• Title, Summary, Keyword: bittern

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Experimental Studies on the Effects of Bittern (염담수(鹽膽水)(간수)의 이뇨(利尿) 항부종(抗浮腫) 및 해열효과(解熱效果)에 관(關)한 실험적(實驗的) 연구(硏究))

  • Kim, Sun Min
    • Journal of Sasang Constitutional Medicine
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.241-253
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    • 1992
  • To observe the diuretic action in mice, the anti-inflammatory action by carrageenin method and the anti-pyretic action by yeast method in rats, the Bittern was administered. Diuretic effort of Bittern was studied by measuring the urine flow, sodium, potassium in urinary excretion. The results in this work were summarized as follows: 1. The Bittern showed significant diuretic action. 2. The Bittern showed significant anti-inflammatory effect. 3. The Bittern showed significant anti-pyretic effect. According to the above results, the Bittern seems to be applicable to the treatment of edema.

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Recycling of Waste Bittern from Salt Farm (I) : Recovery of Magnesium (염전 폐간수의 재활용(I) : 마그네슘 회수)

  • Na, Choon-Ki;Park, Hyunju
    • Applied Chemistry for Engineering
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.427-432
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    • 2016
  • The purpose of the research was to examine the utilization of waste bittern from salt farm as a source for producing magnesium (Mg). In this work, a precipitation process for recovering Mg, where Mg is precipitated as $Mg(OH)_2$ by the addition of NaOH solution, was investigated. At the NaOH/Mg molar ratios of 2.70 : 1 to 2.75 : 1 and pH 9.5-10, > 99% of Mg could be precipitated from the bittern. The molar concentration of NaOH solution added as an alkaline reagent had no significant influence on the recovery efficiency of Mg precipitate. The particle size of Mg precipitate was strongly affected by the flow rate of caustic addition. The faster the flow rate of caustic addition, the smaller particles were formed. The Mg precipitate recovered was 100-120 g per 1 L of bittern and contained 94% $Mg(OH)_2$ after washing with water. Our results showed that the bittern can be used as a potential resource for Mg production.

A Study on Color Treatment of Dyeing Wastewater with Bittern+Iron(II) chloride (간수+염화일철을 이용한 염색폐수 색도처리에 관한 연구)

  • 김만구;서명포
    • Textile Coloration and Finishing
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.218-223
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    • 2000
  • Color removal of dyeing wastewater is becoming more important due to intensive limitation on color unit of effluent water, so this study was to investigate an efficient color removal of dyeing wastewater. We found that bittern+iron chloride(II) inorganic coagulant developed by Kabool research center is much higher than any other inorganic coagulants for color removal. Optimum pH of this coagulant was 10.5 and removed more than 90% for color removal efficiency. The results showed that COD and color unit of effluent water was average 60mg/L and 200~250 units when continuous activated sludge test after coagulation with this coagulant has done. From the results of the experiments, the application of bittern+iron chloride(II) inorganic coagulant can save the operating cost of wastewater treatment plants.

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Studies on Magnesia Production. Production of Magnesium Hydroxide from Bittern and Sea Water (마그네시아 製造에 關한 硏究 간수, 海水로 부터 水酸化마그네슘 製造)

  • Maeng, Jung-Jae;Chang, In-Soon
    • Journal of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.49-54
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    • 1965
  • One of the difficult and time consuming problems in the production of magnesia from sea water is a settling rate of magnesium hydroxide. In this experiments, authors attempted to accelerate its settling rate by addition of various sedimenting agents as C.M.C., Separan and Starch, and sought for optimum calcination temperature for domestic dolomite, as alkali source, mole ratio of dolomite milk to bittern. It is observed through experiments that the small amounts of sedimenting agents, C.M.C., Separan, starch, 20 mg/l, 40 mg/l, 400mg/l, respectively increase the settling rate of magnesium hydroxide by 8 times or more. The following conditions resulted in good yield of magnesium hydroxide from sea water with relatively tolerable calcium oxide contaminated for the magnesium clinker. Calcinating temperature, $1,100{\sim}1,200^{\circ}C$, mole ratio of 10% dolomite milk to magnesium salts in sea water or bittern, 1. 2 : 1.

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A Study on the Separation and Recovery of Magnesium from Waste Bittern (폐해수로부터 마그네슘의 분리.회수에 관한 연구)

  • Ju, Chang-Sik;Lee, Gyeong-Ok;Jeong, Seong-Uk;Park, Heung-Jae;Na, Seok-Eun;Jeong, Gap-Seon
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.10 no.5
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    • pp.381-386
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    • 2001
  • The characteristics of precipitation separation and solvent extraction separation of magnesium from the waste bittern were studied experimentally In the result of precipitation separation, the size of magnesium hydroxide precipitated was not affected on pH, but decreased with increasing the precipitation temperature. The purity of magnesium oxide precipitated was increased with pH beyond pH 11. From the solvent extraction separation, the equilibrium extraction ratio of magnesium was increased with pH and temperature of extraction phase, the concentration of stripping phase, and with decreasing pH of stripping phase. The extractant of Aliquat 336 and Acid 810 mixture was more effective than that of DCH18C6 and $D_2EHPA$ mixture in the extraction separation of magnesium.

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Removal of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Using Struvite Crystallization (Struvite 결정화에 의한 질소 및 인의 제거)

  • Weon, Seung-Yeon;Park, Seung-Kook;Lee, Sang-Ill
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.599-607
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    • 2000
  • In this research, ${NH_4}^+-N$ and ${PO_4}^{3-}-P$ in wastewater were removed by crystallization. Nitrogen and phosphate have been regarded as key nutrients in the eutrophication of rivers and lakes. Struvite, $MgNH_4PO_4{\cdot}6H_2O$, is insoluble in alkaline solutions. Fertilizer industry wastewater contains organic and nitrogen concentration of 330 mg/L and 550 mg/L, respectively. Nitrogen in this wastewater cannot be treated by conventional biological treatment without physicochemical pretreatment, because nitrogen concentration is relatively high compared to organic concentration. Magnesium ions used in this study were from bittern and commercial magnesium salts of $MgCl_2$ and $Mg(OH)_2$. Bittern obtained as a by-product of seasalt manufacture contains $8,000mg\;Ca^{2+}/L$ and $32,000mg\;Mg^{2+}/L$. Optimum initial pH was 10.5~11.0 and the reaction was complete or done in 2 min. Nitrogen removal efficiency using bittern, $MgCl_2 $ and $Mg(OH)_2$ (as source of $Mg^{2+}$) was 71 %, 81% and 83%. respectively. Phosphate removal efficiency was 99%, 98% and 93%, respectively. Therefore, bittern, $MgCl_2$ and $Mg(OH)_2$ can be efficiently used as $Mg^{2+}$ source for crystallization of nitrogen and phosphate. However, bittern is economically favorable $Mg^{2+}$ source for removing nitrogen and phosphate in wastewater.

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Recrystallization Characteristics of Solar Salt After Removing of Bittern and Impurities (간수와 불순물을 제거시킨 천일염의 재 결정화 특성)

  • Lee, Ye-Kyung;Kim, Soon-Dong
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.37 no.2
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    • pp.203-209
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    • 2008
  • Recrystallization characteristics of salt after removing bittern and impurities from solar salt (SD) were investigated. To remove the bittern, the SD was treated at 30, 40 and $50^{\circ}C$ under 95% humidity. 86% of the bittern was removed when the SD was kept at $30^{\circ}C$ for three weeks. Total amount of impurity in SD was 6.94% (w/w) with organic impurity (5.58%) and inorganic impurity (1.36%). Most organic impurities (89%) were soluble. When the SD was roasted at $350^{\circ}C$ for 40 minutes, 90.14% of the soluble organic impurities were removed; however, the removable organic impurity was reduced, when the SD roasted for 50 minutes at $350^{\circ}C$. L* value decreased while a* and b* values increased when the SD was roasted until 40 minutes at $350^{\circ}C$. In contrast, L* value increased while a*, b* values decreased with SD roasted over 50 minutes at $350^{\circ}C$. The size of recrystallized pure salt was positively correlated to temperature and depth of salt solution, while the crystallization time was negatively correlated to temperature and salinity. Yield of recrystallized salt was negatively correlated to temperature. Overall acceptability tended to increase at low crystallization temperature and high salinity.

Studies on Synthesis of Magnesium Carbonate. I. Factorial Analysis on the Preparation of Exrta-light Magnesium Carbonate (탄산마그네슘의 제조연구 I 경질탄산마그네슘의 제조조건)

  • Rhee, Gye-Joo;Song, Churl;Sung, Nak-Won;Ahn, Yung-Pil
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.24-31
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    • 1971
  • Optimum reaction conditions for the preparation of extra-light magnesium carbonate from bittern by the reaction with sodium carbonate solution was found to be as follows: reaction temperature 33.deg. molar ratio(Mg$^{+2}/CO$^{2-}_{3}$)0.8, reaction time 14 minutes, drying temperature 99.deg. and bittern concentration 17%. While Korean pharmacopeia regulates the bulkiness above 12 mililiters per gm., our experimental result shows above 45 mililiters. Electron microscopic shapes were compared with products prepared under various reaction conditions, and it was found that there exists lighter the powder the more pillar crystalline, the heavier the powder the more amorphous and the intermediate was mixture of them.

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Effects of Sulfuric Acid on the Synthesis of Highly Pure Calcium Borate in the Boron-Containing Brine and Bittern (붕소함유 염수와 간수로부터 고순도 calcium borate를 합성하는 반응에 황산이 미치는 영향)

  • Seo, Hyo-Jin;Kim, Myoung-Jin
    • Journal of Navigation and Port Research
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    • v.39 no.6
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    • pp.523-528
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    • 2015
  • In this study, we investigated the effects of sulfuric acid on the synthesis of calcium borate in the artificial boron-containing brine (bittern) saturated with calcium hydroxide. For the study, we attempted to synthesize calcium borate under various conditions such as reaction temperature, reaction time, and cooling temperature after heating, and then to examine the recovery and purity of the calcium borate according to the presence or absence of sulfuric acid at each condition. The XRD analysis confirmed that, regardless of the presence of sulfuric acid, the calcium borate ($Ca_2B_2O_5{\cdot}H_2O$) was synthesized, while, in the presence of sulfuric acid, the calcium sulfate ($CaSO_4{\cdot}0.5H_2O$) was produced as a by-product. In all the experiments performed by varying the reaction temperature and time, the recovery and purity of the calcium borate without sulfuric acid were observed higher than those with it. The results indicated that the addition of sulfuric acid increased the solubility of the calcium hydroxide, but the calcium sulfate produced as a by-product could decrease the recovery and purity of the calcium borate by preventing the synthesis. In this study, the artificial boron-containing brine (bittern) (500 mg-B/L) was saturated with calcium hydroxide in the absence of sulfuric acid, and then the solution was heated at $80-105^{\circ}C$ for less than 10 minutes to synthesize the calcium borate. The recovery and purity of calcium borate were measured as high as 80 % and 96 %, respectively.

Struvite Crystallization of Swine Wastewater using Bittern (간수를 이용한 축산폐수의 struvite 결정화)

  • Ryu, Hong-Duck;Kim, Tae-Su;Park, Hyoung-Soon;Lee, Sang-Ill
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.138-143
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    • 2007
  • This study goes in for the observation of the characteristics of nitrogen removal from swine wastewater by struvite crystallization. In addition, the struvite formation potential in supernatants after struvite crystallization was investigated. In the study for nitrogen removal by struvite crystallization, the effects of pH and molar ratio of magnesium (Mg) injected using bittern as Mg source were investigated. Also, the potential of struvite formation in the supernatant with amount of Mg added was carefully observed. As the results, the optimum pH in the removal of nitrogen was 8.8 and sludge volume was increased as pH was raised from 7 to 12 under the condition that the molar ratio of $Mg^{2+}$ to ${NH_4}^+$-N to ${PO_4}^{3-}$-P was 1:1:1. An optimum removal efficiency of ammonia-N was observed at 1 molar ratio of Mg to ${NH_4}^+$-N, showing no further increase at over 1 molar ratio and dramatical deterioration at under 1 molar ratio. However, the sludge volume was increased by increasing the molar ratio of Mg. In the experiments for the potential of struvite formation in the supernatants, initial -log([$Mg^{2+}$][${NH_4}^+$][${PO_4}^{3-}$]) value was much lower than $pK_{sp}$ and gradually reached $pK_{sp}$ at 2 days, as the molar ratio of Mg increased over 1.2. At 31 days, -log([$Mg^{2+}$][${NH_4}^+$][${PO_4}^{3-}$]) value was returned to the initial value. In addition, the supernatants had a potential precipitation of hydroxylapatite due to calcium contained in bittern, $K_2Mg(SO_4)_3$ and $K_3Na(SO_4)_2$ resulting from the decrease of sodium and potassium in supernatants formed after struvite crystallization as times go by. Based on the results, it appears that some retention time and proper dosage of Mg may be needed for the prevention of scale in pipe line.