• Title, Summary, Keyword: bone marrow micronucleus test

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Micronucleus Test of Pinella Rhizoma Aqueous Extracts in Bone Marrow Cells of Male ICR Mice - In Vivo Genotoxicity (반하 물 추출물의 ICR 마우스 골수세포를 이용한 소핵실험)

  • Park, Ji-Ha
    • Korean Journal of Oriental Medicine
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.99-105
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    • 2009
  • In this research, the genotoxic effects of Pinelliae Rhizoma (PR) extracts, one of famous herbal agents in Korean medicine were evaluated using the mouse micronucleus test. PR extracts was administered once a day for 2 continuous days by oral gavage to male ICR mice at doses of 2000, 1000, and 500 mg/kg. Cyclophosphamide was used as a known genotoxic agent in a positive control. The appearance of a micronucleus is used as an index for genotoxic potential. No PR extracts treatment-related abnormal clinical signs, body weight changes and mortalities were detected. Significant (p<0.01) increases of the numbers of polychromatic erythrocytes contain micronucleus in prepared bone marrow cells were detected in CPA and PR extracts 2000 mg/kg treated groups as compared with intact control, respectively. The results of intraperitoneal dose mouse bone marrow cell micronucleus test of PR extracts were positive in the present study. It is considered that there were no problems from cytotoxicity of PR extracts tested in this study because the polychromatic erythrocyte ratio was detected as > 0.42 in all tested groups.

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Micronucleus test of Sipjeondaebo-tang extract using the bone marrow cells in ICR mice (ICR 마우스 골수세포를 이용한 십전대보탕 소핵시험)

  • Ma, Jin-Yeul;Lee, Nam-Hun;Huang, Dae-Sun;Ha, Hye-Kyung;Yu, Young-Beob;Shin, Hyun-Kyoo
    • Herbal Formula Science
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.109-115
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    • 2008
  • Objectives : This study was to assessment the toxicity of Sipjeondaebo-tang(Shiquan dabu-decoction) by micronucleus test. Methods : Sipjeondaebo-tang(Shiquan dabu-decoction) water-extract in vivo micronucleus test was performed using 7 weeks ICR mice. At 24 hours after with Sipjeondaebo-tang extract at the doses of 0, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg/day by peritoneal route mice were sacrificed and bone marrow cells were prepared for smear slides. Results : As a result of counting the micronucleus polychromate erythrocyte of 2000 polychromate erythrocyte, all treatment groups did not show statistically significant increase than negative control group. and there was no clinical sign and body weight connected with injection of Sipjeondaebo-tang(Shiquan dabu-decoction) extract. Conclusions: It was concluded that Sipjeondaebo-tang extract did not induce micronucleus in the bone marrow cells of ICR mice

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Computerized Image Analysis of Micronucleated Reticulocytes in Mouse Bone Marrow (컴퓨터 이미지 분석법을 이용한 마우스 골수세포에서 소핵의 계수)

  • 권정;홍미영;고우석;정문구;이미가엘
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.369-374
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    • 2002
  • The present study was performed to validate an automated image analysis system (Loats Automated Micronucleus Scoring System) for the mouse bone marrow micronucleus assay, comparing with conventional microscopic scoring. Two studies were conducted to provide slides for a comparison of micro-nucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCEs) values collected manually to those collected by the auto-mated system. Test article A was used as an example of a compound negative for the induction of micronuclei and test article B was wed as a micronucleus-inducing agent to elicit a positive response. Cyclophosphamide was included to provide an positive control in two studies. Bone marrow samples were collected 24 h after administration of test article A and B in male ICR mice. The cells were fixed with absolute methanol and stained with May-Grunwald and Giemsa. The number of MNPCEs was determined by the analysis of 1000 total PCEs per bone marrow sample. In addition to micronucleus scoring, an index of bone marrow toxicity based on PCE ratio (% of PCEs to total erythrocytes) was determined for each sample. The automated and manual scoring was similar when the MNPCEs incidence induced by each test article was less than 10. However manual scoring was able to effectively enumerate micronucleated PCEs in mouse bone marrow when MNPCEs incidence was more than 10, such as cyclophosphamide treatment. Conversely, PCE ratio was superior in computer-assisted image analysis. Taken together, it is suggested that improvement of the automated image analysis may be necessary to render the automatic scoring as sensitive as manual scoring for routine counting of micronuclei, especially because it is superior in objectivity and high throughput scoring.

In vivo Micronucleus Test of Cyclohexanone and Mutagenicity Classification According to a Globally Harmonized System (Cyclohexanone의 in vivo 소핵시험을 통한 GHS 변이원성 구분)

  • Kim, Soo-Jin;Rim, Kyung-Taek;Lim, Cheol-Hong
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.24 no.7
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    • pp.804-811
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    • 2014
  • A micronucleus test of cyclohexanone has not yet been conducted. To classify the chemical hazard posed by cyclohexanone according to a globally harmonized system of classification and labeling of chemicals (GHS), we investigated its mutagenicity by micronucleus induction in ICR bone marrow cells of 7-weeek-old male mice. The mice were administered three dosages of the chemical for 24 hr via the oral route. After 24 hr, the mice were sacrificed, and their bone marrow cells were prepared for smearing slides. Based on counts of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCEs) of 2,000 polychromatic erythrocytes, cyclohexanone did not inhibit bone marrow cell proliferation in any of the treated groups, but it resulted in micronucleus induction. According to the results of the mammalian bone marrow micronucleus test, this chemical is mutagenic and classified as category 2 in the GHS.

A Study of Micronucleus Induction with Methyl Formate and 2-Methylbutane in Bone Marrow Cells of Male ICR Mice

  • Kim, Soo-Jin;Rim, Kyung-Taek;Kang, Min-Gu;Kim, Jong-Kyu;Chung, Yong-Hyun;Yang, Jeong-Sun
    • Safety and Health at Work
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.80-86
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    • 2010
  • Objectives: We investigated the genotoxicity of two chemicals, methyl formate and 2-methylbutane, using male ICR mice bone marrow cells for the screening of micronucleus induction. Although these two chemicals have already been tested numerous times, a micronucleus test has not been conducted and the amounts used have recently been increased. Methods: 7 week male ICR mice were tested at dosages of 250, 500, and 1,000 mg/kg for methyl formate and 500, 1,000, and 2,000 mg/kg for 2-methlybutane, respectively. After 24 hours of oral administration with the two chemicals, the mice were sacrificed and their bone marrow cells were prepared for smearing slides. Results: As a result of counting the micronucleated polychromatic erythrocyte (MNPCE) of 2,000 polychromatic erythrocytes, all treated groups expressed no statistically significant increase of MNPCE compared to the negative control group. There were no clinical signs related with the oral exposure of these two chemicals. Conclusion: It was concluded that the two chemicals did not induce micronucleus in the bone marrow cells of ICR mice, and there was no direct proportion with dosage. These results indicate that the two chemicals have no mutagenic potential under each study condition.

Toxicity Evaluation of TA, a Pharmacopuncture Medicine, in an in Vivo Micronucleus Test (ICR 마우스를 이용한 소핵시험을 통한 TA 약침의 안전성 평가)

  • Hwang, Ji Hye;Jung, Hyo Won;Jung, Chul
    • Korean Journal of Acupuncture
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    • v.36 no.1
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    • pp.74-80
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    • 2019
  • Objectives : TA, a polyherbal extract, typically is used for pharmacopuncture therapy on patients with traffic accident-related injuries and musculoskeletal diseases. This study was performed to evaluate the safety of the TA extract, using a micronucleus test. Methods : The dose range and sampling time were first established. An in vivo micronucleus test was then performed to determine the induction of micronuclei in mouse bone marrow cells after a single intramuscular administration of TA to 7-week-old ICR mice (0.2 ml/animal, at 24 hours post-dosing). Results : The incidence of micro-nucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs) in PCEs in the TA group was similar to that in the negative-control group, while that in the positive-control group was significantly greater. The positive- and negative-control groups did not differ in the ratio of PCEs to total erythrocytes. Conclusions : Our toxicity study indicates that the TA extract does not induce micronucleus formation in mouse bone marrow cells.

Safety Evaluation of Chrysanthemum indicum L. Flower Oil by Assessing Acute Oral Toxicity, Micronucleus Abnormalities, and Mutagenicity

  • Hwang, Eun-Sun;Kim, Gun-Hee
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.111-116
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    • 2013
  • Chrysanthemum indicum is widely used to treat immune-related and infectious disorders in East Asia. C. indicum flower oil contains 1,8-cineole, germacrene D, camphor, ${\alpha}$-cadinol, camphene, pinocarvone, ${\beta}$-caryophyllene, 3-cyclohexen- 1-ol, and ${\gamma}$-curcumene. We evaluated the safety of C. indicum flower oil by conducting acute oral toxicity, bone marrow micronucleus, and bacterial reverse mutation tests. Mortality, clinical signs and gross findings of mice were measured for 15 days after the oral single gavage administration of C. indicum flower oil. There were no mortality and clinical signs of toxicity at 2,000 mg/kg body weight/day of C. indicum flower oil throughout the 15 day period. Micronucleated erythrocyte cell counts for all treated groups were not significantly different between test and control groups. Levels of 15.63~500 ${\mu}g$ C. indicum flower oil/plate did not induce mutagenicity in S. Typhimurium and E. coli, with or without the introduction of a metabolic activation system. These results indicate that ingesting C. indicum flower oil produces no acute oral toxicity, bone marrow micronucleus, and bacterial reverse mutation.

Micronucleus Test for the Classification of Chemical Mutagenicity according to Globally Harmonized System

  • Rim, Kyung-Taek;Kim, Hyeon-Yeong;Chung, Yong-Hyun
    • Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.56 no.4
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    • pp.191-197
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    • 2013
  • To classify the chemical hazard according to globally harmonized system of classification and labeling of chemicals (GHS), we investigated the genotoxicity of three chemicals, methyl myristate, 2-ethylhexanoic acid zinc salt, N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-hydroxyethyl) ethylenediamine, using male ICR mice bone marrow cells for the screening of micronucleus induction. Although these three chemicals have already been tested numerous times, a micronucleus test has not been conducted. The seven week-old male ICR mice were tested at three dosages for the three chemicals, respectively. After 24 h of oral administration with the three chemicals, the mice were sacrificed and their bone marrow cells were prepared for smearing slides. As a result of counting the micronucleated polychromatic erythrocyte (MNPCE) of 2,000 polychromatic erythrocytes, all treated groups expressed no statistically significant increase of MNPCE compared to the negative control group. There were no clinical signs related with the oral exposure of these three chemicals. It was concluded that these three chemicals did not induce micronucleus in the bone marrow cells of ICR mice, and there was no direct proportion with dosage. These results indicate that the three chemicals have no mutagenic potential under each test condition, and it is not classified these chemicals as mutagens by GHS.

Studies on the Antimutagenicity of extract from Barley (Hordeum vulgare) (보리(Hordeum vulgare) 추출물의 항변이원성)

  • 이은주;구성자
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.14 no.5
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    • pp.468-474
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    • 1998
  • This study was performed to determine the effects of antimutagenicity from Barley (Hordeum vulgare). In Salmonella typhimurium reversion assay (In vitro test), the extract of Barley (Hordeum vulgare) inhibited mutagenic activity of 4-NQO and Trp-p-1 with 59 mix. in Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100. In Micronucleus test (In vivo test), the methanol extract of Barley (Hordeum vulgare) inhibited micronucleus formation in bone marrow by cyclophosphamide. The $\beta$-glucan of Barley (Hordeum vulgare) showed inhibitory effects of 59-77% in mutagenic activity of 4-NQO by Salmonella typhimurium TA100. The mutagenicity of Trp-p-1 with S9 mix. by Salmonella typhimurium TA98 showed inhibitory effects of 24-56%. The methanl extract (M) was fractionated with ether (MI), ethylacetate (M2), buthanol (M3) and water (M4). The Antimutagenicity of Trp-p-1 with 59 mix. by Salmonella typhimurium TA98 in Barley fraction showed the following: methanol extract (99.58%)>ether fraction (98.05%)>buthanol fraction (56.90%)>water fraction (56.72%)>ethyl acetate fraction (28.72%). Among them, ether fraction in TA 98 showed strong antimutagenicity effects (85.56%, 98.05%) against mutation induced by 4-NQO and Trp-p-1. As concentration of the methanol extract increased (1.25~5 g/kg/10 cc), micronucleus formation in bone marrow by chemical mutagen (CP) showed inhibitory effects of 50% (p< 0.05).

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TOXICITY STUDY ON CHINESE HERBAL DRUGS USING THE MICRONUCLEUS ASSAY IN MURINE BONE MARROW ERYTHROCYTES

  • Ian C. Guest;Yoo, Sang-Ou;Paik, Nam-Woo;Lee, Young-Wook;Oh, Ki-Bong;Yang, Heyong-Cheol;Suh, Nan-Joo;Chang, Il-Moo
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.71-77
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    • 1989
  • A mouse whole animal bioassay was employed to screen for potential mutagenicity of ethanol/water extracts of 16 Chinese herbal drugs that are commonly prescribed in Korea. Specific cytogenetic toxicity was measrured by recording evidence of clastogenesis toxicity was measured by recording evidence of clastogenesis via the mouse bone marrow micronucleus test. Male ICR mice administered ethanol extract of Pinelliae tuber (Pinellia eternata Breitenbach, ARACEAE, 양복) and ddY female mice administered extract of Angelica Koreanae radix(Angelica Koreana Maximowicz, UMBELLIFERAE, ) (both by oral administration, at a dose of 600 mg/kg), in a short-term dosing schedule, demonstrated significant increase in micronucleated polychromatophilic erythrocytes, indicating the increase of clastogenicity.

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