• Title, Summary, Keyword: black snail

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Unrecorded Pulmonate Snail, Onchidium hongkongensis (Systellommatophora, Onchidiidae) from Korean Waters

  • Kil, Hyun-Jong;Lee, Jun-Sang
    • The Korean Journal of Malacology
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.191-192
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    • 2011
  • Pulmonate snail, Onchidium hongkongensis from muddy flat of Muan-gun was recorded as new to the Korean molluscan fauna. Shell-less body light-gray or reddish-gray in colour, oval shaped with numerous pustules on dorsal surface usually covered with mud. Black pair of tentacles with terminal eyes. Including the new record in this study, the family Onchidiidae 2 genera and 2 species in the Korean waters.

Quality Characteristics of Calcium Acetate Prepared with Vinegars and Ash of Black Snail (식초와 다슬기회분을 이용하여 제조한 초산칼슘의 품질 특성)

  • 이명예;이예경;김순동
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.593-597
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    • 2004
  • This study was conducted to investigate the quality characteristics of liquid calcium acetate (LCAs) and solid calcium acetate (SCAs), Br-LCA, Pe-LCA and Ap-LCA as liquid form, Br-SCA, Pe-SCA and Ap-SCA as solid form. Calcium acetate was prepared by reacting of vinegars [brown rice (Br), persimmons (Pe) and apple (Ap)] and ash of black snail in order to obtain natural water soluble calcium resources. The pHs of the vinegars for preparing calcium acetate (CA) were the range of 2.34 ∼ 3.06, and the contents of the ash of black snail which reacted to 100 mL of the vinegars were 20.43∼23.50 g. The yields of solid CAs from 100 mL of the vinegars were 11.02∼13.01 g. The colors of liquid and solid CAs were light yellow in Ap-LCA and Ap-SCA, brown in Br-LCA and Br-SCA, dark brown in Pe-LCA and Pe-SCA. Calcium contents of Br-LCA, Pe-LCA and Ap-LCA were 3.02, 2.06 and 2.30% (w/v), and those of Br-SCA, Pe-SCA and Ap-SCA were 27.15, 16.31 and 19.48% (w/w), respectively. The solubilities of the solid CAs were 36.82 ∼ 39.92% (w/v) in distilled water, 32.05 ∼ 39.04% (w/v) in Soju, 13.12 ∼ 18.65% (w/v) in thick soysauce, 38.35 ∼ 38.90% (w/v) in ionic beverage, 33.47 ∼ 35.58% (w/v) in yoghurt, while the solid CAs formed the curds in soymilk and milk. The sour and bitter taste of the CAs were lower, while the astringent taste, fishy flavor and savory taste were higher than those of standard CA.

Effect of Calcium Lactate Prepared from Black Snail on Dough Fermentation, Quality and Shelf-life of Bread (다슬기로 제조한 칼슘 락테이트가 반죽의 발효와 빵의 품질 및 저장성에 미치는 영향)

  • 이예경;이명예;김순동
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.136-144
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    • 2003
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effect of 0.5% calcium lactate(CaL) on the fermentation of dough and quality and shelf-life of bread. Calcium lactates(CaL-A and CaL-P) were prepared from ash of black snail which contained shell and tissue together(ABS) and powder of the snail(PSB). pH of dough with the CaLs were higher than that of the control md, volume of the dough, loaf volume of bread were lower than those of the control products. But the volumes were almost the same when the pH of the dough were adjusted to pH 5.5. Mean calcium contents of treated bread (39.36~49.70 mg/100 g) were higher than that of control products(13.43 mg/100 g). There was no difference in Hunter $L^{*}$, $a^{*}$, $b^{*}$ values between the control and the treated group. Hardness and gumminess of CaL-A treated bread were the highest, but springiness and cohesiveness were the lowest. All the attributes showed no difference in case of pH adjustment(pH 5.5). The smaller pore and larger air cell with rough surface were observed in the CaL treated bread by SEM analysis. Sensory scores of CaL treated bread showed relatively lower values than those of the control products, but the scores increased by pH adjustment. The shelf-life of bread with CaL-P and CaL-A at 2$0^{\circ}C$ were 4 and 3 days, respectively, while that of the control group 1 day.day.y.

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Preparation and Characteristics of Calcium Lactate from Black Snail

  • Lee, Ye-Kyung;Kim, Soon-Dong
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.166-172
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    • 2003
  • Calcium lactate (CL) prepared from powdered black snail (PBS) or its ashed powder (ABS), was investigated for ideal manufacturing conditions to optimize color, solubility and sensory quality. Based on the amount of PBS and 100 mL lactic acid (LA), the yields of PBS-CL were 300% and 15 g in 10% LA and 260% and 20 g in 20% LA. Yields of ABS-CL based on the amount ABS and 100 mL LA were 400% and 60 g in 10% LA and 329% and 66 g in 20% LA. Both of the yields were decreased with an increase of the LA concentration on the basis of PBS and ABS amounts, but proportionally increased with the increment in the LA concentration on the basis of LA volume. Optimal preparation times of the dehydrated PBS-CL and ABS-CL were, respectively, 4 hr and 5 hr at 10$0^{\circ}C$, 3 hr and 4 hr at 12$0^{\circ}C$, and 1 hr and 2 hr at 15$0^{\circ}C$, which showed shorter time in preparing the dehydrated ABS-CL. PBS-CL and ABS-CL were confirmed to be Ca($CH_3$CHOH$CO_2$)$_2$ by the analysis results of IR and $^1$H-NMR. Calcium contents of the anhydrous PBS-CL and ABS-CL were individually 15.4% (w/w) and 17.3% (w/w) representing 84.2% and 94.5% or each theoretical value. Colors or PBS-CL and ABS-CL were light yellow and light-greenish white each. Solubilities of PBS- CL and ABS-CL in distilled water at pH 3~8 were 5.43 and 6.11 g/100 mL, respectively, which demonstrated higher mean solubilities rather than the 4.74 g/100 mL of standard CL. Solubilities of PBS-CL (3.14~5.03 g/100 mL) and ABS-CL (4.69~6.05 g/100 mL) against soup soy sauce, 3% brine, Soju (Korean distilled liquor), thick soy sauce, grape juice and orange juice were higher than those of standard CL (2.94~5.84 g/100 mL). ABS-CL was believed to have a wide use range due to its low sourness while different applications of PBS-CL in food are expected due to its mild astringent taste and strong savory taste despite its strong bitter taste as estimated by sensory evaluation.

The Surgical Management of Aspirated Foreign Bodies in Airways (기도내 이물의 외과적 처치에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Ju-Hyeon;Kim, Sam-Hyun
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.331-338
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    • 1981
  • The inhalation of a foreign body into the tracheobronchial tree is a child is a life-threatening accident. Forgotten foreign bodies In the airways cause chronic pulmonary infections, allergic asthma, bronchiectatic changes, and lung abscess Foreign bodies that cannot be grasped by bronchoscopic forceps should be removed by thoracotomy and bronchotomy. This report describes our experience In 16 patients who were treated to remove inhaled foreign bodies from the airways after repeated bronchoscopies had been unsuccessful from 1963 to 1981 at the department thoracic surgery of Seoul National University Hospital. The surgical procedures are as follows: 12 patients bronchotomy, 2 patient pneumonectomy, 2 patients lobectomy. In these cases, the foreign bodies are 8 metallic material, 3 plastic material, 1 bean, 1 black snail, and 3 cases of no records. Bronchotomy must be performed as soon as possible in order to avoid more advanced pathologic changes In the Involved lung, such as bronchiectasis, fibrosis or abscess.

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Shelf-life and Quality Characteristics of Tofu Coagulated by Calcium Lactate (젖산칼슘을 응고제로 한 두부의 품질특성과 저장성)

  • 이명예;김순동
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.412-419
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    • 2004
  • To investigate the utilization of calcium lactates (CaL) as coagulants for tofu manufacture, the quality characteristics and shelf-life of tofu made by CaL-P (black snail powder) and CaL-A (black snail ash) were investigated and compared to calcium chloride (CC), magnesium chloride (MC), calcium sulfate (CS ) and standard calcium lactate (CaL-S). And also, total microbe and turbidity of the tofu were determined during storage at 1$0^{\circ}C$. Coagulation ability of CaL-A was the highest, and the ability of CaL-P was higher than that of CaL-S. Yield of CaL-A tofu was similar to those of CS and CC tofu, while the yield of CaL-P tofu was 50% compared to that of CC. L* value of CaL-P tofu was lower, but a* and b* values were higher than those of other tofus. The hardness of tofu showed in the order of CaL-S>CS>CC>CaL-P>MC>CaL-A, while the cohesiveness showed in the order of MC>CaL-S>CC>CS>CaL-P>CaL-A. Calcium contents were 57 mg% in MC tofu, 174 mg% in CS tofu, 116 mg% in CaL-S tofu, 95 mg% in CaL-A tofu and 172 mg% in CaL-P tofu. From the results of microscopic observations, the lower hardness showed the more soft and the smaller particle. The particle of CaL-A tofu was small and uniformity but the size of CaL-P and CC tofu showed coarse. Sensory quality of CaL-P and -A tofu were better than the other tofu evaluated by texture, springiness, flavor and overall taste. The shelf-life estimated by total microbe was 4∼6 days in CC, MC, CS, CaL-S and CaL-A tofu, but 8 days in CaL-P tofu at 1$0^{\circ}C$. From the above results, the CaL-P and -A may believe to use as coagulant for tofu manufacture due to its softened taste and enhanced shelf-life, and higher calcium content which has higher absorbability in human body.

Effect of Calcium Acetate on the Dough Fermentation and Quality Characteristics of Bread (Calcium Acetate의 첨가가 반죽의 발효와 빵의 품질특성에 미치는 영향)

  • 이예경;이명예;김순동
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.13 no.6
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    • pp.608-614
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    • 2003
  • This study was conducted to investigate the quality characteristic of bread added with 0, 2, 4 and 8% liquid calcium acetate(LCA-breads) to the dough prepared with brown rice, vinegar and ash of black snail replacing wheat flour. The pH of the dough was 5.38 in control and 5.39∼5.42 in the LCA-broads, which showed that the higher the content of LCA, the higher the pH. There was no big difference of the baking loss between control (10.73%) and LCA-breads(10.11∼10.81%). The loaf volume index was 7.12 in the control, 7.18 in the 2% LCA-bread, while the index was 6.22 in the 4% LCA-bread, 5.80 in the 8% LCA-bread. Calcium content was 16 mg% in the control, 30, 60 and 120 mg% in 2, 4 and 8% LCA-bread, respectively. The hardness, gumminess and brittleness of LCA-breads were higher, while springiness and cohesiveness were lower than that of the control. In the LCA-breads, $L^{*}$ values were lower and $b^{*}$ value was higher than those of the control, while there were no significant difference in af values. Increasing the LCA, air cells were bigger and irregular, and starch matrix was unstable. There were no significant difference in sour and bitter taste. The scores of stickiness of the 2∼4% LCA-breads were similar to that of the control and higher in the 8% LCA-bread. The scores of the flavor and overall taste in the LCA-breads were similar to the control, while the values were lower in the 4∼8% LCA-breads. The shelf-life evaluated by the number of moldy spots was not different between the control and 2% LCA-bread, while it was extended two times in 4% and three times in the 8% LCA-bread.ead.

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Effects of Calcium Lactate and Chungkukjang on Calcium Status in Rat

  • Lee, Ye-Kyung;Lee, Myung-Ye;Kim, Mee-Kyung;Choe, Won-Kyung;Kim, Soon-Dong
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.45-52
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    • 2004
  • Effects of dietary calcium lactate (CaL-A) and Chungkukjang (Korean native fermented soybean) on bone mass, calcium status, body weight, serum glucose and cholesterol levels in young male rats were investigated. Chungkukjang was fermented by mixing 4 types of Bacillus sp., and then dried at 45$^{\circ}C$. Calcium lactate was prepared from the ash of black snail. The rats were fed a commercial rat diet for 1 week and then the experimental diets for 4 weeks. Animals were divided into four dietary groups: one calcium-deficient diet (Ca-De) and one of three with calcium supplemented diets (5 g calcium/kg diet) with either calcium phosphate (Ca-P), CaL-A, or CaL-A + Chuntkukjang (CaL-AC). Calcium supplemented diets contained 39 g Ca-P/kg diet and 28 g/kg of calcium lactate in the CaL-A and CaL-AC diets. Body weight gains during the 4 weeks in the Ca-P, CaL-A, CaL-AC and Ca-De groups were 130.45 g,112.50 g, 143.40 g and 10.20 g, respectively. Feed consumption of the groups from high to low was CaL-AC > Ca-P > CaL-A > Ca-De. The Ca-De group had low femur weights and low serum calcium concentrations, while they were comparatively high in CaL-AC, Ca-P and CaL-A groups. The Ca-De groups excreted less calcium in urine than did the other rats, probably due to increased absorption of the mineral in Ca-P, CaL-A and CaL-AC groups. Microscopic observations revealed that there were many regularly spaced holes in the femur of Ca-De group, while there were much smaller regularly spaced holes in Ca-P group. However, no holes in femur were observed in the CaL-A and CaL-AC groups. Bone surfaces were especially smooth and clean in the CaL-AC group. Serum concentrations of glucose and total cholesterol were remarkably lower in the CaL-AC group than in the other supplemented groups. These results suggest that calcium from CaL-A has higher bioavailability than from Ca-P, and dietary Chungkukjang may have a beneficial effect on calcium metabolism.

Environmental Impact Assessment of Uranium Anormaly in Stream System around the Shinbo Talc Mine (신보활석광산 주변에 형성된 우라늄 이상치가 지표수계 환경에 미치는 영향)

  • 나춘기;정재일
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.33 no.4
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    • pp.261-271
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    • 2000
  • In order to evaluate the environmental impact of U anormaly in the drainage system around the Shinbo talc mine area, U contents, their distribution patterns, bioaccumulation and a-radioactivity in stream water, stream sediments and aquatic organisms were investigated. The U contents of stream water attenuated with increasing distance from the mine area. The same attenuation pattern is shown in stream sediments from mine to 0.75 km downstream, although these contain highly enriched U contents (24~83 mg/kg) comparing with the international average concentration of surface soils (0.79~11 mg/kg). However, U content increases abruptly in sediment at 1.5 km downstream, probably due to detrital migration and rediposition of U enriched sediments. Futhermore, enriched U in downstream sediments occur in high proportions of carbonate and Fe-Mn oxide bounded forms, which show high potential of a secondary pollution source. For aquatic organisms, bio accumulation degree of U are in the order: aquatic larvae>black snail>mountain frog>crawfish. Cultured trout by the U enrich groundwater (387 ${\mu}g$/l) shows U accumulation in the part of branchia (CRs 5.25) and bones (CRs 11.2) but not in flesh (CRs 0.03). Total a-radioactivity have been measured in the level as 0.47 nCi/l for groundwater, 2.94~18 nCi/kg${\cdot}$DW for organisms and 93~328 nCi/kg${\cdot}$DW for sediments.

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Calcium Lactate Treatment after Salting of Chinese Cabbage Improves Firmness and Shelf-life of Kimchi

  • Lee, Myung-Ye;Kim, Soon-Dong
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.8 no.3
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    • pp.270-277
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    • 2003
  • In order to enhance the firmness and shelf-life of kimchi, as well as to increase the content of well-absorbed digestible calcium, the effect of calcium lactate (CaL) treatment of salted Chinese cabbage on pH, tit ratable acidity, total microbes, lactic acid bacteria, alcohol insoluble substance (AIS) content, firmness, mineral content and tissue structure were investigated. Treatment with the Cal solution increased pH and decreased titratable acidity, which was more pronounced at higher concentrations. The edible period evaluated by pH was 7~8 days for non-treated kimchi, 10 days for 1 % treated kimchi, 15 days for 2% treated kimchi and 20 days for 3% treated kimchi. Total microbes were reduced, but lactic acid bacteria counts were higher in the treated group. CaL treated kimchi showed higher AIS content and firmer texture, which was more conspicuous in the 2 and 3% CaL treated groups. Calcium content in kimchi fermented for 15 days was 40.75~41.53 mg%, which is 42~45% higher than that in the control group. The sodium content was 23~54% less in the treated groups. The epidermis and vascular bundle tissue of kimchi fermented for 15 day was damaged more severely in the control group than in the treated group. CaL treated kimchi has a crispier taste and the development of sour taste was delayed. Therefore, addition of CaL can produces a kimchi with high calcium as well as superior texture and shelf-life, when adjusting the concentration according to the fermentation periods.