• Title, Summary, Keyword: biological activity

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Optimization of Cellulase Production in Batch Fermentation by Trichoderma reesei

  • Yu, Xiao-Bin;Nam, Joo-Heon;Yun, Hyun-Shik;Koo, Yoon-Mo
    • Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering:BBE
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.44-47
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    • 1998
  • Maximum cellulase production was sought by comparing the activities of the cellulases produced by different Trichoderma reesei strains and Aspergillus niger. Trichoderma reesei Rut-C30 showed higher cellulase activity than other Trichoderma reesei stains and Aspergillus niger that was isolated from soil. By optimizing the cultivation conditions during shake flask culture, higher cellulase production could be achieved. The FP(filter paper) activity of 3.7U/ml and CMCase (Carboxymethylcellulase) activity of 60U/ml were obtained from shake flask culture. When it was grown in 2.5L fermentor, where pH and DO levels are controlled, the enzyme activities were 133.35U/ml (CMCase) and 11.67U/ml(FP), respectively. Ammonium sulfate precipitation method was used to recover enzymes from fermentation broth. The dried cellulase powder showed 3074.9U/g of CMCase activity and 166.7U/g of FP activity with 83.5% CMCase recovery.

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Isolation and Characterization of Indole-3-methylethanoate from Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntz. and its biological activity

  • Roy, Malabika;Ganguly, S.N.
    • Natural Product Sciences
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.106-107
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    • 1997
  • Indole-3-methylethanoate was isolated for the first time form natural source i.e. from the leaves of Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntz and fully characterized by physical and chemical evidence, the biological activity of the compound was studied by wheat coleoptile bioassay which showed growth promoting activity.

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Biological Activities of Phloroglucinol Derivatives from Eucalyptus Spp.

  • Singh, Inder Pal;Etoh, Hideo
    • Natural Product Sciences
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 1997
  • Eucalyptus is a rich source of biologically active compounds. Among these, phloroglucinol compounds such as sideroxylonals, macrocarpals, euglobals, and robustadials are unique to Eucalyptus species. Sideroxylonal A is a very potent attachment-inhibitor. Macrocarpals show very strong antibacterial activity against gram positive bacteria. Macrocarpals also show HIV-RTase inhibitory activity. Euglobals are potent inhibitors of Epstein-Barr virus activation and are developed as skin and antitumor agents. They also show granulation inhibitory activity. In this review we aim to remove the existing confusion in literature on macrocarpals and discuss the biological activities and structure-activity relationships of phloroglucinol compounds.

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Antioxidant, Antidiabetic and Cytotoxic Effects of Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. Bark in vitro

  • Qu, Guan-Zheng;Lee, Sung-Hyun;Wang, Myeong-Hyeon
    • Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.49 no.4
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    • pp.140-142
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    • 2006
  • The aim of this study is to investigate in vitro biological properties of Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. bark. Ethyl acetate(EtOAc) fraction from aqueous extract of Eucommia bark showed strong antioxidant activity of $IC_{50}$ 19.2 ${\mu}g/ml$ by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl(DPPH) free radical-scavenging assay. The Eucommia bark extract showed $\alpha$-glucosidase inhibitory activity and inhibited growth of human liver cancer cell, suggesting its potential biological value of anticancer.

A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial on the Effects of Technology-aided Testing and Feedback on Physical Activity and Biological Age Among Employees in a Medium-sized Enterprise

  • Liukkonen, Mika;Nygard, Clas-Hakan;Laukkanen, Raija
    • Safety and Health at Work
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    • v.8 no.4
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    • pp.393-397
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    • 2017
  • Background: It has been suggested that engaging technology can empower individuals to be more proactive about their health and reduce their health risks. The aim of the present intervention was to study the effects of technology-aided testing and feedback on physical activity and biological age of employees in a middle-sized enterprise. Methods: In all, 121 employees (mean age $42{\pm}10$ years) participated in the 12-month three-arm cluster randomized trial. The fitness measurement process (Body Age) determined the participants' biological age in years. Physical activity was measured with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire Short Form. Results: Physical activity did not change during the intervention. Biological age (better fitness) improved in all groups statistically significantly (p < 0.001), but with no interaction effects. The mean changes (years) in the groups were -2.20 for the controls, e2.83 for the group receiving their biological age and feedback, and -2.31 for the group receiving their biological age, feedback, and a training computer. Conclusion: Technology-aided testing with feedback does not seem to change the amount of physical activity but may enhance physical fitness measured by biological age.

HSV-1 ICP27 represses NF-κB activity by regulating Daxx sumoylation

  • Kim, Ji Ae;Choi, Mi Sun;Min, Jung Sun;Kang, Inho;Oh, Jeongho;Kim, Jin Chul;Ahn, Jeong Keun
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.50 no.5
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    • pp.275-280
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    • 2017
  • Herpes simplex virus type 1 ICP27 is a multifunctional protein responsible for viral replication, late gene expression, and reactivation from latency. ICP27 interacts with various cellular proteins, including Daxx. However, the role of interaction between ICP27 and Daxx is largely unknown. Since Daxx is known to repress $NF-{\kappa}B$ activity, there is a possibility that ICP27 may influence the inhibitory effect of Daxx on $NF-{\kappa}B$ activity. In this study, we tested whether ICP27 affects the $NF-{\kappa}B$ activity through its interaction with Daxx. Interestingly, ICP27 enhanced the Daxx-mediated repression of $NF-{\kappa}B$ activity. In addition, we found that sumoylation of Daxx regulates its interaction with p65. ICP27 binds to Daxx, inhibits Daxx sumoylation, and enhances p65 deacetylation induced by Daxx. Consequently, ICP27 represses the $NF-{\kappa}B$ activity, by elevating the inhibitory effect of Daxx on $NF-{\kappa}B$ activity through desumoylation of Daxx.

Biological Control Activity of Two Isolates of Pseudomonas fluorescens against Rice Sheath Blight

  • Choi Gyung-Ja;Kim Jin-Cheol;Park Eun-Jin;Choi Yong-Ho;Jang Kyoung-Soo;Lim He-Kyoung;Cho Kwang-Yun;Lee Seon-Woo
    • The Plant Pathology Journal
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.289-294
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    • 2006
  • Two isolates of mucous bacteria, mc75 and pc78, were isolated from fungal culture plate as culture contaminants with an interesting swarming motility. Both isolates were identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens based on microscopy, biochemical analysis, Biolog test and DNA sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene. Both strains have the exactly the same 16S rRNA gene sequences, and yet their biological control activity were not identical each other. In vitro analysis of antagonistic activity of two isolates against several plant pathogenic fungi indicated that both produced diffusible and volatile antifungal compounds of unknown identities. Treatment of the bacterial culture of P. fluorescens pc78 and its culture filtrate exhibited a strong biological control activity against rice sheath blight in vivo among six plant diseases tested. More effective disease control activity was obtained from treatment of bacterial culture than that of culture filtrate. Therefore, in addition to antifungal compound and siderophore production, other traits such as biofilm formation and swarming motility on plant surface may contribute to the biological control activity of P.fluorescens pc78 and mc75.

Optimization of Lipase Pretreatment Prior to Lipase Immobilization to Prevent Loss of Activity

  • Lee, Dong-Hwan;Kim, Jung-Mo;Shin, Hyun-Yong;Kim, Seung-Woo
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.650-654
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    • 2007
  • In our previous work, a method of pretreating lipase was developed to prevent loss of its activity during covalent immobilization. In this study, Rhizopus oryzae lipase was pretreated before immobilization and then immobilized on a silica gel surface. The effects of the various materials and conditions used in the pretreatment stage on the activity of immobilized lipase were investigated. Immobilized lipase pretreated with 0.1% of soybean oil had better activity than those pretreated with other materials. The optimal temperature, agitation speed, and pretreating time for lipase pretreatment were determined to be $40^{\circ}C$, 200rpm, and 45min, respectively. The activity of immobilized soybean oil pretreated lipase was 630U/g matrix, which is 20 times higher than that of immobilized non-pretreated lipase. In addition, immobilized lipase activity was maintained at levels exceeding 90% of its original activity after 10 reuses.

Purification and Characterization of Cold Active Lipase from Psychrotrophic Aeromonas sp. LPB 4

  • Lee, Han-Ki;Ahn, Min-Jung;Kwak, Sung-Ho;Song, Won-Ho;Jeong, Byeong-Chul
    • Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.41 no.1
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    • pp.22-27
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    • 2003
  • A lipase from Aeromonas sp. LPB 4, a psychrotophile isolated from a sea sediment was purified and characterized. The lipase was purified 53.5 fold to a homogeneous state by acetone precipitation and QAE sephadex column chromatography and its molecular weight was determined to be 50 kDa by SDS-PAGE. The enzyme exhibited maximum activity at 10$^{\circ}C$ and was stable at temperatures lower than 50$^{\circ}C$. This lipase favored substrates containing medium carbon chain of acyl group, while too low and high carbon chain decreased its activity. The lipolytic activity of purified lipase was slightly increased by the addition of 0.1% detergent, but decreased by 1% of detergent. Butanol severely decreased the lipase activity while methanol increased the activity about 15%.

Characteristics of Sophorolipid as an Antimicrobial Agent

  • KIM, KAPJUNG;DALSOO YOO;YOUNGBUM KIM;BAEKSEOK LEE;DOONHOON SHIN;EUN-KI KIM
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.235-241
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    • 2002
  • Sophorolipid, a biosurfactant produced from Candida bombicola ATCC 22214, showed antimicrobial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus xylosus, Streptococcus mutans, and Propionibacterium acne at 4, 1, 1, 0.5 ppm, respectively. Also, 100 ppm of sophorolipid inhibited $50\%$ of cell growth of plant pathogenic fungus, Botrytis cineria. However, sophorolipid showed no effect on Escherichia coli, indicating that its selective antimicrobial activity depended on the cell wall structure. Treatment of B. subtilis with sophorolipid increased leakage of intracellular enzyme, malate dehydrogenase, indicating a possible interaction of sophorolipid with a cellular membrane. Comparing lactone-type and acid-type sophorolipids, the former showed a higher antimicrobial activity. Supplementing other surfactants showed no significant effects on the antimicrobial activity. Animal study showed that 5 g of sophorolipid per kg body weight by oral administration caused no toxicity, and sophorolipid induced no irritation on the skin. These results show potential use of sophorolipid as an active ingredient in healthcare products.