• Title, Summary, Keyword: biomarker

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Cellular Biomarker of Membrane Stability and Hydrolytic Enzyme Activity in the Hemocytes of Benzo(a)pyrene-exposed Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas

  • Jo Qtae;Choy Eun-Jung;Park Doo Won;Jee Young-Ju;Kim Sung Yeon;Kim Yoon
    • Fisheries and aquatic sciences
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    • v.5 no.4
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    • pp.263-270
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    • 2002
  • The Pacific oysters, Crassostrea gigas, were stressed with different concentrations of benzo(a) pyrene and depurated to determine the hemocyte lysosomal membrane stability and hydrolytic enzymatic activity as a biomarker candidate to the chemical, using NRR (neutral red retention) and API ZYM System, respectively. The membrane damage measured as NRR decrease was significant with the increase of chemical concentration and exposure time (P<0.05), providing a possible tool for biomarker. Interestingly, the control showed intrinsic stress probably due to captive life in the laboratory, and a recovering trend was also found during the depuration. The benzo(a)pyrene-exposed oysters showed increased enzyme activities in alkaline phosphatase, esterase (C4), acid phosphatase, naphthol-AS-BI-phospho­hydrolase, $\beta$-galactosidase, $\beta$-glucuronidase, and N-acetyl- $\beta$-glucosaminidase. Of them, only two enzymes, acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase, showed some potential available for the generation of enzymatic biomarker in the oyster. The results are suggestive of the potential availability of the cellular and enzymatic properties as a biomarker. However, considering that a robust biomarker should be insensitive to natural stress coming from normal physiological variation, but sensitive to pollutants, a concept of intrinsic stress the animal possesses should be taken into consideration. This reflects the necessity of further research on the intrinsic stress affecting the cellular and enzymatic properties of the chemical­stressed oysters prior to using the data as a biomarker.

Haematological Parameters Induced by Benzo(a)pyrene Exposure as a Toxicity Biomarker in the Fanned Red Sea Bream, Pagrus major

  • Choy, Eun-Jung;Jo, Qtae;Kang, Chang-Keun
    • Journal of Aquaculture
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.196-199
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    • 2005
  • Farmed red sea breams, Pagrus major, were fed for 60 days with pellets containing different concentrations of benzo(a)pyrene (0, 0.2, 2, 20 mg/kg) to generate a biomarker of the chemical toxicity in the fish. The fish exposed to the chemical concentrations did not show any significant difference in the weight gain, conditioning, factor, and hepatosomatic index. However, some haematological parameters, such as glucose, calcium, magnesium, GOT (glutamic oxalate transaminase), and GPT (glutamic pyruvate transaminase) were influenced by the chemical exposure. Of them, two enzymes, GOT and GPT, increased significantly 60 days after the exposure in a way of concentration dependence (P<0.05). In the study of ecotoxicological biomarker, sensitivity to adverse environments is one of the key available factors. The fish changes in GOT and GPT were an earlier and reliable sign of the fish response against the chemical exposure, rendering the two enzymatic factors as a useful biomarker at least to benzo(a)pyrene exposure in the farming waters.

Pros and cons of using aberrant glycosylation as companion biomarkers for therapeutics in cancer

  • Kang, Jeong-Gu;Ko, Jeong-Heon;Kim, Yong-Sam
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.44 no.12
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    • pp.765-771
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    • 2011
  • Cancer treatment has been stratified by companion biomarker tests that serve to provide information on the genetic status of cancer patients and to identify patients who can be expected to respond to a given treatment. This stratification guarantees better efficiency and safety during treatment. Cancer patients, however, marginally benefit from the current companion biomarker-aided treatment regimens, presumably because companion biomarker tests are dependent solely on the mutation status of several genes status quo. In the true sense of the term, "personalized medicine", cancer patients are deemed to be identified individually by their molecular signatures, which are not necessarily confined to genetic mutations. Glycosylation is tremendously dynamic and shows alterations in cancer. Evidence is accumulating that aberrant glycosylation contributes to the development and progression of cancer, holding the promise for use of glycosylation status as a companion biomarker in cancer treatment. There are, however, several challenges derived from the lack of a reliable detection system for aberrant glycosylation, and a limited library of aberrant glycosylation. The challenges should be addressed if glycosylation status is to be used as a companion biomarker in cancer treatment and contribute to the fulfillment of personalized medicine.

Application on Multi-biomarker Assessment in Environmental Health Status Monitoring of Coastal System (해역 건강도 평가를 위한 다매체 바이오마커 적용)

  • Jung, Jee-Hyun;Ryu, Tae-Kwon;Lee, Taek-Kyun
    • Ocean and Polar Research
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.109-117
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    • 2008
  • Application of biomarkers for assessing marine environmental health risk is a relatively new field. According to the National Research Council and the World Health Organization, biomarkers can be divided into three classes: biomarkers of exposure, biomarkers of effect, and biomarkers of susceptibility. In order to assess exposure to or effect of the environmental pollutants on marine ecosystem, the following set of biomarkers can be examined: detoxification, oxidative stress, biotransformation products, stress responses, apoptosis, physiological metabolisms, neuromuscular responses, reproductions, steroid hormones, antioxidants, genetic modifications. Since early 1990s, several biomarker research groups have developed health indices of marine organisms to be used for assessing the state of the marine environment. Biomarker indices can be used to interpret data obtained from monitoring biological effects. In this review, we will summarize Health assessment Index, Biomarker Index, Bioeffect Assessment Index and Generalized Linear Model. Measurements of biomarker responses and development of biomarker index in marine organisms from contaminated sites offer great a lot of information, which can be used in environmental monitoring programs, designed for various aspects of ecosystem risk assessment.

Statistical Method of Ranking Candidate Genes for the Biomarker

  • Kim, Byung-Soo;Kim, In-Young;Lee, Sun-Ho;Rha, Sun-Young
    • Communications for Statistical Applications and Methods
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.169-182
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    • 2007
  • Receive operating characteristic (ROC) approach can be employed to rank candidate genes from a microarray experiment, in particular, for the biomarker development with the purpose of population screening of a cancer. In the cancer microarray experiment based on n patients the researcher often wants to compare the tumor tissue with the normal tissue within the same individual using a common reference RNA. Ideally, this experiment produces n pairs of microarray data. However, it is often the case that there are missing values either in the normal or tumor tissue data. Practically, we have $n_1$ pairs of complete observations, $n_2$ "normal only" and $n_3$ "tumor only" data for the microarray. We refer to this data set as a mixed data set. We develop a ROC approach on the mixed data set to rank candidate genes for the biomarker development for the colorectal cancer screening. It turns out that the correlation between two ranks in terms of ROC and t statistics based on the top 50 genes of ROC rank is less than 0.6. This result indicates that employing a right approach of ranking candidate genes for the biomarker development is important for the allocation of resources.

Annexin A5 as a New Potential Biomarker for Cisplatin-Induced Toxicity in Human Kidney Epithelial Cells

  • Kwon, Yeo-Jung;Jung, Jin-Joo;Park, Na-Hee;Ye, Dong-Jin;Kim, Donghak;Moon, Aree;Chun, Young-Jin
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.190-195
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    • 2013
  • Cisplatin is a member of platinum-containing anti-cancer drugs that causes cross-linking of DNA and ultimately cancer cell apoptosis. The therapeutic function of cisplatin on various types of cancers has been widely reported but the side effects have been discovered together and nephrotoxicity has been regarded as major side effect of cisplatin. To select candidates for new sensitive nephrotoxicity biomarker, we performed proteomic analysis using 2-DE/MALDI-TOF-MS followed by cisplatin treatment in human kidney cell line, HK-2 cells, and compared the results to the gene profile from microarray composed of genes changed in expression by cisplatin from formerly reported article. Annexin A5 has been selected to be the most potential candidate and it has been identified using Western blot, RT-PCR and cell viability assay whether annexin A5 is available to be a sensitive nephrotoxic biomarker. Treatment with cisplatin on HK-2 cells caused the increase of annexin A5 expression in protein and mRNA levels. Over-expression of annexin A5 blocked HK-2 cell proliferation, indicating correlation between annexin A5 and renal cell toxicity. Taken together, these results suggest the possibility of annexin A5 as a new biomarker for cisplatin-mediated nephrotoxicity.

Interferon Induced Transmembrane Protein-1 Gene Expression is a Biomarker for Early Detection of Invasive Potential of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas

  • Ramanathan, Arvind
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.2297-2299
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    • 2016
  • Background: Early detection of malignant transformation with expression biomarkers has significant potential to improve the survival rate of patients as such biomarkers enable prediction of progression and assess sensitivity to chemotherapy. The expression of interferon inducible transmembrane protein 1 (IFITM1) has been associated with early invasion events in several carcinomas, including head and neck cancers, and hence has been proposed as a novel candidate biomarker. As the incidence of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is highest in the Indian population, we sought to investigate: 1) the expression pattern of IFITM1 in OSCC tissue samples obtained from Indian patients of Dravidian origin; and 2) the possibility of using IFITM1 expression as a potential biomarker. Materials and Methods: Total RNA extracted from thirty eight OSCC biopsy samples was subjected to semi-quantitative RT-PCR with IFITM1 and GAPDH specific primers. Results: Of the thirty eight OSCC samples that were analyzed, IFITM1 overexpression was identified in fifteen (39%). Seven expressed a low level, while the remainder expressed high level of IFITM1. Conclusions: The overexpression of IFITM1 in OSCC samples indicates that IFITM1 may be explored for the possibility of use as a high confidence diagnostic biomarker in oral cancers. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that IFITM1 overexpression is being reported in Indian OSCC samples.

Issues in the Design of Molecular and Genetic Epidemiologic Studies

  • Fowke, Jay H.
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.42 no.6
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    • pp.343-348
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    • 2009
  • The final decision of study design in molecular and genetic epidemiology is usually a compromise between the research study aims and a number of logistical and ethical barriers that may limit the feasibility of the study or the interpretation of results. Although biomarker measurements may improve exposure or disease assessments, it is necessary to address the possibility that biomarker measurement inserts additional sources of misclassification and confounding that may lead to inconsistencies across the research literature. Studies targeting multi-causal diseases and investigating gene-environment interactions must not only meet the needs of a traditional epidemiologic study but also the needs of the biomarker investigation. This paper is intended to highlight the major issues that need to be considered when developing an epidemiologic study utilizing biomarkers. These issues covers from molecular and genetic epidemiology (MGE) study designs including cross-sectional, cohort, case-control, clinical trials, nested case-control, and case-only studies to matching the study design to the MGE research goals. This review summarizes logistical barriers and the most common epidemiological study designs most relevant to MGE and describes the strengths and limitations of each approach in the context of common MGE research aims to meet specific MEG objectives.

Glycoscience aids in biomarker discovery

  • Hua, Serenus;An, Hyun-Joo
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.45 no.6
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    • pp.323-330
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    • 2012
  • The glycome consists of all glycans (or carbohydrates) within a biological system, and modulates a wide range of important biological activities, from protein folding to cellular communications. The mining of the glycome for disease markers represents a new paradigm for biomarker discovery; however, this effort is severely complicated by the vast complexity and structural diversity of glycans. This review summarizes recent developments in analytical technology and methodology as applied to the fields of glycomics and glycoproteomics. Mass spectrometric strategies for glycan compositional profiling are described, as are potential refinements which allow structure-specific profiling. Analytical methods that can discern protein glycosylation at a specific site of modification are also discussed in detail. Biomarker discovery applications are shown at each level of analysis, highlighting the key role that glycoscience can play in helping scientists understand disease biology.