• Title, Summary, Keyword: black garlic

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Quality Characteristics of Jelly with Black Garlic (흑마늘을 이용한 기능성 젤리의 품질 특성)

  • Lee, Ji-Yeon;Yoon, Ho-Young;Kim, Mee-Ree
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.25 no.6
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    • pp.832-838
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    • 2010
  • In this study, the quality characteristics of jelly with black garlic (0, 10, 20, and 30%) were evaluated. The pH of jelly with black garlic decreased according to the amount of black garlic added. The sugar content of the jelly increased significantly with added black garlic. Lightness, redness, and yellowness decreased with increasing black garlic content. Moreover, the textural properties, which included hardness, springiness, cohesiveness, gumminess, and chewiness decreased in jelly that contained black garlic compared to the controls. Additionally, the antioxidant activity of jelly that contained black garlic increased in a concentration dependent manner. The $IC_{50}$ values of the DPPH radical scavenging activity for jelly that contained 10, 20 and 30% black garlic were 132.47, 50.97, 40.06, and 30.41 mg/mL, respectively. The $IC_{50}$ values of the hydroxyl radical scavenging activity of jelly decreased as the black garlic concentration increased. Finally, sensory results showed that the scores of over-all preference and buying intention for jelly with 20% black garlic were the highest.

Antioxidant effect of garlic and aged black garlic in animal model of type 2 diabetes mellitus

  • Lee, Young-Min;Gweon, Oh-Cheon;Seo, Yeong-Ju;Im, Ji-Eun;Kang, Min-Jung;Kim, Myo-Jeong;Kim, Jung-In
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.156-161
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    • 2009
  • Hyperglycemia in the diabetic state increases oxidative stress and antioxidant therapy can be strongly correlated with decreased risks for diabetic complications. The purpose of this study is to determine antioxidant effect of garlic and aged black garlic in animal model of type 2 diabetes. The antioxidant activity of garlic and aged black garlic was measured as the activity in scavenging free radicals by the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay. Three week-old db/db mice were fed AIN-93G diet or diet containing 5% freeze-dried garlic or aged black garlic for 7 weeks after 1 week of adaptation. Hepatic levels of lipid peroxides and activities of antioxidant enzymes were measured. TEAC values of garlic and aged black garlic were $13.3{\pm}0.5$ and $59.2{\pm}0.8{\mu}mol/g$ wet weight, respectively. Consumption of aged black garlic significantly decreased hepatic thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) level compared with the garlic group which showed lower TBARS level than control group (p<0.05). Activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) of garlic and aged black garlic group were significantly elevated compared to the control group. Catalase (CAT) activity of aged black garlic group was increased compared with the control group. These results show that aged black garlic exerts stronger antioxidant activity than garlic in vitro and in vivo, suggesting garlic and aged black garlic, to a greater extent, could be useful in preventing diabetic complications.

Quality Characteristics of Vinegar Added with Different Levels of Black Garlic (흑마늘의 첨가량을 달리한 식초의 품질특성)

  • Sim, Hye Jin;Seo, Weon Taek;Choi, Myoung Hyo;Kim, Kyoung Hwa;Shin, Jung Hye;Kang, Min Jung
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.16-26
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    • 2016
  • In this study, we aimed to develop functional vinegar with different levels of black garlic through two stages of fermentation. Black garlic vinegars were prepared from black garlic and water (w/w) mixed with 1:2 (BG3), 1:5 (BG6), 1:9 (BG9) and 1:11 (BG12), and adding the sugar by adjusting the soluble solids content to $14^{\circ}Brix$. The alcohol content of black garlic vinegar was 5.2-5.5% after 7 days of alcohol fermentation at $25^{\circ}C$. Acetic acid fermented was at $30^{\circ}C$ for 25 days and samples were taken at 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 20 and 25 days. The pH of black garlic vinegar was not significantly different among the samples, but acidity was increased during fermentation. Total polyphenol contents showed irregular changes with the fermentation periods and were higher by black garlic content. At 25 days fermentation, total polyphenol contents were 18.96-56.56 mg/100 mL. Acetic acid content of black garlic vinegars was higher than other organic acids. S-allyl cysteine (SAC) contents of BG3 and BG6 were 13.03-14.54 and 1.69-2.20 mg/L, respectively. However SAC was not detected in BG9 and BG12. In 25 days fermented black garlic vinegar, the major mineral was K with a content ratio of 61-68% of total minerals. The DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activity of 25 days fermented black garlic vinegar were stronger at higher black garlic content.

Analysis of Biological Activity by Time of Black Garlic Ripening in Seosan Yukjok Garlic and Elephant Garlic (서산육쪽·코끼리마늘의 흑마늘 숙성 시기별 생리활성 분석)

  • Cho, Yong-Koo;Ann, Seoung-Won;Jang, Myoung-Jun;Oh, Tae-Seok;Oh, Min-Gyo;Park, Youn-Jin;Kim, Chang-ho
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.29 no.5
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    • pp.469-477
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    • 2020
  • This study analyzed the quality characteristics of black garlic made from Seosan Yukjok Garlic and elephant garlic in Seosan, Chungnam province. Of the inorganic components, Mg content was the highest in all treatment groups, and the Ca content was high in each of the 15 day treatments. The content of K was high after 10 days aging in Yukjok garlic and after 15 days in the elephant garlic. The Fe, Na, K, and Mg content was high in Yukjok black garlic after 15 days, and Na, K, Ca, and Mg were high in the elephant black garlic aged for 15 days. The crude fat content was high in both Yukjok black garlic and elephant black garlic after 15 days. Vitamin C content was highest in both types of garlic after aging for 15 days. An analysis of four kinds of organic acids showed that citric acid was the only organic acid to appear in raw garlic of Yukjok garlic and elephant garlic. Black Yukjok garlic and elephant black garlic had a greater total amino acid content than the raw garlic of either type. However, among the tested amino acids, 13 kinds of amino acids were at their highest after five days of ripening in Yukjok black garlic, while 15 kinds of amino acids were abundant in elephant garlic after the same period. Eight kinds of amino acids were high after aging for 15 days. Through this study, it was confirmed that, in the process of making black garlic, changes in the main components of the garlic occur through different routes, and these changes vary depending on the garlic species. Therefore, this study provided basic data for the processing of Seosan's Yukjok black garlic and elephant black garlic.

Quality Characteristics and Antioxidant Activity of Soy Sauce with Added Levels of Black Garlic Extract (흑마늘 추출액의 첨가 농도에 따른 간장의 품질특성 및 항산화 활성)

  • Choi, Myoung Hyo;Kang, Jae Ran;Kang, Min Jung;Sim, Hye Jin;Lee, Chang Kwon;Kim, Gyoung Min;Kim, Dong Gyu;Shin, Jung Hye
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.188-196
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    • 2016
  • Purpose: In order to develop soy sauce and increase its functionality, by adding black garlic extract. Methods: We compared quality characteristics and antioxidant activity of 20 days aging black garlic soy sauce from mixed manufacturers with raw soy sauce (commercial fermented soy sauce) and different ratio of black garlic extract (65 Brix, 0.3-5.0%). Results: The salt content of the black garlic extract (0.3-5.0%) added soy sauce were 12.35-12.77%. The pH was lowered to 4.99, and acidity was increased to 2.12%, depending on the increase in black garlic extract added ratio. The crude protein and total nitrogen contents were 6.23-6.62% and 1.10-1.16%, respectively, and content of amino form nitrogen was 0.52-0.53%, without significant differences between experimental groups. Contents of reducing sugar and free sugars (fructose and glucose) tended to be higher with higher mixing ratios of black garlic extract. Total phenolic compounds and flavonoids contents were significantly increased in the 3% and 5% black garlic extract addition group. At concentrations of 62.5, 125, 250, 500, 1,000 and $2,000{\mu}g/mL$, the DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activity of the polysaccharides isolated from control soy sauce and 5% black garlic extract added soy sauce showed higher correlation with their concentration. Conclusion: These results, confirmed that the soy sauce produced by adding more than 3% of black garlic extract has high antioxidant activity.

Monitoring for Rheological Properties of Black Jam Produced by Black Ginseng and Black Garlic (흑삼 및 흑마늘을 이용한 블랙잼 유동특성 모니터링)

  • Lee, Gee-Dong
    • Journal of the Korean Applied Science and Technology
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    • v.37 no.2
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    • pp.183-191
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    • 2020
  • This study monitored the rheological properties of jams manufactured using the black ginseng and black garlic. The conditions for mixing black jam were black ginseng (X1, 30-54 g), black garlic (X2, 75-135 g), pectin 4.5 g, apple paste 270 g, and fructo-oligosaccharide 360 g. The response surface analysis was performed with springiness, cohesiveness, chewiness, brittleness and gumminess. The R2s of the regression equation for springiness, cohesiveness, chewiness, brittleness and gumminess were recognized at a significant level of 5 to 10 %, with 0.8948, 0.9103, 0.9032, 0.9097, and 0.8561, respectively. The combination conditions of black ginseng and black garlic with the highest springiness of black jam were found to be 194.39% (springiness) with black ginseng 54.00 g and black garlic 105.83 g, while the conditions of black ginseng and black garlic mixing with the lowest springiness were found to be 164.11% with black ginseng 31.48 g and black garlic 119.43 g. The mixing conditions of black ginseng and black garlic with the highest cohesiveness of black jam and its consistency were 40.96% (cohesiveness) with black ginseng 48.85 g and black garlic 129.62 g, while black ginseng and black garlic combination conditions with the lowest cohesiveness were found to be 32.96% with black ginseng 50.06 g and black garlic 82.77 g. Black ginseng and black garlic mixing conditions, which have the highest chewiness of black jam, was 43.19 g (chewiness) from black ginseng 42.95 g and black garlic 106.83 g. Black ginseng and black garlic mixing conditions and their brittleness were found to be the highest in black ginseng 32.10 g and black garlic 88.04 g to 16,874 g. Black ginseng and black garlic mixing conditions and their brittleness were found to be 678 g from black ginseng 50.53 g and black garlic 83.91 g. Black ginseng and black garlic mixing conditions and their gumminess were 14.06 g with black ginseng content of 32.91 g and black garlic content of 124.60 g. By examining the relationship between black ginseng/black garlic ratio and the rheological property of black jam from above results, it is believed that black jam can be produced for anyone to enjoy using health function material.

Antioxidant Activity of Kimchi Seasoning with Black Garlic (흑마늘 첨가 김치 양념소의 항산화 활성)

  • Lee, Kyung-Haeng;Yoon, Young-Tae
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.175-180
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    • 2017
  • To enhance the physiological activities and reduce the off-flavor of garlic in the Kimchi, we manufactured the Kimchi seasoning replaced with 25~75% black garlic instead of raw garlic and measured the contents of antioxidants and antioxidant activities. The polyphenol compound content was $270.91{\mu}g/mL$ in the control and $278.18{\sim}305.75{\mu}g/mL$ in the Kimchi seasoning with black garlic. The polyphenol compound content increased by increasing the amount of black garlic in the Kimchi seasoning. The polyphenol compound contents gradually decreased during storage period. The flavonoid compound content was 26.18 mg% in the control and 26.80~38.72 mg% in the Kimchi seasoning replaced with 25~75% black garlic. The flavonoid compound contents increased by increasing the amount of black garlic. The flavonoid contents were different from those of polyphenol compounds during storage periods. In the case of DPPH electron donating abilities, DPPH electron donating ability of the control was 84.82%, which showed a lower antioxidative activity than the Kimchi seasoning replaced with black garlic. The electron donating abilities of the Kimchi seasoning replaced with black garlic were increased as the amount of black garlic was increased. In the lipid peroxidation test, the control showed no lipid peroxidation during the storage period. The Kimchi seasoning replaced with black garlic also inhibited lipid peroxidation during storage as in the control. However, it showed lower activity than the control. Reducing power was higher in the Kimchi seasoning replaced with black garlic than in the control. The higher the ratio of black garlic, the higher the reducing power.

The Quality Characteristics of Jelly added with Black Garlic Concentrate (흑마늘 농축액을 첨가한 젤리의 품질 특성)

  • Kim, Ae-Jeung;Rho, Jeong-Ok
    • Korean Journal of Human Ecology
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.467-473
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    • 2011
  • The principal objective of this study was to evaluate the quality characteristics of jelly prepared with five different levels(0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0%) of black garlic concentrate(BG1-BG4). We conducted the pH, sugar content, Hunter's color value, mechanical characteristics, and a sensory evaluation analysis of black garlic jelly. The more black garlic concentrate increased, the more the sugar content of the black garlic jelly increased(p<0.05). In terms of color, lightness(L) and yellowness(b) decreased as the black garlic concentrate increased, while redness(a) increased. With regard to the mechanical properties of the black garlic jelly samples, the higher the score of hardness, gumminess, and chewiness significantly increased(p<0.05). In color, flavor, texture and overall quality, the score of jelly with 1.0% black garlic concentrate(BG2) increased most of the all.

The Quality Characteristics of Milk Tofu with Added Black Garlic Concentrate (흑마늘 농축액을 첨가한 우유두부의 품질특성)

  • Kim, Ae-Jung;Rho, Jeong-Ok
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.386-391
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    • 2012
  • The principal objective of this study was to evaluate the quality characteristics of black garlic milk tofu prepared with five different levels (0%, 0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, and 2.0%) of black garlic concentrate (BG0~BG4). We conducted the pH, total phenol and flavonoids, Hunter's color values, mechanical characteristics, and a sensory evaluation analysis of black garlic milk tofu. The total phenol and flavonoid content of black garlic concentrate were 1.67mg/100 g and 1.07 mg/100 g. The more black garlic concentrate increased, the more lightness (L) decreased, but redness(a) and yellowness (b) increased. The hardness, gumminess, and chewiness scores significantly increased (p<0.05) in all black garlic milk tofu samples. In color, taste, flavor, texture, and overall quality, the score of milk tofu with 1.0% black garlic concentrate (BG2) increased the most.

Quality Characteristics of Functional Muffins Containing Black Garlic Extract Powder (흑마늘 추출 분말을 첨가한 기능성 머핀의 품질특성)

  • Yang, Seung-Mi;Kang, Min-Jung;Kim, Sung-Hyun;Shin, Jung-Hye;Sung, Nak-Ju
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.26 no.6
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    • pp.737-744
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    • 2010
  • This study was performed to examine the quality and antioxidant activity of muffin containing black garlic extract powder that was stored for 9 days at room temperature. Black garlic extract powder was added to the muffin batter at concentrations of 0, 1, 4, 8, and 12%. Specific gravities of muffin batters increased as black garlic extract powder increased, whereas, height and specific volume of the muffins decreased. For the color of muffin crust and crumb, lightness decreased as the level of garlic extract powder increased, whereas redness and yellowness increased. For sensory evaluation, the color, flavor, softness, and chewiness of the muffins containing 1% black garlic extract powder were superior compared to those of other samples. Scores for taste and overall acceptability were the highest in muffin containing 4% black garlic extract powder. The antioxidant activity of muffins measured by DPPH(2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging assay increased as the level of black garlic extract powder increased. Further, the TBARS(thiobarbutric acid reactive substance) content of the muffins containing various levels of black garlic extract powder was lower than that of control.