studied the number of Bifidobacterium were greatest in breast-fed infants(30-90 days old), whereas Streptocuccus and Bifidobacterium in bottle-fed infants. In 20-40 age group Bacteroides were predominant followed by Bifidobacterium and Eubacterium. In early group(over 65 years old) Bacteroides were predominant followed by Eubacterium and bifidobacterium. The frequency and number of Cl. perfringens were highest in dlderly group. These results confirm that the microfloral pattern in large intestine change during the life cycle of humans.

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강원도 춘천지역 유아의 이유실태에 관한 조사연구 (Study on Weaning Practice of Infants in Chunchon Area, Kangwon-Do)

  • 이정수
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.272-280
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    • 1994
  • The weaning practice of infants from 5 to 12 months of age in the area of Chunchon, Kangwon-do was studied. Subjects were divided into 2 groups depending on residential area, monthly family income and mother's educational level. Parents of group 1 (n=90) received higher education and more monthly family income than those of group 2(n=32). The family income was significantly higher in group 1 than in group 2. Mother's educational level has been markedly improved over 10 years, which affected the feeding methods before weaning in both groups(P<0.05). Group 1 appeared to be bottle-fed. Bottle-and mixed-feeding were mainly due to lack of breast milk. 95.6% of group 1 and 71.9% of group 2 started weaning before the age of 6 months and only 16.4% were completely finished regardless of the groups. Commercially prepared foods were used more than home-made for first given-supplementary food. 82.2% of group 1 received fruits and 84.4% of group 2 cookies/crackers as their main supplementary foods. As the motivation of onset of weaning, 'for baby's health and nutritional status' was the most common. These results demonstrate that there are distinct differences between these 2 groups in 1) the feeding methods prior to weaning, 2) time of onset of weaning, and 3) main supplementary foods, influenced by mother's educational level, economic purchasing power, or subjects birth order.

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모유 수유아와 생우유를 먹인 아기의 철분결핍에 관한 연구 (A study on cow's milk and nursing method in relation to iron deficiency)

  • 강지웅;진소희;최경단;장영택
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.49 no.2
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    • pp.144-149
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    • 2006
  • 목 적 : 모유수유 기간, 우유병 사용 기간, 생우유를 처음 먹인 시기 및 양을 조사하여 빈혈과의 관련을 알아보고자 하였다. 방 법 : 2002년 8월 1일부터 2005년 7월 31일까지 전주예수병원에 입원한 12개월에서 36개월 환아 930명을 대상으로 빈혈검사 및 설문지를 통해 전향적으로 연구하였다. 결 과 : 빈혈이 발생하는 연령은 30-36개월에서 많이 발생하였으나, 철분결핍성 빈혈은 18-23개월에서 많이 발생하였다. 모유수유 기간이 12개월 이상과 6개월 미만 순으로 빈혈이 많고, 혈청 ferritin이 낮고 철분결핍성 빈혈이 많았다. 우유병 사용 기간과 빈혈, 혈청 ferritin, 철분결핍성 빈혈은 차이가 없었다. 생우유를 먹고 난 후에 부작용은 변비, 설사, 피부발진 순으로 나타났다. 생우유를 처음 먹인 시기와 빈혈, 혈청 ferritin, 철분결핍성 빈혈은 차이가 없었다. 하루에 생우유를 먹인 양과 빈혈, 혈청 ferritin, 철분결핍성 빈혈은 차이가 없었다. 결 론 : 생우유와 우유병 사용 기간과 철분결핍은 관계가 없었으며, 모유수유 기간이 12개월 이상과 6개월 이하 순으로 철분결핍이 많았기 때문에, 철분결핍성 빈혈을 예방하기 위해서는, 적절한 모유수유가 중요한 것으로 판단되었다.

경기도(京畿道) 화성군(華城郡) 농촌(農村)의 유아영양법(乳兒營養法) 실태조사(實態調査) (An Ecological Survery of Early Childhood Nutrition in Whaseong-gun, Kyonggi-do)

  • 이경자;이보숙;모수미
    • 한국식품영양과학회지
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.12-18
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    • 1983
  • An ecological survey of early childhood nutrition was conducted from January 23 to February 18, to study the feeding method and weaning practice in Whaseong-gun, Kyonggi-do. This study covered a total of 283 children. Seventy three percent of the subjects had been breast-fed; 10% had been bottle-fed; others had been combination-fed before the introduction of supplementary foods. Only 26.9% of the subjects began to be fed supplementary food before the age of 6 months. The supplementary food used most frequently by the majority of children at the beginning of weaning was plain cooked rice; rarely special preparation, or different from the food eaten by the family. As for age of termination of breast feeding, 42.7% of the subjects were before 12 months; 32.8% were between 13 and 18 months of age; 24.5% were more than 19 months old. As for methods of stopping breast feeding, 44.5% of the subjects were naturally terminated while 38.5% were forced to terminate by the application of sticking plaster or medicines to the mother's nipples. The results indicate a need for nutrition and hygiene intervention to improve the weaning practice of rural area through the community nutrition education.

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Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Glutathione on Blood Biochemical Changes and Growth Performances of Holstein Calves

  • Kim, Jong-Hyeong;Mamuad, Lovelia L.;Lee, Hyun-June;Ki, Kwang-Seok;Lee, Wang-Shik;Ha, Jong-K.;Lee, Sang-Suk
    • 아세아태평양축산학회지
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    • v.24 no.12
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    • pp.1711-1717
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    • 2011
  • The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation of glutathione (GSH) on health, solid feed consumption, nutrient intake, body weight gain (BWG), feed efficiency, blood metabolites and the occurrence of diarrhea in Holstein neonatal calves. The calves were fed plain milk as a control (CON) or milk with GSH supplementation. Sixteen calves were separated from their mothers immediately after birth, moved into individual cages and fed colostrum for the first three days. For GSH supplementation, three grams of GSH powder were mixed in 1.8 L of heat-treated milk and placed in a plastic bottle with a rubber nipple. The calves were fed GSH-supplemented milk only once out of four daily feedings. For the first 25 d, calves were fed 1.8 L of milk four times per day. Milk feeding frequency was reduced to three times per day from days 26 to 30, followed by twice a day from days 31 to 44, and once a day from days 45 to 49, after which they were weaned at day 50. Body weight gain (BWG), feed consumption, and growth performance were monitored until day 70. The dietary supplementation of GSH had no effect on daily feed intake and growth performance in growing calves. Hematological results revealed red blood cell distribution width (RDW) was lower, and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) was significantly higher in calves fed GSH. Serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) concentrations were lower in calves fed GSH. Rectal temperature at day 70 was higher in calves that did not receive GSH, while mean frequency of diarrhea and enteritis was less in calves fed GSH. It is concluded from the present study that BW gain, total dry matter intake (DMI), feed efficiency, and breathing rate did not differ between groups. However, there were some positive blood parameters and the mean frequency of diarrhea and enteritis was less in calves fed GSH compared to CON which did not receive GSH. With the results obtained, supplementation of GSH is highly recommended.

Lovastatin Production in Solid-state Fermention by Aspergillus terreus and Its Application for Animal Feed Additive

  • Yoon, Ji-Yong;Han, Kyu-Boem
    • 한국생물공학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.263-267
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    • 2003
  • Solid-state fermentation of lovastatin by Aspergillus terreus was investigated using commercially available 1.2 L polypropylene bottle designed for mushroom cultivation. Moist solid raw materials such as com, rice, and soy bean were tested and com was found to be most suitable for an economical production of lovastatin. 50% or higher water addition prior to the sterilization of com was effective for the maximal lovastatin production. About 0.5% (w/w) lovastatin content in dried cells and corn mass was obtained after 20 days of solid-state fermentation at 30$^{\circ}C$. For safety concerns, aflatoxin Bl and citrinin levels after fermentation were assayed but they were not detected. Lovastatin containing cells and corn residue after fermentation were autoclaved, dried, crushed, and fed to chicken for a period of 3 weeks. Approximately 20% reduction of blood cholesterol level of chicken was observed.

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영유아의 이유실태(離乳實態) -대전지역(大田地域)- (Weaning Practice for Infants in Daejeon City)

  • 정영진
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.23-30
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    • 1979
  • For the purpose of investigating the weaning practice for infants, this study of 251 infants aged from 3 months to 2 years old was conducted in Daejeon City during the the period of August 9 through 23, 1978. The results obtained were as follows: About 60% of the infants were breast-fed, 27.6%, mixed-fed, and 12.0%, bottled-fed. The reason for bottle-feeding was either the lack of breast-milk secretion or ill-health of mothers. There was no significant difference in the feeding methods according to a level of mother's education. Sixty precent of the infants began to be weaned 6. months. The most of the infants were completely weaned within 18 months. The knowledge on weaning was mainly obtained from the publications, such as newspapers, journals for women, child care booklets, etc. The difficulties in the weaning practice were the shortage of knowledge on weaning and the unacceptability by the infants. Liquid or semi-liquid foods were firstly given to the more than 60% of the infants as introducing weaning foods, while 23.3% of the babies were given solid foods. Interestingly, the earlier the birth order was, the more babies were given liquid or semi-liquid foods, The motives for weaning was either the boby's demand for other foods than milk(41.3%) or the lack of breast-milk secretion (31.3%). In the selection of supplementary foods, the nutritional value was given the highest consideration) (54.9%). many mothers (64.2%) prepared supplementary foods for infants at home, while 23.1% used commercial body foods and 12.7% gave infants adult's meals as supplementary foods. The major materials for home-made supplementary foods were fruits and vegetables (41.5%) and cereals (37.5%). The commercial supplementary foods (mainly powdered from) were not used much (never used; 53.6%) and even in the babies, who had consumed them once, nearly half of the babies (42.9) did not eat well. Accordingly, the many mothers (68.8%) welcomed the development of the domestic supplementary foods in good quality and one-third (31.2%) responded that they would consume them regardless of the price.

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