• Title, Summary, Keyword: bladder cancer

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Randomized-Control Screening Trials to Lower Gall Bladder Cancer Mortality in High Risk Populations

  • Krishnatreya, Manigreeva;Kataki, Amal Chandra
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.2325-2327
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    • 2016
  • Gall bladder cancer is generally fatal. The high morbidity and mortality due to gall bladder cancer exerts a significant impact on efforts towards cancer control in high risk populations of the World and a rationale program for control of gall bladder cancer mortality has remained as an unmet need in these populations. Currently there are no effective strategies for controlling gall bladder cancer mortality. This mini review is to highlight the need and feasibility for secondary prevention of gall bladder cancer by screening in high risk populations. A way forward is to assess the role of secondary prevention of gall bladder cancers by conducting randomized-controlled screening trials in high risk populations.

Review of Bladder cancer (방광암의 이해)

  • You, Hyun Wook
    • Journal of Korean Life Insurance Medical Association
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.18-24
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    • 2014
  • Bladder cancer is one of the most common cancers affecting men and women and thus has a profound impact on health care. The majority of patients (75%) with newly diagnosed urothelial tumors have non-muscle invasive disease confined to the bladder mucosa or the lamina propria. The most important risk factors for the development of bladder cancer are smoking and occupational exposure to toxic chemicals. Painless visible hematuria is the most common presenting symptom of bladder cancer. Cystoscopy and urine cytology are currently the recommended tools for diagnosis of bladder cancer. Excluding muscle invasion is an important diagnostic step, as outcomes for patients with muscle invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) are less favorable. For non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC), the high rate and frequency of recurrence and the concern for disease progression - especially in patients with high-risk tumors - mandate careful strategies for tumor surveillance. The surveillance strategies should be based on available prognostic factors and in particular data from the EORTC risk tables.

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Diabetes Mellitus Increases the Risk of Bladder Cancer: An Updated Meta-analysis

  • Yang, Xiao-Qing;Xu, Chen;Sun, Yan;Han, Rui-Fa
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.2583-2589
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    • 2013
  • Purpose: Studies have indicated that diabetes mellitus (DM) is a risk factor for bladder cancer; however, not all evidence supports this conclusion. The aim of this meta-analysis was to collate and evaluate all primary observational studies investigating the risk of bladder cancer associated with DM. Methods: The PubMed and Google Scholar databases were searched to identify studies that estimated the association of DM and bladder cancer. Summary effect estimates were derived using a random-effects meta-analysis model. Results: A total of 23 studies (8 case-control studies, 15 cohort studies) including 643,683 DM and 4,819,656 non-DM cases were identified. Analysis of all studies showed that DM was associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer compared with non-DM overall (OR=1.68, 95% CI 1.32-2.13). Analysis of subgroups demonstrated this to be the case in both case-control studies (OR=1.59, 95% CI 1.28-1.97, $I^2$=58%) and cohort studies (RR=1.70, 95% CI 1.23-2.33, $I^2$=96%). There was no gender difference in DM-associated bladder cancer risk. Bladder cancer risk was increased in Asia and the North America region, but not in Europe. Furthermore, DM-associated bladder cancer risk was obviously higher in Asia than North America and Europe or in those with Caucasian ethnicity. With extension of follow-up time, the bladder cancer risk was not increased for the patients with DM. Conclusions: This meta-analysis provided further evidence supporting theDM association with a significantly higher risk of bladder cancer obtained from observational studies.

Apoptin Induces Apoptosis in Human Bladder Cancer EJ and BIU-87 Cells

  • Zhan, Hui;Wang, Jian-Song;Wang, Hai-Feng;Zuo, Yi-Gang;Wang, Chun-Hui;Ding, Ming-Xia
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.135-138
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    • 2012
  • Objective: To investigate whether apoptin is a apoptosis-inducing protein with a potential for bladder cancer therapy. Methods: We constructed a PCDNA3/Apoptin eukaryotic expression vector, and transfected this vector into bladder cancer cell lines BIU-87 and EJ, then observed the results by RT-PCR, transmission electron microscopy, MTT assay and the flow cytometry (TUNEL method). Results: PCDNA3/Apoptin successfully induced a high level apoptosis in both bladder cancer cell lines, compared with the controls (p<0.05). Conclusions: Apoptin can induce high level apoptosis in human bladder cancer EJ and BIU-87 cells, which suggests a potential for human bladder cancer therapy.

Genetic Variation in PSCA is Associated with Bladder Cancer Susceptibility in a Korean Population

  • Lee, Jun-Ho;Song, Hye-Rim;Kim, Hee Nam;Kweon, Sun-Seog;Yun, Yong-Woon;Choi, Jin-Su;Jung, Seung-Il;Kwon, Dong Deuk;Kim, Soo Hyun;Choi, Yoo-Duk;Shin, Min-Ho
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.20
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    • pp.8901-8904
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    • 2014
  • Background: Genetic factors play important roles in the pathogenesis of human cancer. A recent genome wide association study (GWAS) identified an association between the rs2294008 polymorphism of the prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) gene and bladder cancer risk in Caucasians. The aim of this study was to determine whether the rs2294008 polymorphism is similarly associated with bladder cancer susceptibility in a Korean population. Materials and Methods: We conducted a case-control study of 411 bladder cancer patients and 1,700 controls. Results: The frequencies of the CC, CT, and TT genotypes of the rs2294008 polymorphism were 16.9, 54.0, and 28.8% in bladder cancer patients and 24.4, 48.1, and 27.5% in controls, respectively. We found that the combined CT/TT genotypes were associated with a significantly increased risk of bladder cancer (OR CT/TT =1.58, 95% CI= 1.15-2.17), compared with the CC genotype. Smoking habits, tumor grade and tumor stage did not modify the association between rs2294008 and the risk of bladder cancer. Conclusions: Our study showed that the rs2294008 polymorphism in the PSCA gene is associated with the risk of bladder cancer in a Korean population, providing evidence that it may contribute to bladder carcinogenesis regardless of ethnicity.

Are Bladder Neoplasms More Aggresive in Patients with a Smoking-related Second Malignancy?

  • Otunctemur, Alper;Koklu, Ismail;Ozbek, Emin;Dursun, Murat;Sahin, Suleyman;Besiroglu, Huseyin;Erkoc, Mustafa;Danis, Eyyup;Bozkurt, Muammer;Gurbuz, Ahmet
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.9
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    • pp.4025-4028
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    • 2014
  • Background: Relationships between smoking and bladder neoplasms, one of the common malignancies, are well-known. Different smoking-related malignancies may occur together. In this study, we evaluated the stage and grade of bladder neoplasms in patients also featuring lung or larynx cancer. Materials and Methods: From January 2006 to February 2012, patients who underwent surgery for bladder neoplasms in our clinic were screened retrospectively. In the evaluation, 5 patients had larynx cancer and 20 patients have lung cancer in addition, all having been smoking for a long time. The bladder tumor stage and grade were investigated in these 25 cases. Results: Mean age of patients was 66.8 (49-78). In the evaulation, all of 5 patients who had larnyx cancer also had high grade urothelial cancer. One had T2 urothelial, and 3 T1 urothelial cancer. In the same way, all of the 20 patients with lung cancer also have high grade urothelial cancer, three T2, and 13 T1. Bladder cancer stage and grade were determined to be significantly increased in patients with concomitant bladder and lung or larynx cancer. Conclusions: In the patients who have smoking releated second malignancy, bladder cancer prognosis appears more aggressive. We now need a larger series and multi-center studies for understanding relevant pathophysiology.

Possible Relation between the NOS3 Gene GLU298ASP Polymorphism and Bladder Cancer in Turkey

  • Verim, Levent;Toptas, Bahar;Ozkan, Nazli Ezgi;Cacina, Canan;Turan, Saime;Korkmaz, Gurbet;Yaylim, Ilhan
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.665-668
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    • 2013
  • Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), encoded by the NOS3 gene, has been suggested to play an important role in uncontrolled cell growth in several cancer types. The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of the NOS3 Glu298Asp polymorphism in bladder cancer susceptibility in a Turkish population. We determined the genotypes of 66 bladder cancer cases and 88 healthy controls. Genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. A significant association for NOS3 Glu298Asp heterozygotes genotypes and T allele were found between healthy controls and bladder cancer, respectively (p<0.001: p=0.002). There were no significant associations between any genotypes and the stage, grade, and histological type of bladder cancer. Our study suggested an increased risk role of NOS3 GT genotype in bladder cancer susceptibility in our Turkish population.

Bladder Cancer Biomarkers: Review and Update

  • Ghafouri-Fard, Soudeh;Nekoohesh, Leili;Motevaseli, Elahe
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.6
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    • pp.2395-2403
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    • 2014
  • As the recurrence and mortality rates of bladder cancer are high, research is needed to find suitable biomarkers for early detection, evaluation of prognosis, and surveillance of drug responses. We performed a computerized search of the Medline/PubMed databases with the key words bladder cancer, biomarker, early detection, prognosis and drug response. Several markers were identified at DNA, RNA and protein levels with different sensitivities and specificities. Only a few of the potential bladder cancer biomarkers have been approved for clinical use. Efforts now should be concentrated on finding a panel of markers with acceptable sensitivity and specificity for early detection of bladder cancer.

Research Progress in Potential Urinary Markers for the Early Detection, Diagnosis and Follow-up of Human Bladder Cancer

  • Wang, Hai-Feng;Wang, Jian-Song
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.5
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    • pp.1723-1726
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    • 2012
  • Objective: To summarize and evaluate various urinary markers for early detection, diagnosis and follow-up of human bladder cancer. Methods: A MEDLINE and PUBMED search of the latest literature on urinary markers for bladder cancer was performed. We reviewed these published reports and made a critical analysis. Results: Most urinary markers tend to be less specific than cytology, yielding more false-positive results, but demonstrating an advantage in terms of sensitivity, especially for detecting low grade, superficial tumors. Some tumor markers appear to be good candidates for early detection, diagnosis, and follow-up of human bladder cancer. Conclusion: A number of urinary markers are currently available that appear to be a applicable for clinical detection, diagnosis, and follow-up of bladder cancer. However, further studies are required to determine their accuracy and widespread applicability.

Relationship of Urinary Symptom, Urinary Discomfort and Quality of Life in Bladder Cancer and Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy of Male Patients (남성 방광암환자와 전립성비대증 환자에서 배뇨증상, 배뇨 불편감 및 삶의 만족도와의 관계에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Keum-Soon;Choi, Eun-Sook
    • The Korean Journal of Rehabilitation Nursing
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.78-87
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    • 2004
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify relationship of urinary symptom, urinary discomfort and quality of life among the bladder cancer patients and benign prostate hypertrophy patients, and to contribute health promotion of such patients and nursing intervention development based on this results. Method: Study sample recruited bladder cancer patents(n=49) and benign prostate hypertrophy patients who admitted Seoul National University Hospital from June, 2002 to June, 2003. Both group patients were operated, and prostate hypertrophy patients group (mean 67.8 years old) were older than bladder cancer patients group(60.82 years old). Instruments was composed of general characteristics, urinary symptom scale(19 items), urinary discomfort scale(19 items) and quality of life scale(21 items). Data was analysed SPSS PC + 10. using mean, standard deviation, pearson correlation coefficient. Result as follows: 1. There was a statistically significant difference in occupation between two groups (p=.027). Hypertrophy patients group's age was more older than bladder cancer patients group. 2. The prostate hypertrophy patients group had the significantly higher score in urinary symptom (p=000) and nighttime urination frequency. However, there was no significant difference in incontinence symptoms and the symptoms associated bladder cancer between two groups. 3. The prostate hypertrophy patients group had significantly higher score in urinary discomfort (p=000) than the bladder cancer patients group. However, there was no significant difference incontinence discomfort and the discomfort associated bladder cancer between two groups. 4. The prostate hypertrophy patients group suffered more urinary discomfort than the bladder cancer patients group did. The quality of life the prostate hypertrophy patients group was lower than the quality of life the bladder cancer patients group. Quality of life was no statistically significant difference between two groups (p=000). 5. There was a positive correlation between urinary symptoms and urinary discomfort. However, there was a negative correlation between the quality of life and urination symptoms and discomfort. Conclusions: The prostate hypertrophy patients group had significantly higher score in urinary symptom and urinary discomfort (p=000) than the bladder cancer patients group. The quality of life the prostate hypertrophy patients group was lower than the quality of life the bladder cancer patients group. This means that urinary symptom and urinary discomfort in prostate hypertrophy patient group is more important problem. So, prostate hypertrophy patient group need to control the symptom. Therefore, nurses will be provide the intervention program to improve the bladder function after prostate hypertrophy surgery.

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