• Title, Summary, Keyword: borderline

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Base-Promoted, Ketene-Forming Elimination Reactions. Mechanistic Borderline between E2 and E1cb Mechanisms

  • Pyun, Sang-Yong;Cho, Bong-Rae
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.26 no.7
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    • pp.1017-1024
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    • 2005
  • Elimination reactions of $XC_6H_4CH_2CO_2C_6H_3-2-Y-4-NO_2$ have been studied under various conditions. When X was moderately electron-withdrawing, Y = H, and base-solvent was $R_2$NH-MeCN, the reaction proceeded by the E2 mechanism via an E1cb-like transition state. Concave downward curve was noted in the Hammett plots. When X = 4-$NO_2$, Y = Cl, $CF_3,\;NO_2$, and the base-solvent was ${R_2NH/R_2NH_2}^+$ in 70 mol % MeCN(aq), the reaction proceeded by the E2 mechanism. The mechanism changed to a competing E2 and E1cb when X = 4-$NO_2$ and Y = H, MeO, and to the E1cb when X = 2,4-($NO_2)_2$, and Y = $NO_2$. From these results, a plausible pathway of the change of the mechanism from E2 to the E1cb extreme is proposed.

HER2 Expression in Ovarian Mucinous Carcinomas in Tunisia

  • Missaoui, Nabiha;Abdelkarim, Soumaya Ben;Ayachi, Malak;Hmissa, Sihem
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.19
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    • pp.8121-8125
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    • 2014
  • Background: Ovarian mucinous carcinoma has a poor prognosis in advanced stages and a poor response to conventional chemotherapy. An efficient treatment is not yet available. We heere investigated HER2 expression and the potential for trastuzumab therapy in ovarian mucinous tumors. Materials and Methods: Immunohistochemistry was performed in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue from 27 ovarian mucinous tumors including 14 carcinomas and 13 borderline tumors diagnosed in the Pathology Department, Farhet Hached Hospital, Sousse, between 1993 and 2013. The HercepTest (DAKO) was used for immunohistochemistry. Results: HER2 expression was observed in only one borderline tumor (7.7%) and in 14.3% of mucinous carcinomas of the ovary. Conclusions: Our results suggest that trastuzumab therapy would be an option for patients with mucinous carcinoma when the tumor has HER2 overexpression.

Relationship between Muscular Extension Exercise and Metabolic Syndrome Indices in Hypertensive Patients (고혈압 환자의 근육 신전운동과 대사증후군 지표의 관계)

  • Beak, Soon-Gi;Kim, Do-Jin
    • Journal of the Korea Convergence Society
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    • v.9 no.9
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    • pp.363-369
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    • 2018
  • The purpose of this study was to perform exercise program for patients with borderline hypertension and hypertension. And the change of the metabolic syndrome index. This study was performed for 15 weeks on borderline hypertension, hypertension patients. 28 subjects participated in the exercise program for 40 minutes, three times a week for 15 weeks. The following conclusions were obtained. First, there was a significant correlation between the prevalence of metabolic syndrome before and after the exercise program. Second, there were significant differences in body weight, muscle mass, fat mass, BMI, waist circumference, diastolic blood pressure, and blood sugar before and after 15 weeks of exercise program. This can lead to improved metabolic syndrome indicators in hypertensive patients with a muscle extension exercise program.

Upper and lower second premolar extraction treatment case - Treatment strategy for Class III borderline cases (상하악 제2소구치 발거 치료 증례 - III급 부정교합 경계증례의 치료전략)

  • Kim, Tae-Kyung;Kim, Jong-Tae;Yang, Won-Sik
    • The korean journal of orthodontics
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.185-194
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    • 2002
  • When treating borderline cases which have mild crowding, non-extraction treatment may be considered firstly. But crowding may be reappeared by relapse and it may have problems in esthetics and stability. Secondarily four first premolar extraction treatment may be considered. But this may cause dish-in face by overretracting anterior teeth. In this cases, extraction of four second premolar is preferred because this resolves crowding without aggravating profile and has good stability after treatment. So we review cases treated by four second premolar extraction which show good treatment results and stability. The patients had good profile, Class I molar relationship, mild crowding and skeletal discrepancy and their growth had almost completed.

Assessment of solid components of borderline ovarian tumor and stage I carcinoma: added value of combined diffusion- and perfusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging

  • Kim, See Hyung
    • Yeungnam University Journal of Medicine
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    • v.36 no.3
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    • pp.231-240
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    • 2019
  • Background: We sought to determine the value of combining diffusion-weighted (DW) and perfusion-weighted (PW) sequences with a conventional magnetic resonance (MR) sequence to assess solid components of borderline ovarian tumors (BOTs) and stage I carcinomas. Methods: Conventional, DW, and PW sequences in the tumor imaging studies of 70 patients (BOTs, n=38; stage I carcinomas, n=32) who underwent surgery with pathologic correlation were assessed. Two independent radiologists calculated the parameters apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), $K^{trans}$ (vessel permeability), and $V_e$ (cell density) for the solid components. The distribution on conventional MR sequence and mean, standard deviation, and 95% confidence interval of each DW and PW parameter were calculated. The inter-observer agreement among the two radiologists was assessed. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and multivariate logistic regression were performed to compare the effectiveness of DW and PW sequences for average values and to characterize the diagnostic performance of combined DW and PW sequences. Results: There were excellent agreements for DW and PW parameters between radiologists. The distributions of ADC, $K^{trans}$, and $V_e$ values were significantly different between BOTs and stage I carcinomas, yielding AUCs of 0.58 and 0.68, 0.78 and 0.82, and 0.70 and 0.72, respectively, with ADC yielding the lowest diagnostic performance. The AUCs of the DW, PW, and combined PW and DW sequences were $0.71{\pm}0.05$, $0.80{\pm}0.05$, and $0.85{\pm}0.05$, respectively. Conclusion: Combining PW and DW sequences to a conventional sequence potentially improves the diagnostic accuracy in the differentiation of BOTs and stage I carcinomas.

Relative and Attributable Risks of Obesity, Hypertension and Hyperglycemia to Hypercholesterolemia in Korean Adult Males (한국 성인 남자의 고콜레스테롤혈증에 대한 비만, 고혈압 및 고혈당의 상대적 위험도 및 기여도)

  • 허영란;임현숙
    • Korean Journal of Human Ecology
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.80-88
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    • 1999
  • Hypercholesterolemia is a well known major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, now the leading cause of death in Korea. This study was carried out to examine the relationships of hypercholesterolemia(HC$\geq$240 mg/dL) with obesity, blood pressure and blood glucose level in 649 male subjects aged 20-69 in Kwangju, Korea. The mean plasma total cholesterol level was 212${\pm}$43 mg/dL, and 25.3% of the subjects was diagnosed as HC and 39.3% as nomorcholesterolemia(NC〈200 mg/dL). The prevalence of HC seemed to increase with age. The subjects with HC were highly overweighted and had higher body mass index(BMI) than the NC subjects. The incidence of overweight(25$\leq$BMI〈30) and obesity(BMI$\geq$30) among the HC subjects were 44.5%, and 1.8%, respectively. The HC subjects had higher systolic(SBP) and diastolic blood pressure(DBP) than the NC subjects. The incidence of borderline hypertension (160/95〉SBP/DBP$\geq$140/90) and hypertension(SBP/DBP$\geq$160/95) among the HC subjects were 18.3%, and 9.1%, respectively. However, there was no difference in blood glucose level between the HC and NC subjects. The plasma total cholesterol level had positive relationships with BMI(P〈0.001), weight(P〈0.001), DBP(P〈0.001), SBP(P〈0.01), and age(P〈0.01), whereas inverse relationships with height/weight ratio(P〈0.001), and height(P〈0.01). The relative risks on HC were 1.99 for obesity, 1.53 for overweight, 1.82 for hypertension, 1.44 for borderline hypertension and 1.08 for hyperglycemia. Attributable risks on HC were 0.25 for obesity, 0.11 for overweight, 0.20 for hypertension, 0.10 for borderline hypertension and 0.02 for hyperglycemia. The results indicate that the level of plasma total cholesterol was closely associated with the incidences of obesity and hypertension. (Korean J of Human Ecology 2(1) : 80-88, 1999)

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A Study on Common/Private Borderline and Renovation of Apartment House (공동주택의 공사구분(共私區分)과 리모델링과의 관계에 관한 연구;한국과 일본의 공동주택 표준관리규약을 중심으로)

  • Lee, Jae-Sauk;Seo, Hyeong-Wook;Nam, Hye-Won;Chun, Jae-Youl
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute Of Construction Engineering and Management
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    • pp.562-566
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    • 2007
  • In apartment house renovation project, the project progress held up in perception gap or conflict of interest with residents as usual. These dispute occurs ambiguous borderline ordistinction of Common Useing) Parts and Exclusive Possessed Private Parts. The Maintenance Covenant now in force in Korea and Japan are considered in this paper about theses item. Summarizing the conclusion is as below. 1) In The Maintenance Covenantnow in force, in definition of Ownership, Utilization, Maintenance, Japan is more ostensive than Korea. 2) The Borderline of Common Using Parts with Exclusive Possessed Parts is [Inner line of Exterior Wall] in Korea and in Japan also. But in Korea it is not in unity in purpose and action or definition and description. 3) In Japan, the Subject of Ownership is defined with hierarchically, as Housing complex-residential Building-individual dwelling, But not in Korea. 4) In Japan, [Exclusively using Common Owned Parts] are defined, But not in Korea.

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Intellectual Characteristics of Specific Language Disorder and Borderline Intelligence-Language Disorder (단순언어장애아동과 경계선지능 언어발달장애아동의 인지특성)

  • Yu, Gyung;Kim, Lak-Hyung;Jeong, Eun-Hee
    • Journal of Oriental Neuropsychiatry
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.97-105
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    • 2008
  • Objective : The objective of this study is to investigate the intellectual characteristics of the specific language impairment(SLI) and the borderline intelligence-language disorder (BI-LD). Method : 30 Children participated in this study, IS children with SLI(K-WISC-ill FIQ above 85, Test of Problem Solving score below -1.25SD, verbal comprehension factor index of K-WISC III below 80), 14 children with BI-LD(K-WISC-ill FIQ $70^{\sim}85$, Test of Problem Solving score below -1.25SD, verbal comprehension factor index of K-WISC III below 80). All students were evaluated with K-WISC III, Test of Problem Solving. full-scale IQ (FSIQ), \ verbal intelligence quotient (VIQ), Verbal Comprehension Index, and Test of Problem Solving score were compared between two groups. Result : All subtests scores of PIQ in the SLI were significantly higher than those in the BI-LD. there was no significant difference in the subtests scores of VIQ. In the VIQ subtests, Information, Arithmetic, Comprehension score were higher in the SLI compared to the BI-LD, but the score of Similarities and Vocabulary were similar between two groups. Conclusion: These results suggest that inspite of the difference of PIQ, SLI and BI-LD have similar language abilities, and there are some different intellectual characteristics between SLI and BI-LD

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Risk for Malignant and Borderline Ovarian Neoplasms Following Basic Preoperative Evaluation by Ultrasonography, Ca125 Level and Age

  • Karadag, Burak;Kocak, M.;Kayikcioglu, F.;Ercan, F.;Dilbaz, B.;Kose, M.F.;Haberal, A.
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.19
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    • pp.8489-8493
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    • 2014
  • Objective: To verify the basic preoperative evaluation in the discrimination between benign and malignant adnexal masses in our clinical practice. Materials and Methods: Data were collected on the records of 636 women with adnexal masses who had undergone surgery either by open or endoscopic approaches. Those with obvious signs of malignancy, any history of cancer, emergency surgeries without basic evaluation were excluded. The preoperative features by age, ultrasound and serum Ca125 level were compared with final histopathological diagnosis at the four departments of the institution. These are the general gynecology (Group 1: exploratory laparotomy), the gynecologic endoscopy (Group 2: laparoscopy and adnexectomy), the gynecological oncology (Group 3: staging laparotomy) and the gynecologic endocrinology and infertility (Group 4: laparoscopy and cystectomy). Results: There were simple and complex cyst rates of 22.3% and 77.2%, respectively. There were 86.3% benign, 4.1% (n:20) borderline ovarian tumor (BOT) and 6.4% (n:48) malignant lesions. There were 3 BOT and 9 ovarian cancers in Group 1 and one BOT and two ovarian cancer in the Group 2. During the surgery, 15 BOT (75%) and 37 ovarian cancer (77%) were detected in the Group 3, only one BOT was encountered in the Group 4. The risk of rate of unsuspected borderline or focally invasive ovarian cancer significantly increased by age, size, complex morphology and Ca125 (95% CI, OR=2.72, OR=6.60, OR=6.66 and OR=4.69, respectively). Conclusions: Basic preoperative evaluation by comprehensive ultrasound imaging combined with age and Ca125 level has proved highly accurate for prediction of unexpected malignancies. Neither novel markers nor new imaging techniques provide better information that allow clinicians to assess the feasibility of the planned surgery; consequently, the risk of inadvertent cyst rupture during laparoscopy may be significantly decreased in selected cases.