• Title, Summary, Keyword: blood mercury levels

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Patterns of Mercury Concentrations in Blood and Urine After High Mercury Exposure (고농도 수은 노출자의 혈 중 및 뇨 중 수은 농도 변화에 관한 연구)

  • 윤충식;임상혁;하권철
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.71-80
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    • 2001
  • Blood and urine mercury level of three workers were monitored during 60~80 days after high exposure to mercury at the silver refining plant. Mercury was used to form silver-mercury amalgam from plating sludge. Workers were exposed to mercury about 70 days at the several processes, such as hand held weaving, vibration table, and heating from the furnace. mercury was analysed by atomic absorption spectroscopy-vapor generation technique. Recovery from the biological sample was 95.51% and pooled standard deviation was 0.033. At the time of study, there was no work at the workplace. So, airborne mercury concentration was measured with area sampling 5 days after the work, ranged from 0.1459 to 1.2351 mg/㎥(Arithmatic mean 0.4711 mg/㎥, Geometric mean 0.3566 mg/㎥) at the inside of the plant, that is far above the ACGIH's TLV(0.025 mg/㎥) and ranged from 0.0073 to 0.0330 mg/㎥ at the outdoor. Blood mercury levels at the beginning of the monitoring were 4~14 times greater than the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists Biological Exposure Index(ACGIH BEI, 15 ug/L). Blood mercury levels were decreased logarithmically, that is, rapidly at the high level and slowly at the low level but sustained above the level of the ACGIH BEI 60~80 days after the work. Urine mercury levels at the beginning of the monitoring were 8~16 times greater than the ACGIH BEI(35 ug/g creatinine). Urine mercury levels were decreased logarithmically, but correlation between urine level and off-days were lower than those of blood. Decreasing pattern of blood mercury levels were little affected than that of urine levels when the chelating agent, D-penicillamine, was administered. There was correlation between blood mercury level and urine mercury level(0.81~0.83) but it didn\`t mean that the highest blood mercury level corresponded the highest urine mercury level. In our study, Case 1 always shows the highest level in urine but case 3 always shows the highest level in blood. Creatinine correction represented better correlations between urine mercury levels and blood levels, and between urine levels and off-days rather than by urine volume. Spot urine sampling had a wide variation than that of whole day urine sampling. So, We recommend spot urine sampling for screening and whole day urine sampling for exact diagnosis.

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The association of total blood mercury levels and overweight among Korean adolescents: analysis of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2010-2013

  • Shin, Yi-Yeon;Ryu, In-Kyung;Park, Mi-Jung;Kim, Shin-Hye
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.61 no.4
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    • pp.121-128
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    • 2018
  • Purpose: Obesity has been associated with higher total blood mercury levels, based on animal studies; however, studies that focus on children and adolescents are lacking. We aimed to assess the association between total blood mercury levels and the incidence of overweight and abdominal obesity in Korean adolescents. Methods: The study population comprised 1,567 adolescents (793 boys and 774 girls; aged 10-19 years), who participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2013. We analyzed total blood mercury levels according to obesity status in all participants. Results: The geometric mean of total blood mercury levels was $1.93{\mu}g/L$. Participants with overweight ($2.20{\mu}g/L$) and obesity ($2.17{\mu}g/L$) had higher levels than those with normal weight ($1.86{\mu}g/L$, P<0.0001). The prevalence of overweight significantly increased with elevation of the total blood mercury quartile in both sexes. Increased incidence of abdominal obesity corresponding to increased total blood mercury level was observed in boys. After adjusting for covariates, those in the highest total blood mercury quartile were found to be at higher risk of overweight/obesity than those in the lowest quartile in both sexes (odds ratio [95% confidence interval]: boys, 3.27 [1.66-6.41]; girls, 1.90 [1.03-3.49]). The association between total blood mercury quartile and abdominal obesity was significant after controlling for covariates in boys (2.35 [1.05-5.24]). Conclusion: Our results suggest an association between total blood mercury levels and overweight in Korean adolescents.

A Study on Mercury Exposure Levels among Schoolchildren and Related Factors in High Mercury Exposure Areas in Korea (수은 고노출 지역 초등학생의 수은노출수준과 노출요인 연구)

  • Kim, Dae Seon;Kwon, Young Min;Chung, Hee-Ung;Nam, Sang Hoon;Yu, Seung Do
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.41 no.4
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    • pp.231-240
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    • 2015
  • Objectives: Blood mercury levels among adults living in certain areas of the Gyeongsang Provinces have been shown to be very high (Kunwee County $29.6{\mu}g/L$, Yeongcheon-city $26.7{\mu}g/L$). The purpose of this project was to determine mercury exposure levels in schoolchildren and factors related with their mercury levels in high mercury exposure areas identifyed by the 2007 Korea National Environmental Health Survey. Methods: From June to September 2010, 1,097 students from grades 3 to 6 at 19 elementary schools participated in this study, including 294 students from 10 elementary schools in Kunwee County, 529 students from Yeongcheon City, 122 students from two elementary schools in Pohang City, North Gyeongsang Province, and 152 students from two elementary schools in Ulsan Metropolitan City. Biological samples from schoolchildren, including whole blood, urine and hair, were collected to measure total mercury at the time of a health check up. Information about children was collected by questionnaire. Total mercury concentrations in blood were measured using the Direct Mercury Analyzer 80 with the gold-amalgam collection method. Results: The mean mercury levels were $2.70{\mu}g/L$ in 1,091 blood samples, $2.25{\mu}g/g-creat.$ in 820 urine samples and $1.03{\mu}g/g$ in 1,064 hair samples. Blood mercury levels in the schoolchildren was slightly higher than the result of $2.4{\mu}g/L$ from a 2006 survey of elementary school children on exposure and health effects of mercury by the National Institute of Environmental Research. However, 0.3% and 4.5% of participants exceeded the reference level of blood mercury by CHBMII ($15{\mu}g/L$) and the US EPA ($5.8{\mu}g/L$), respectively. The reference level of urine by CHBMII ($20{\mu}g/L$) was exceeded by 0.4% of participants. As factors, residence period in the study areas, residence type, father's education level and income all showed significant associations with mercury level in the biological samples. The number of dental amalgam sides showed an association with urine mercury. Fish intake preference and fish intake frequency were important factors in mercury levels. In particular, intake of shark meat and recent intake of shark meat were associated with higher mercury levels. In this regard, participation in the performance of an ancestral rite showed a relation with higher mercury levels. Conclusion: The intake of shark meat was very important factor to high mercury exposure level. It is recommended to monitor and manage students with high mercury exposures who exceeded CHBM II and EPA guidelines, and include blood mercury testing in the Children's Health check up for this province.

Survey on the Total Mercury Exposure of School Children in Korea (국내 초등학생의 체내 총수은 농도 및 노출요인 조사)

  • Kim, Guen-Bae;Kim, Dae-Seon;Lee, Jong-Hwa;Park, Hee-Jin;Wee, Seong-Seung
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.33 no.5
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    • pp.386-391
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    • 2007
  • Mercury contamination and its health effects have become major concern of environmental health study in Korea. Mercury exposure of some group were investigated to get the accurate data for policy making and study. About 2,000 children at 26 elementary schools participated in this survey to evaluate the exposure levels and to investigate main exposure source of mercury. Analysis of mercury levels in the whole blood and urine samples were conducted and questionnaire survey was done about the factors influencing exposures simultaneously. Mercury exposure levels of domestic children were N.D. to 17.26 ppb in blood, 0.17 to $21.67{\mu}g/g$-creatinine in urine. The mean(arithmetic) levels are 2.42 ppb in blood and $2.53{\mu}g/g$-creatinine in urine. Both of them were below the recommendation levels of US EPA and German CHBM I $5.8{\mu}g/l$ and $5{\mu}g/l$ in blood, $5{\mu}g/g$-creatinine of German CHBM I in urine. But 1%, 0.51% of levels in blood exceed the level of CHBM I and US EPA, 8%, 0.85% of children were over the level of CHBM I and CHBM II in urine. Multi-valuable regression analysis showed that the existence of road near the residence in addition to the preference for fish have significance with blood mercury exposure level of domestic children. The existence of factory near the house and the experience of dental amalgam treatment had statistical relations with urine mercury level.

Mercury Exposure Factors among Residents in the Highly Mercury Exposed Area, Seoksan-ri, Korea (수은 고노출지역 주민의 수은노출요인과 노출량 변화에 관한 연구)

  • KIM, Dae Seon;Kwon, Young Min;Chung, Hee-Ung;CHOI, Kyunghee
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.41 no.5
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    • pp.349-357
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    • 2015
  • Objectives: The 2007 Korea National Survey for Environmental Pollutants in the Human Body found the highest blood mercury levels nationwide among residents in Seoksan-ri, Goro-myeon, Gunwi-gun, Gyeonsangbuk-do. With the aim to reduce the blood mercury levels of residents in this region, we conducted this study to identify the association between mercury exposure levels and shark meat consumption. Methods: This survey was conducted with 118 participants in Seoksan-ri before the Chuseok festival and 113 residents were added afterwards. Information on participants was collected via questionnaires. Total mercury concentrations in biological samples were measured using a mercury analyzer with the gold-amalgam collection method. Results: To identify this, we conducted mercury exposure level analysis before and after the Chuseok festival and found that blood and urinary mercury levels after Chuseok (GM of $6.9{\mu}g/L$ in blood and $1.68{\mu}g/g$_cr in urine) were higher than those before (GM of $5.29{\mu}g/L$ in blood and $1.44{\mu}g/g$_cr in urine). This area maintains a custom of using shark meat as one of the ancestral rite foods, and the performance of such rites and shark meat consumption have been identified as main sources of mercury exposure. Other than this, smoking, dental amalgam treatment and residential period in the area also contributed to an increase in mercury exposure levels. On the other hand, recent consumption of oriental medicine and vaccination did not have a significant influence on mercury levels. Conclusion: The results were attributed to the local custom of consuming shark meat with high mercury concentrations during rituals taking place during the festival and ancestral rites. Given that the blood mercury levels in 23.2% of the residents exceeded the HBM II values recommended by the German Commission on Human Biological Monitoring, it is suggested that further appropriate actions and follow-up measures be taken to reduce the mercury exposure levels of the residents that exceeded the reference values.

Relationship between Blood Mercury Level and Risk of Cardiovascular Diseases: Results from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV) 2008-2009

  • Kim, Young-Nam;Kim, Young A;Yang, Ae-Ri;Lee, Bog-Hieu
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.333-342
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    • 2014
  • Limited epidemiologic data is available regarding the cardiovascular effects of mercury exposure. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between mercury exposure from fish consumption and cardiovascular disease in a nationally representative sample of Korean adults using the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV 2008~2009). Survey logistic regression models accounting for the complex sampling were used to estimate the odds ratios (OR) adjusted for fish consumption frequency, age, education, individual annual income, household annual income, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), alcohol consumption status, and smoking status. The mean blood mercury level in the population was $5.44{\mu}g/L$. Trends toward increased blood mercury levels were seen for increased education level (P=0.0011), BMI (P<0.0001), WC (P<0.0001), and fish (i.e., anchovy) consumption frequency (P=0.0007). The unadjusted OR for hypertension in the highest blood mercury quartile was 1.450 [95% confidential interval (CI): 1.106~1.901] times higher than that of the lowest quartile. The fish consumption-adjusted OR for hypertension in the highest blood mercury quartile was 1.550 (95% CI: 1.131~2.123) times higher than that of the lowest quartile, and the OR for myocardial infarction or angina in the highest blood mercury quartile was 3.334 (95% CI: 1.338~8.308) times higher than that of the lowest quartile. No associations were observed between blood mercury levels and stroke. These findings suggest that mercury in the blood may be associated with an increased risk of hypertension and myocardial infarction or angina in the general Korean population.

Heavy Metal as Risk Factor of Cardiovascular Disease - An Analysis of Blood Lead and Urinary Mercury (심혈관계 질환 위험요인으로서의 중금속 - 납과 수은에 대한 분석 -)

  • Kim, Dae-Seon;Yu, Seung-Do;Cha, Jung-Hoon;Ahn, Seung-Chul;Lee, Eun-Hee
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.38 no.4
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    • pp.401-407
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    • 2005
  • Objectives : We wanted to investigate the relationship between heavy metal, especially lead and mercury, to the blood pressure and cholesterol level in children. Methods : This study was undertaken in three primary schools and the study subjects were a total of 274 children. The lead in the blood and the urine mercury were analyzed by performing atomic absorption spectroscopy. Results : All of participants' blood lead levels and urine mercury concentrations were below the suggested level of concern according to the criteria of the CDC and ATSDR. We found no significant correlation between lead, mercury and the blood pressure. The blood lead level did not show any relationship with the blood pressure and cholesterol. However, the urine mercury levels were associated with the serum cholesterol. Conclusion : Our study suggests that mercury can induce an increase of cholesterol as a risk factor of myocardial infraction and coronary/cardiovascular disease.

A Study on Schoolchildren's Mercury Exposure and Related Health Effects in High Mercury Exposure Areas in Korea (수은 고노출 지역 초등학생의 수은노출관련 건강영향 연구)

  • Kim, Dae Seon;Ahn, Seung Chul;Chung, Hee-Ung;Kwon, Young Min;CHOI, Kyunghee
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.41 no.4
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    • pp.268-276
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    • 2015
  • Objectives: According to the 2007 Korea National Environmental Health Survey (KNEHS), some areas in the Gyeongsang Provinces showed very high blood mercury levels in adults. We conducted this project to investigate any related health effects in children due to mercury levels in these areas. Methods: In total, 1,097 students between grades 3 and 6 at 19 elementary schools were recruited from four areas with high mercury exposure as identified by the KNEHS. Total mercury levels in biological samples were compared with health check-ups performed on the schoolchildren. Biological monitoring, supported by questionnaires, a computerized neurobehavioral test, a posturography test and a personality test, were applied. Results: Triglycerides showed a significant relation with mercury in blood, urine and hair. Total mercury concentrations were divided into two groups: upper and lower concentration groups based on the median value. In the computerized neurobehavioral test, the upper blood mercury group showed a greater reaction time for color-word vigilance (p<0.05). In the posturography test, the intensity value of the tremor test showd high significant relations with mercury levels (p<0.01). In the personality test, self-consciousness, misdeeds and family relationships showed significant differences between the upper and lower urine mercury groups (p<0.01), and specific reactions, ego resilience and hyperactivity also showed some differences (p<0.1). Conclusion: Some items in the neurobehavioral test, posturography test and personality test showed significant relations with biological mercury levels. Therefore, monitoring and appropriate management of students showing high mercury levels are recommended in order to reduce their mercury exposure.

Association between Amalgam Tooth Fillings and Blood Mercury Levels in Children

  • SaKong, Joon;Choi, Youn-Hee;Chung, Sun-Young;Kwon, Ho-Jang;Karmaus, Wilfried;Merchant, Anwar T.;Ha, Mi-Na;Hong, Yun-Chul;Kang, Dong-Mug;Song, Keun-Bae
    • International Journal of Oral Biology
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    • v.36 no.3
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    • pp.123-128
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    • 2011
  • The notion that dental amalgam is a potential source of mercury exposure remains a controversial issue. However, there are few epidemiological analyses that have addressed whether this occurs in children. We aimed in our current study to identify the relationship between dental amalgam filling surfaces and the blood mercury levels in a cohort of 711 South Korean children aged between 8-9 years. Oral examinations were conducted to detect the number of amalgam filling surfaces on the teeth of these individuals. Blood samples were also taken from these children to assess the levels of mercury accumulation in the body. The amalgam filling surfaces were classified into four groups based on their number: 0 (n = 368), 1-5 (n = 219), 6-10 (n = 89), and 11+ (n = 35). The blood mercury levels in the children with more than 10 amalgam surfaces was 0.47 ${\mu}g$/L higher on average than those with no amalgam surfaces after adjusting for the frequency of fish or seafood consumption, age, and gender (P < 0.05). We found from our data that a higher number of dental amalgam fillings correlated with a higher blood mercury level in Korean children. Further studies are needed to investigate whether these elevated mercury levels exert neurotoxic or nephrotoxic effects.

A study on the association between blood levels of heavy metals and periodontitis, using the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (중금속의 혈중 농도와 치주염간의 상관성에 대한 연구 : 제5기 국민건강영양조사 자료 이용)

  • Jung, Yun-Sook;Kim, Eun-Kyong
    • Journal of Korean society of Dental Hygiene
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.535-543
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    • 2019
  • Objectives: Internal exposure to certain heavy metals is thought to be associated with periodontitis. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the relationship between blood levels of heavy metals and periodontitis among the Korean population. Methods: Data from the 2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was analyzed. A total of 1,968 adults aged 19 years or above were included. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the association between blood lead levels of lead, cadmium, and mercury, and periodontitis. Confounders such as sex, age, brushing frequency, smoking, etc. were adjusted. Results: Blood levels of lead, cadmium, and mercury showed a significant relationship with periodontitis in a crude model of logistic regression analysis. However, participants with the highest blood levels of cadmium showed higher risk of periodontitis, than those with lower blood levels of cadmium (OR: 1.73; 95% CI: 1.11-2.70) after adjusting for the confounders. Conclusions: High blood levels of cadmium may be associated with periodontitis among the Korean population.