• Title, Summary, Keyword: body burden

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CHLOROFORM BODY BURDEN FROM BATHING (목욕으로 인한 클로로포름의 인체부담)

  • 조완근;황영미
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.4 no.3
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    • pp.277-284
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    • 1995
  • There has been an increased awareness of the need to confirm the chloroform exposure associated with using chlorinated household water. Ten of a 30-minute tub bath were normally taken by two volunteers in a bathroom of an apartment. Chloroform concentrations were measured in bathing water and bathroom air, and exhaled breath of the subjects prior to and after bathing. Bathing using chlorinated tap water resulted in a chloroform exposure and caused a body burden. Based on the difference of chloroform concentrations between breath samples collected prior to and after bathing, the chloroform body burden from a 30-minute bath was estimated to be about 8 to 26 folds higher than that prior to the bath. The mean water and bathroom air chloroform concentrations measured to evaluate the body burden were $9.4\mu\textrm{g}/l$ and TEX>$14.9\mu\textrm{g}/m^3$, respectively. The chloroform level of the bathroom air was 각 to 130 times higher than that of the living-room air. The relationship between the bathroom air and the corresponding breath chloroform concentrations were significant with p=0.03 and $R^2=0.47$.

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Allele Frequencies of the Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Related to the Body Burden of Heavy Metals in the Korean Population and Their Ethnic Differences

  • Eom, Sang-Yong;Lim, Ji-Ae;Kim, Yong-Dae;Choi, Byung-Sun;Hwang, Myung Sil;Park, Jung-Duck;Kim, Heon;Kwon, Ho-Jang
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.195-205
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    • 2016
  • This study was performed to select single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related to the body burden of heavy metals in Koreans, to provide Korean allele frequencies of selected SNPs, and to assess the difference in allele frequencies with other ethnicities. The candidate-gene approach method and genome-wide association screening were used to select SNPs related to the body burden of heavy metals. Genotyping analysis of the final 192 SNPs selected was performed on 1,483 subjects using the VeraCode Goldengate assay. Allele frequencies differences and genetic differentiations between the Korean population and Chinese (CHB), Japanese (JPT), Caucasian (CEU), and African (YIR) populations were tested by Fisher's exact test and fixation index ($F_{ST}$), respectively. The Korean population was genetically similar to the CHB and JPT populations ($F_{ST}$ < 0.05, for all SNPs in both populations). However, a significant difference in the allele frequencies between the Korean and CEU and YIR populations were observed in 99 SNPs (60.7%) and 120 SNPs (73.6%), respectively. Ten (6.1%) and 26 (16.0%) SNPs had genetic differentiation ($F_{ST}$ > 0.05) among the Korean-CEU and Korean-YIR comparisons, respectively. The SNP with the largest $F_{ST}$ value between the Korean and African populations was cystathionine-${\beta}$-synthase rs234709 ($F_{ST}$: KOR-YIR, 0.309; KOR-CEU, 0.064). Our study suggests that interethnic differences exist in SNPs associated with heavy metals of Koreans, and it should be considered in future studies that address ethnic differences in heavy-metal concentrations in the body and genetic susceptibility to the body burden of heavy metals.

Phenomenological Approach to Stress Experiences in Obese Teenagers (비만 청소년의 스트레스 경험에 관한 현상학적 접근)

  • Kim, Lee-Sun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of School Health
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.243-262
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    • 1999
  • Today, obesity is not recognized as a disease itself but is known to be the indirect cause of much chronic illness. Obesity has an impact on psychological disorders including severe inferiority, damage of body self-image, low self-esteem, personality disorders. The results in an increase of the mortality rate. Therefore, this study attempts to discover and evaluate stressful experience in obese teenagers. For this study, 21 girl students and 19 boy students in Pusan middle or high school located were selected. The data were collected from March to May at 1999. A tape-recorder was used under the permission of the subjects to prevent the loss of spoken information and communication. This study consisted of 563 reponses from girls and 461 responses from boys which were then classified with descriptive expressions and priority classifications. The results generated 72 common elements in girls and 54 common elements in boys. From these elements 24 syntheses of hypothetical definitions and 8 identifications of the structural definitions in both girls and boys were developed. The structural and hypothetical definitions were as follows: The analysis of the data was made through a phenomenological analytic method suggested by Van kamm, which is as follows: 1. Maladjustment to school life; lack of understanding of the teacher, insufficient exercise ability, and a feeling of burden in attending the school obesity program. 2. Conflict in family relationships; lack of understanding from the family, a feeling of alienation. 3. Conflict in friend relationships; lack of understanding among friends, constant comparisons in appearance and body with friends (in girls) and estrangement from friends (in boys). 4. Conflict in acquaintance of the opposite sex; hoping to meet the opposite sex, lack of understanding of boy friends (in girls), feelings of pain, feelings of anxiety (in girls) feelings of burden (in girls) feelings of envy (in boys). 5. Negative body image: shape of body; feelings of pain; feelings of powerlessness; feelings of discomfort, and reception; emotional disorders (in boys), and change of personality (in boys). 6. Health disorder: Physical and psychological discomfort. 7. Feelings of burden in weight control; negative experiences in weight control, interference with family and friends, the difficulty in diet therapy, feelings of burden in exercise (in girls), to be teased by the public through mass media (in boys).

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Inhalation and Dermal Exposures to Chloroform while Bathing (목욕시 Chloroform에 대한 흡기 및 피부 접촉 노출)

  • 조완근
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.7 no.3
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    • pp.301-310
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    • 1998
  • Recently, bathes have been suspected to an Important source of indoor exposure to volatile organic compounds(VOCs). Two experiments were conducted to evaluate chloroform exposure and corresponding body burden by exposure routes while bathing. Another experiment was conducted to ekamine the chloro- form dose during dermal exposure and the chloroform decay In breath after dermal exposure. The chioroform dose was determined based on exhaled breath analysis. The ekamine breath concentration measured after normal baths (2.8 Vg/$m^3$) was approxidmately 13 tomes higher that measured prior to normal bathes (0.2 ug/$m^3$). Based on the means of the normalized post exposure chloroform breath concentration. the dermal exposure was estimated to contribute to 74% of total chloroform body burden while bathing. The Internal dose from bathing (Inhalation plus dermal) was comparable to the dose ostimated Srom dally water Ingestion. The rusk associated 10 a weekly, 30-min bath was estimated to be 1 x 10.5, while the rusk firom dally Ingestion of tap water was to be $0.5{\times}0^{-5} for 0.151 and 6.5{\times}10^{-5}$ for 2. 0 1. Chloroform breath concentration Increased gradually during the 60 minute dermal exposure. The breath decay after the dermal exposure showed two-phase mechanism, with early raped decay and the second slow decay. The mathematical model was developed to describe the relationship between water and air chloroform concentrations, with $R^2$ : 0.4 and p<0.02.

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Copper, Zinc, and Aluminium Level in Scalp Hair Samples of Daegu and Kyungbuk Residents

  • Kim, Min-Jeong;Kim, Ki-Sok
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.323-330
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    • 2010
  • Although copper and zinc are essential metals for human health, excessive level of these metals is toxic. Besides, aluminum is known to induce various adverse health effects including neurological disorders. Therefore, monitoring the human body burden of these metals is important in preventing adverse health effects. In this study, we assessed the exposure to copper, zinc, and aluminum among an adult population residing in Daegu and Kyungbuk areas. Based on data from 171 participants, we found that the geometric mean copper, zinc, and aluminum concentrations in hair were $15.1\;{\mu}g/g$ [95% confidence interval (CI): 13.1~17.5], 76.9 (95% CI: 70.4~84.1), and $1.11\;{\mu}g/g$ (95% CI: 0.81~1.51), respectively. The copper concentrations in hair were significantly related to age, education, and residence area. In addition, zinc concentrations in hair were significantly related to age, whereas higher hair aluminum concentrations were related to alcohol drinking. Correlations between copper and zinc in hair had a significant positive correlation. Our findings suggest that the body burden of copper, zinc, and aluminum varies according to demographic factors, and hair could be used as a valuable biological medium for metal exposure.

A Study of Factors Influencing Weight Control Behavior in Adolescent Females (청년기 여성의 체중조절 행동의도에 영향을 미치는 요인 분석)

  • 류호경;윤진숙;박동연
    • Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.4 no.4
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    • pp.561-567
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    • 1999
  • This study was conducted to provide information about weight control behavior in adolescent females. To explain the behavior intention of dieting, conceptual framework based on "Social Support, Control and the Stress Process Model" and "Theory of Reasoned Action" was used. The survey was carried out by self-questionnaires with 463 female high school and college students in Daegu. Analysis of data was done using mean, correlation and multiple regression analysis with the SAS computer program. A society preoccupied with thinness gives a burden to women, and this burden may stress dissatisfaction with body image. Social perception of ideal body image except parents' perception, and salient others'perception, and salient others' expectation of subjects' body image except parents' expectation, were much thinner than normal figures in this study. The influencing factors for behavior intention of dieting of the subjects were perceived stress and attitude toward diet behavior, especially beliefs of behavioral outcome. Influencing factors related to perceived stress-that is dissatisfaction of body image-were current figure, social perception of body image, effect of mass communication and others' estimation of subjects' body image with self-comparison with others, in order.th others, in order.

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Accumulation and Elimination of Cadmium and Zinc in Littorina brevicula (총알고둥에서 카드뮴과 아연의 축적과 제거)

  • Han, Su-Jeong;Lee, In-Suk
    • The Korean Journal of Ecology
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.35-43
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    • 2001
  • Accumulation, elimination and subcellular distribution of heavy metals in Littorina brevicula exposed to cadmium and zinc separately and concurrently were investigated. When the winkles had been exposed to 400 ㎍/L CdCl₂ and 3000 ㎍/l ZnSO₄ separately for 90 days, each of the metal body burden in the whole sofl parts increased in proportion to time of exposure until 70 days. But it didn't increase after 70 days. But when the winkles had been exposed to cadmium and zinc simultaneously, cadmium body burden decreased but zinc body burden increased as compared to the winkles exposed to each of the metal. We also found that cadmium accumulated in the winkles was not depurated for 42 days, but zinc accumulated in them was depurated. Especially, zinc was depurated faster when they had been exposed to mixture of cadmium and zinc. After the winkles had been exposed to cadmium and zinc separately for 70 days, about 60% cadmium of the total body burden was associated with the soluble fraction, while about 75% zinc of the total body burden was associated with insoluble fraction. And these trends of metal partitioning did not alter when the winkles had been exposed to metal mixture. After the soluble fraction applied to gel-filtration chromatography column, the distribution patterns of cadmium and zinc associated with proteins or ligands were different each other. Most of cadmium (>90%) in the soluble fraction was bound to MBP-1 (Metal-binding protein-1), about 6.5 kDa), while zinc was distributed evenly to HMW (High molecular weight fraction, >60 kDa), MBP-1, MBP-2 (about 5 kDa), LMW (Low molecular weight fraction, <1 kDa).

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Ergonomic Analysis of Manufacturing Process for PET Bottle by REBA Technique (REBA 기법을 이용한 PET병 제조공정의 인간공학적 분석)

  • Kim, Hwa-Sik;Gong, Byeong-Chae;Cheong, Seon-Hwan;Choi, Seong-Dae
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Industry Convergence
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.203-208
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    • 2009
  • Lacks of harmony of a person and machine according to productivity elevation pursuit is happened by enterprise common problem in Global competition age and productivity loss is caused being connected to worker's burden work. Burden work in PET bottle production Process which are arrangement, Packing, interior inspection is analyzed by Ergonomic analysis technique. REBA estimation point(10~11 points) means the high step of hazard on worker's burden. It is immediately required the improvement on the process. This thesis show you the improving methods like package, examination justice.

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