This study was conducted to investigate the weaning practice of 170 infants, aged 6 to 20 months, in Sockcho city Kangwon province. Informations on the infant feeding were obtained by interviewing mothers in three different pediatric clinics located in Sockcho. In this survey 40.4% of infants were breast-fed, while 44.1% of them were bottle-fed. Among subjects 75.9% of infants began to be weaned within 6 months. Among those who finished weaning aleady, 56.7% of infants fnished weaning 11 to 13 months. Sixty percent of mothers got the nutritional knowledge on infant feeding by the aid of cook book and child care book. Fruit juice was firstly introduced as infant food. The most favorite food for infants was fruit juices which were followed by soup, and e99 Pudding. Cereals were used frequently as infant foods while meat & fish, beans and vegetables were lesser used for infants. For the improvement of nutritional states of infants. nutritional education programmes and development of infant food is needed.
Kim, Young-Hae;Choi, Jung-Nyou;Ju, Hyeon-Ok;Cho, Young-Ran
Child Health Nursing Research
Purpose: This study was performed to compare the difference of maternal attachment and the maternal role confidence between mother who feeds the child with mother's milk in sanitary pack by a nurse instead of her and mother who feeds the child with artificial milk. Methods: The subjects of this study consisted of mothers of premature baby who was in NICU and can not be fed with mother's milk directly. In the sample, 21 mothers were the breast feeding group and 20 were the bottle feeding group. Data were collected from April 3, 2004 to November 2, 2005, and were analyzed using SPSS WIN 10.0. Results: The degree of maternal attachment and maternal role confidence of the breast milk feeding group was higher than that of the bottle feeding group. In accordance with general characteristics, the difference was found in maternal attachment and maternal role confidence both breast feeding group and bottle feeding group. Conclusion: More systematic nursing mediation is required for the lactation of mother's milk in sanitary pack is planned to do positive interaction between mother and the child, which has an influence on the formation of maternal attachment and the of maternal role confidence after hospitalization.
The lab-scale BNR processes fed with Municipal Wastewater Before or After Primary Clarifier (MWBPC or MWAPC) were operated to observe the behavior of particle organic matter in terms of nitrification and denitrification efficiency. As a result of the fractionation of the COD from MWBPC or MWAPC using an aerobic respirometric serum bottle reactor, the total mass of biodegradable organic matter from MWBPC is about 52% greater than the mass from MWAPC. Batch reactors were operated to observe the effect of the Particulate Organic Matter (POM) on substrate utilization for denitrification. Although the consumption of POM for denitrification was observed, the increment of the Specific Denitrification Rate (SDNR) was not great. In terms of the effect of POM on nitrification at different HRTs, activate sludge reactors were operated to determine the optimal HRT when MWBPC and MWAPC were fed relatively. All reactors showed a great organic matter removal efficiency. Reactors fed with MWAPC had obtained the nitrification efficiency above 90% when the HRT of 4 hr, at least, was maintained, while reactors fed with MWBPC had same efficiency when the HRT longer than 5 hr was kept. Three parallel $A^2/O$ systems fed with MWBPC or MWAPC relatively were operated to investigate the effects of POM on BNR processes with varying the HRT of an anoxic reactor. For all systems, the efficiency of organic matter removal and denitrification, respectively, was great and about the same. In case of denitrification efficiency, system with MWAPC had 1.5% lower than system with MWBPC at the same HRT of anoxic reactor of 2 hr, and the increasing the HRT of the anoxic reactor by 1 hr in systems fed with MWBPC resulted in a 3.5% increment. The denitrification rate was similar while the consumption of organic matter in systems fed with MWBPC was higher than system fed with MWBPC. It suggests that POM in MWBPC was not be used significantly as a substrate for denitrification in system with the HRT of 3 hr of an anoxic reactor.
Intestinal microbial flora comprise one third of the large intestinal contents in human. They play a significant effects through beneficial and harmful action on the human health. This is the first study which examined the composition of the microflora of the general population in Korea. Bacteroides, Bifidobacterium, Eubacterium, Peptostreptococcus, Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus, Clostridium perfringens, total aerobic bacteria and total anaerrobic bacteria were counted using various selective and non-selective media. Among the bacteria studied the number of Bifidobacterium were greatest in breast-fed infants(30-90 days old), whereas Streptocuccus and Bifidobacterium in bottle-fed infants. In 20-40 age group Bacteroides were predominant followed by Bifidobacterium and Eubacterium. In early group(over 65 years old) Bacteroides were predominant followed by Eubacterium and bifidobacterium. The frequency and number of Cl. perfringens were highest in dlderly group. These results confirm that the microfloral pattern in large intestine change during the life cycle of humans.
The weaning practice of infants from 5 to 12 months of age in the area of Chunchon, Kangwon-do was studied. Subjects were divided into 2 groups depending on residential area, monthly family income and mother's educational level. Parents of group 1 (n=90) received higher education and more monthly family income than those of group 2(n=32). The family income was significantly higher in group 1 than in group 2. Mother's educational level has been markedly improved over 10 years, which affected the feeding methods before weaning in both groups(P<0.05). Group 1 appeared to be bottle-fed. Bottle-and mixed-feeding were mainly due to lack of breast milk. 95.6% of group 1 and 71.9% of group 2 started weaning before the age of 6 months and only 16.4% were completely finished regardless of the groups. Commercially prepared foods were used more than home-made for first given-supplementary food. 82.2% of group 1 received fruits and 84.4% of group 2 cookies/crackers as their main supplementary foods. As the motivation of onset of weaning, 'for baby's health and nutritional status' was the most common. These results demonstrate that there are distinct differences between these 2 groups in 1) the feeding methods prior to weaning, 2) time of onset of weaning, and 3) main supplementary foods, influenced by mother's educational level, economic purchasing power, or subjects birth order.
Kang, Ji Ung;Jin, So Hee;Choi, Kyung Dan;Jang, Young Taek
Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
Purpose : This study investigated the breast-feeding period, the milk bottle-using period, the age of cow's milk, introduced and the amount of cow's milk consumed in relation to anemia. Methods : Over the course of three years, 930 children(12 months to 36 months) who went to the Presbyterian Medical Center, Chonju, Korea were tested for anemia and their parents were surveyed for a history of their children's milk consumption. Results : Anemia appeared more likely between 30 months and 36 months, however, iron-deficiency anemia appeared more likely between 18 months and 23 months. Anemia, low serum ferritin levels and iron-deficiency anemia appeared more likely in children breast fed less than 6 months and greater than 12 months. Although there were survey reports of side effects with cow's milk, including constipation, diarrhea and skin rash, the milk bottle-using period, age of cow's milk introduced and amount of cow's milk consumed had no connection with anemia, serum ferritin levels and irondeficiency anemia. Conclusion : The data showed no correlation between the cow's milk, milk bottle-using period and iron deficiency. But the data revealed that iron deficiency anemia is more likely in children who are breast fed for less than 6 months and over 12 months, so we suggest careful attention during this period to prevent iron deficiency anemia.
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
An ecological survey of early childhood nutrition was conducted from January 23 to February 18, to study the feeding method and weaning practice in Whaseong-gun, Kyonggi-do. This study covered a total of 283 children. Seventy three percent of the subjects had been breast-fed; 10% had been bottle-fed; others had been combination-fed before the introduction of supplementary foods. Only 26.9% of the subjects began to be fed supplementary food before the age of 6 months. The supplementary food used most frequently by the majority of children at the beginning of weaning was plain cooked rice; rarely special preparation, or different from the food eaten by the family. As for age of termination of breast feeding, 42.7% of the subjects were before 12 months; 32.8% were between 13 and 18 months of age; 24.5% were more than 19 months old. As for methods of stopping breast feeding, 44.5% of the subjects were naturally terminated while 38.5% were forced to terminate by the application of sticking plaster or medicines to the mother's nipples. The results indicate a need for nutrition and hygiene intervention to improve the weaning practice of rural area through the community nutrition education.
Kim, Jong-Hyeong;Mamuad, Lovelia L.;Lee, Hyun-June;Ki, Kwang-Seok;Lee, Wang-Shik;Ha, Jong-K.;Lee, Sang-Suk
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation of glutathione (GSH) on health, solid feed consumption, nutrient intake, body weight gain (BWG), feed efficiency, blood metabolites and the occurrence of diarrhea in Holstein neonatal calves. The calves were fed plain milk as a control (CON) or milk with GSH supplementation. Sixteen calves were separated from their mothers immediately after birth, moved into individual cages and fed colostrum for the first three days. For GSH supplementation, three grams of GSH powder were mixed in 1.8 L of heat-treated milk and placed in a plastic bottle with a rubber nipple. The calves were fed GSH-supplemented milk only once out of four daily feedings. For the first 25 d, calves were fed 1.8 L of milk four times per day. Milk feeding frequency was reduced to three times per day from days 26 to 30, followed by twice a day from days 31 to 44, and once a day from days 45 to 49, after which they were weaned at day 50. Body weight gain (BWG), feed consumption, and growth performance were monitored until day 70. The dietary supplementation of GSH had no effect on daily feed intake and growth performance in growing calves. Hematological results revealed red blood cell distribution width (RDW) was lower, and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) was significantly higher in calves fed GSH. Serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) concentrations were lower in calves fed GSH. Rectal temperature at day 70 was higher in calves that did not receive GSH, while mean frequency of diarrhea and enteritis was less in calves fed GSH. It is concluded from the present study that BW gain, total dry matter intake (DMI), feed efficiency, and breathing rate did not differ between groups. However, there were some positive blood parameters and the mean frequency of diarrhea and enteritis was less in calves fed GSH compared to CON which did not receive GSH. With the results obtained, supplementation of GSH is highly recommended.
For the purpose of investigating the weaning practice for infants, this study of 251 infants aged from 3 months to 2 years old was conducted in Daejeon City during the the period of August 9 through 23, 1978. The results obtained were as follows: About 60% of the infants were breast-fed, 27.6%, mixed-fed, and 12.0%, bottled-fed. The reason for bottle-feeding was either the lack of breast-milk secretion or ill-health of mothers. There was no significant difference in the feeding methods according to a level of mother's education. Sixty precent of the infants began to be weaned 6. months. The most of the infants were completely weaned within 18 months. The knowledge on weaning was mainly obtained from the publications, such as newspapers, journals for women, child care booklets, etc. The difficulties in the weaning practice were the shortage of knowledge on weaning and the unacceptability by the infants. Liquid or semi-liquid foods were firstly given to the more than 60% of the infants as introducing weaning foods, while 23.3% of the babies were given solid foods. Interestingly, the earlier the birth order was, the more babies were given liquid or semi-liquid foods, The motives for weaning was either the boby's demand for other foods than milk(41.3%) or the lack of breast-milk secretion (31.3%). In the selection of supplementary foods, the nutritional value was given the highest consideration) (54.9%). many mothers (64.2%) prepared supplementary foods for infants at home, while 23.1% used commercial body foods and 12.7% gave infants adult's meals as supplementary foods. The major materials for home-made supplementary foods were fruits and vegetables (41.5%) and cereals (37.5%). The commercial supplementary foods (mainly powdered from) were not used much (never used; 53.6%) and even in the babies, who had consumed them once, nearly half of the babies (42.9) did not eat well. Accordingly, the many mothers (68.8%) welcomed the development of the domestic supplementary foods in good quality and one-third (31.2%) responded that they would consume them regardless of the price.
Kim, Eun-Kyung;Lee, Sun-Hee;Park, Kye-Wol;Chi, Kyung-A
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
This study was executed for 300 mothers bringing up a child below 3 years in the area of Kangnung to assess the current weaning practice of infants. 24.6% of mother surveyed were breast-fed, 57.8% were formula-fed and 17.5% were mixed-fed. The rate of breast feeding was lower and the rate of bottle feeding was higher in infants whose mothers had more income or higher educational period or full-time job. Most of the respondents knew the significance of supplementary food. 41.4% of the subjects started weaning of their infants at 3-4 months, and 84.1% of them set on weaning in less than 7 months after babies were born. And 39.4% of the subjects finished weaning of their infants in less than one year. The infants of this study preferred the fruits and fishes to meats, vegetables and beans that served to them as supplementary food. Mothers showed deep interest in recipe of weaning food(48.5%), adequate quantity of weaning food(36.3%), information on commercial food for infants(32.2%), and sequence in which semi-solid food are introduced(31.9%). From these results, it is suggested that education program in primary health center for improvement of weaning practice of infants should be implemented reflecting needs of mothers.
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