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Literature Review of Neurogenic Bladder Care (신경인성 방광 간호에 관한 고찰)

  • Kim Won-Ock
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Fundamentals of Nursing
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.225-236
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    • 1998
  • The literature review about bladder management method given to maintain and improve health of neurogenic bladder patients was done. Because the study of neurogenic bladder patients in nursing field is not enough, I tried to find report the study tendency through literature review, 1. There are five types of neurogenic bladder such as uninhibited neurogenic bladder, reflex neurogenic bladder, autonomous neurogenic bladder, sensory paralytic neurogenic bladder, and motor paralytic neurogenic bladder. 2. The accurate assessment of neurogenic bladder is done mainly through urodynamics and especially cystometrogram and urethrogram are used. 3. As the study of therapeutic management, the effect of Desmopressin, bladder auto-augmentation, incision of external urethral sphincter muscle, subarachnoid block and pudendal never block using phenol was studied. 4. For the study of general management, the effect of bladder training progam, intermittent catheterization and infection control has been studied but there has not been any obvious study in nursing field. Reviewed the study condition, it is necessary to develope bladder training program in order to increase life quality of neurogenic bladder patients.

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Photon Defects due to the Gall Bladder on Hepatic Parenchymal Scintigraphy (간실질신티그램상 담낭으로 인한 결손음영)

  • Moon, Tae-Yong;Kim, Yong-Ki;Kim, Dong-Soo
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.17-24
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    • 1987
  • Authors classified 161 cases of photon defects due to the gall bladder on hepatic parenchymal scintigraphy on $^{99m}Tc-phytate$ and $^{99m}Tc-DISIDA$ according to the position of the gall bladder, the pattern of photon defects and the hepatobiliary diseases. The results were as follows; 1) Conocordance of $^{99m}Tc-DISIDA$ and $^{99m}Tc-phytate$ hepatic parenchymal images in photon defect due to the gall bladder was 94% of 32 cases. 2) The frequency according to the position of the gall bladder was in order to 68% of the gall bladder of the lower margin of the liver, 30% of the intrahepatic gall bladder and 2% of the extrahepatic gall bladder, and the frequency of the photon defects due to the gall bladder was in order to 81% of the intrahepatic gall bladder, 71% of the gall bladder of the lower margin of the liver and 20% of the extrahepatic gall bladder. 3) The pattern of the photon defects due to the gall bladder was 47% of funnel shape in the intrahepatic gall bladder, 69% of semilunar shape in the gall bladder of the lower margin of the liver and 100% of semilunar shape in the extrahepatic gall bladder. 4) All of 9 cases of the intrahepatic gall bladder at the lateral area of the right lobe and the gall bladder of the lower margin of the liver at the right hepatic angle were associated with liver cirrhosis with the right lobe atrophy and the left lobe hypertrophy, 2 cases of the gall bladder of the lower margin of the liver at just-left side of the porta hepatis with hepatoma in the right lobe and 1 case of the intrahepatic gall bladder at the central portion of the right lobe with choledochal cyst.

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Effect of Bladder Wall Thickness Through Change of Bladder Volume and Material Properties on Detrusor activity Study (체적의 변화를 통한 방광벽 두께와 기계적 재료상수 변화가 배뇨근 활동에 미치는 영향)

  • Jun, Su-Min;Lee, Moon-Kyu;Choi, Bum-Kyoo
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering
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    • v.29 no.5
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    • pp.584-590
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    • 2012
  • The structural and functional disorder of a detrusor induces a bladder hypertrophy and degenerates a bladder muscle gradually by preventing normal urination. Thus, the thickness of the bladder wall has been increased in proportion to the degree of bladder outlet obstruction. In this study, the mechanical characteristics of the detrusor is analyzed for the physical properties and the thickness changes of the bladder muscle using a mathematically analytic method. In order to obtain the mechanical property of the bladder muscle, the tensile test of porcine bladder tissue is performed because its property is similar to that of human. The result of tensile test is applied to the mathematically model as Mooney Rivlin coefficients which represent the hyperelastic material. The model of the bladder is defined as the spherical shape with the initial volume of 50ml. The principal stress and strain according to the thickness are analyzed. Also, computer simulations for three types of the material property for the model of the bladder are performed based on the fact that the stiffness of the bladder is weakened as the progress of the benign prostatic hyperplasia. As a result, the principal stress is 341kPa at the initial thickness of 2.2mm, and is 249kPa at 6.5mm. As the bladder wall thickness increases, the principal stress decreases. The principal stress and strain decrease as the stiffness of the bladder decreases under the same thinkness.

Bladder filling variations during concurrent chemotherapy and pelvic radiotherapy in rectal cancer patients: early experience of bladder volume assessment using ultrasound scanner

  • Chang, Jee Suk;Yoon, Hong In;Cha, Hye Jung;Chung, Yoonsun;Cho, Yeona;Keum, Ki Chang;Koom, Woong Sub
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.41-47
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    • 2013
  • Purpose: To describe the early experience of analyzing variations and time trends in bladder volume of the rectal cancer patients who received bladder ultrasound scan. Materials and Methods: We identified 20 consecutive rectal cancer patients who received whole pelvic radiotherapy (RT) and bladder ultrasound scan between February and April 2012. Before simulation and during the entire course of treatment, patients were scanned with portable automated ultrasonic bladder scanner, 5 times consecutively, and the median value was reported. Then a radiation oncologist contoured the bladder inner wall shown on simulation computed tomography (CT) and calculated its volume. Results: Before simulation, the median bladder volume measured using simulation CT and bladder ultrasound scan was 427 mL (range, 74 to 1,172 mL) and 417 mL (range, 147 to 1,245 mL), respectively. There was strong linear correlation (R = 0.93, p < 0.001) between the two results. During the course of treatment, there were wide variations in the bladder volume and every time, measurements were below the baseline with statistical significance (12/16). At 6 weeks after RT, the median volume was reduced by 59.3% to 175 mL. Compared to the baseline, bladder volume was reduced by 38% or 161 mL on average every week for 6 weeks. Conclusion: To our knowledge, this study is the first to prove that there are bladder volume variations and a reduction in bladder volume in rectal cancer patients. Moreover, our results will serve as the basis for implementation of bladder training to patients receiving RT with full bladder.

A New Ultrasound Bladder Scanner to Estimate Urine Volume Using Hand-Motion Scan (손 동작 스캔을 이용한 잔뇨량 측정용 초음파 방광 스캐너)

  • Lee, Jung Hwan;Bae, Jung Ho;Lee, Soo Yeol;Cho, Min Hyoung
    • Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research
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    • v.39 no.4
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    • pp.153-160
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    • 2018
  • 3D ultrasound bladder scanners are getting popular in hospitals for the patients with bladder dysfunction. A current bladder scanner adopts a mechanical scan to acquire 3D images and requires two motors and complicated mechanical devices. In this paper, we propose a new ultrasound bladder scanner using hand-motion scan. Instead of two motors and mechanical devices, it has a motion sensor to record transducer positions during hand-motion scan. The experiments with a bladder phantom and volunteers showed similar measurement accuracy to a conventional 3D ultrasound bladder scanner. We expect that the proposed method will reduce the cost and size of the bladder scanner.

A Study on the Curing Bladder Shaping of Tire by Finite Element Method Using Contact Element (접촉요소를 이용한 유한요소법에 의한 타이어 가류브레더 팽창거동에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Hang-Woo;Hwang, Gab-Woon;Cho, Kyu-Zong
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.378-384
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    • 1997
  • In curing process of tire, contact and slip occurs between green tire and curing bladder. The curing process is a critical step in the manufacture of tires. In this investigation, curing bladder shaping is examined using a finite element method. Specifically, a finite element model between the inner part of green tire and the outer part of curing bladder is generated using contact element and curing bladder is generated using incompressible element. Numerical analysis are performed on two different bladder types, different overall outer diameters of curing bladder and different heights of curing bladder. Numerical results show that contact pressure is increased by using toroidal type of curing bladder, increasing overall diameter and increasing height of curing bladder. To obtain natural equilibrium carcass line, there is a requirement in increasing contact pressure of the section between side and bead.

Urinary bladder rupture during voiding cystourethrography

  • Lee, Kyong-Ok;Park, Se-Jin;Shin, Jae-Il;Lee, Suk-Young;Kim, Kee-Hyuck
    • Korean Journal of Pediatrics
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    • v.55 no.5
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    • pp.181-184
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    • 2012
  • Voiding cystourethrography (VCUG) is a commonly performed diagnostic procedure for the evaluation of vesicoureteral reflux with urinary tract infection or congenital renal diseases in children. The procedure is relatively simple and cost-effective, and complications are very rare. The iatrogenic complication of VCUG range from discomfort, urinary tract infection to bacteremia, as well as bladder rupture. Bladder rupture is a rare complication of VCUG, and only a few cases were reported. Bladder rupture among healthy children during VCUG is an especially uncommon event. Bladder rupture associated with VCUG is usually more common in chronically unused bladders like chronic renal failure. Presented is a case of bladder rupture that occurred during a VCUG in a healthy 9-month-old infant, due to instilled action of dye by high pressure. This injury completely healed after 7 days of operation, and it was confirmed with a postoperative cystography. The patient's bladder volume, underlying disease, velocity of the contrast media instilled, catheter size, and styles of instillation are important factors to prevent bladder rupture during VCUG. Management of bladder rupture should be individualized, but the majority of infants are treated with the operation. In conclusion, bladder rupture is a rare complication, however, delicate attention is needed in order to prevent more dire situations.

Examination of the Presence and Differential Expression of Connexin Isoforms in the Urinary Bladder of the Male Rat During Postnatal Period

  • Lee, Ki-Ho
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.54 no.6
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    • pp.419-425
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    • 2012
  • The coordinated action of the detrusor muscle cells in the urinary bladder is governed by cell-cell communication through gap junction, consisted of connexin (Cx) molecules. Even though a number of researches have been mostly focused on expressional changes of a few Cx isoforms in clinically dysfunctional condition of the bladder, less attention has been paid for investigation of Cx isoforms present in the bladder. Using real-time PCR analysis, the present study examined Cx isoforms expressing in the male rat bladder during postnatal period. Also, expressional patterns of Cx isoforms were evaluated in the bladder at different postnatal ages. Of a total of 13 Cx isoforms tested in the present study, we were able to detect mRNAs of 6 Cx isoforms in the rat urinary bladder, including Cxs 31, 31.1, 32, 37, 40, and 45. The transcript levels of Cxs 31, 31.1, 37, 40, and 45 were gradually increased from 1 week of age until 25 days of age, followed by transient decreases at 45 days of age. However, abundance of Cx32 transcript was drastically increased at 15 days of age, followed by a sharp drop at 45 days of age. These results indicate that differential expression of Cx isoforms in the bladder during postnatal development would be necessary for maintaining proper function of the bladder. A question remains to be answered if significant decreases of transcript levels of some Cx isoforms at the elderly are associated with age-dependent dysfunction of the bladder.

A Study on the Curing Bladder Shaping of Tire by FEM (타이어 가류브레더 팽창거동에 관한 유한요소해석)

  • 김항우;황갑운;조규종
    • Proceedings of the Computational Structural Engineering Institute Conference
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    • pp.184-191
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    • 1996
  • In curing Process of tire, Contact and slip occurs between green tire and curing bladder. The curing process is a critical step in the manufacture of tires. In this investigation, curing bladder shaping is examined using a finite element method. Specifically, a finite element model between the inner part of green tire and the outer part of curing bladder is generated using contact element and curing bladder is generated using incompressible element, The experimental tensile tests are used to get the material properties of bladder rubber on practical conditions. Numerical analyses are performed on two different bladder types, different overall outer diameters of curing bladder and different heights of curing bladder.

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A New Algorithm to Estimate Urine Volume from 3D Ultrasound Bladder Images (3D 초음파 영상에서 방광 내 잔뇨량 추정을 위한 새로운 알고리즘)

  • Cho, Tae Sik;Lee, Soo Yeol;Cho, Min Hyoung
    • Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research
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    • v.37 no.1
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    • pp.31-38
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    • 2016
  • For the patients with bladder dysfunction, measurement of urine volume inside the bladder is very critical to avoid bladder failure. In measuring urine volume inside a bladder, low-resolution 3D ultrasound images are widely used. However, urine volume estimation from 3D ultrasound images is prone to big errors and inconsistency because of low spatial resolution and low signal-to-noise ratio of ultrasound images. We developed a new robust volume estimation algorithm which is not computationally expensive. We tested the algorithm on a lab-built ultrasound bladder phantom and volunteers. The average error rate of the human bladder volume estimation was 5.9% which was better than the commercial machine.