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Clinical Features of Dietary Protein Induced Proctocolitis (식이 단백 유발 직결장염의 임상적 고찰)

  • Im, Sun Ju;Kim, Seong Heon;Bae, Sang Nam;Park, Jae Hong
    • Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.157-163
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    • 2005
  • Purpose: Dietary protein induced proctocolitis (DPIPC) can be considered as a cause of rectal bleeding or blood streaked stool in otherwise healthy-looking infants in the first several months of life. Failure to appreciate this entity may lead to inappropriate diagnostic or therapeutic intervention. This study aimed to ascertain the clinical features, treatment and prognosis of DPIPC. Methods: We reviewed 13 infants retrospectively, presented with bloody stool in early infancy. They were diagnosed as DPIPC clinically in Pusan National University Hospital from May 2002 to June 2004. Results: Seven males and six females were included. The mean age at onset of bleeding was $96.8{\pm}58.8days$. The mean frequency of hematochezia was $2.6{\pm}2.5$ times a day. Duration from onset of symptom to diagnosis was $35.5{\pm}55.0days$ and duration from onset of symptom to resolution of bleeding was $58.7{\pm}67.0days$. Nine (69.2%) were exclusively breast-fed infants and two (15.4%) were formula-fed infants. All but one infant did not have family history of other allergic diseases. A dietary history of ingestion of cow's milk, nut or shellfish was present in three mothers. Peripheral eosinophil count was normal to slightly elevated (total WBC count $10,555{\pm}3,145/mm^3$, relative eosinophil count $6.3{\pm}3.0%$, absolute eosinophil count $659.0{\pm}532.2/mm^3$). Sigmoidoscopy revealed lymphonodular hyperplasia with surrounding hemorrhagic spots in the rectosigmoid colon in 6 infants. Histopathologic finding of colonic biopsies in 5 infants showed chronic inflammation with lymphoid follicular hyperplasia (5 infants), crypt abscess (3 infants), or mild infiltration of eosinophils (less than 20/high power field) in the lamina propria. Spontaneous resolution of rectal bleeding occurred in all infants without dietary change or medicine. Conclusion: Most infants with DPIPC experience a very benign course and have spontaneous resolution of rectal bleeding without changes in the mother's diet. In the case of strong evidence for DPIPC we suggest deferring further invasive investigation and continuing breast feeding.

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Different Clinical Courses of Henoch-Schönlein Purpura in Children, Adolescents and Adults (Henoch-Schönlein Purpura에서 연령에 따른 임상 양상 및 예후에 관한 고찰)

  • Hong, Joo Hee;Na, Hyung Joon;Namgoong, Mee Kyung;Choi, Seung Ok;Han, Byng Geun;Jung, Soon Hee;Kim, Hwang Min
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.48 no.11
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    • pp.1244-1251
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    • 2005
  • Purpose : $Henoch-Sch{\ddot{o}}nlein$ purpura(HSP) is the most common and benign systemic vasculitis in children. Few reports have focused on worse outcomes of HSP in adults. The age of onset is suggested as a main risk factor. We assessed the characteristics of adolescent-onset HSP. Methods : We retrospectively analyzed 205 cases presented from Aug. 1993 to Oct. 2003. Patients were classified as children(<10 years of age), adolescents(10-20 years of age), and adults(>20 years of age). Results : The mean age was $5.7{\pm}1.8years$ in 149 children, $13.5{\pm}2.4years$ in 38 adolescents, and $44.9{\pm}14.5years$ in 18 adults. The male to female ratio was 1.2 : 1 in children and adolescents, and 2 : 1 in adults. Previous upper respiratory infections were found in 53.4 percent of children, 32.4 percent of adolescents, and 33.3 percent of adults. Positivity of stool occult blood was more frequent in adults(50.5 percent) than in children(23.0 percent)(P<0.05). Renal involvement was found in 46 cases (30.9 percent) of children, 23 cases(60.5 percent) of adolescents, and 15 cases(83.3 percent) of adults. Recurrences occurred in 23 cases(15.4 percent) of children, nine cases(23.7 percent) of adolescents, and three cases(16.7 percent) of adults. Among the cases with renal involvement, 97.8 percent of children and 87.0 percent of adolescents improved to normal or asymptomatic urinary abnormalities. 60.0 percent of adults persisted with severe nephropathy and 13.3 percent progressed to renal insufficiency. Conclusion : Although the outcome of adolescent HSP was as good as children, the clinical manifestations were similar to those of adults. Adolescents had the highest rate of recurrences. Thus long term observations may be needed in adolescent onset HSP.

Chondroblastoma of Bone - Comparison of Epiphysis and Apophysis - (연골 모세포종 - 골단과 견인골단의 비교 -)

  • Lee, Seung-Hwan;Lee, Mo-Ses;Shin, Kyoo-Ho;Hahn, Soo-Bong
    • The Journal of the Korean bone and joint tumor society
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.17-24
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    • 2008
  • Purpose: Chondroblastoma is a rare benign bone tumor which occurs most frequently at epiphysis of long bones. This study analyzed the difference between patients with chondroblastoma either on their epiphysis or apophysis. Materials and Methods: We reviewed 19 patients with chondroblastoma who visited our hospital from August 1987 to August 2005. The mean follow up period was five years. Fifteen patients were male and 4 patients were female. The mean age of the patients was 17.6 years. The treatment consisted of either curettage alone, curettage with bone graft or curettage with cementation. We retrospectively compared the difference between one chondroblastoma originating from the epiphysis and the other chondroblastoma originating from the apophysis in terms of age predilection, duration of symptoms, size of tumor, status of the physis, presence of pathologic fracture, recurrence rate and accompanying aneurismal bone cyst. Results: Among the 19 patients, 11 patients had chondroblastoma at the epiphysis, and 8 at the apophysis. Distal femur was the most common site for epiphysis lesions while the greater trochanter was the most common site for lesions arising at the apophysis. The mean age was 14.2 years in the epiphysis group and 22.3 years in the apophysis group. Chondroblastoma occurred after closure of the physis in 3 out of 11 cases in the epiphysis group and in all 8 cases in the apophysis group showing a statistical significance between the groups in terms of status of the physis at onset. Size of the lesion was bigger in the apophysis group with statistical significance. Conclusion: Chondroblastoma is known to occur frequently at the epiphysis of long bones, but our study shows that in patients over 20 years old it occurs more frequently at the apophysis which needs to be considered when making the proper diagnosis. There was a significant difference between the two groups in terms of the age of occurrence, status of physis and size of tumor while there was none in terms of the duration of symptoms, presence of pathologic fracture, recurrence rate and presence of accompanying aneurismal bone cyst.

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Role of FDG-PET in the Diagnosis of Recurrence and Assessment of Therapeutic Response in Cervical Cancer and Ovarian Cancer Patients: Comparison of Diagnostic Report between PET, Abdominal a and Tumor Marker (자궁경부암 및 난소암 환자 재발진단과 치료반응평가에 있어서 FDG-PET의 역할: 양전자방출단층촬영, 복부전산화단층촬영 및 종양표지자 판독의 비교 분석)

  • Han, You-Mie;Choe, Jae-Gol;Kang, Bung-Chul
    • Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
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    • v.42 no.3
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    • pp.201-208
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    • 2008
  • Purpose: We aimed to assess the role of positron emission tomography using fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG-PET) in the diagnosis of recurrence or the assessment of therapeutic response in cervical and ovarian cancer patients through making a comparison between FDG-PET, abdominal computed tomography (CT) and serum tumor marker. Materials and methods: We included 103 cases (67 patients) performed FDG-PET and abdominal CT. There were 42 cervical cancers and 61 ovarian cancers. We retrospectively reviewed the interpretations of PET and CT images as well as the level of tumor marker. We calculated their sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value for these three modalities. And then we analyzed the differences between these three modalities. Results: Tumor recurrences were diagnosed in 37 cases (11 cervical cancers and 26 ovarian cancers). For PET, CT and tumor marker, in cervical cancer group, sensitivity was 100% (11/11), 54.5% (6/11) and 81.1% (9/11), respectively. And specificity was 93.6% (29/31), 93.6% (29/31) and 100% (31/31). In ovarian cancer group, sensitivity was 96.2% (25/26), 84.6% (22/26) and 80.8% (21/26), and specificity was 94.3% (33/35), 94.3% (33/35), 94.3% (33/35), PET was highly sensitive to detect the intraperitoneal and extraperitoneal metastasis with the help of the CT images to localize the lesions. However, CT had limitations in differentiation of the recurrent tumor from benign fibrotic tissue, identification of viable tumors at the interface of tissues, and detecting extraperitoneal lesions. Conclusion: FDG-PET can be an essential modality to detect the recurrent or residual tumors in gynecologic cancer patients because of its great field of the application and high sensitivity.

Study on the Usefulness of Ultrasonography for Postpartum Depression and Thyroid Disease (출산 후 우울증과 갑상선질환에 대한 초음파검사의 유용성에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Yun-Yi;Lim, Cheong-Hwan;Jung, Hong-Ryang;Park, Mi-Ja;You, In-Gyu
    • Journal of radiological science and technology
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    • v.35 no.3
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    • pp.237-248
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    • 2012
  • Postpartum depression(PPD) of women with depression increased frequency of thyroid disease, and so the correlations for depression and thyroid disease has been the subject of discussed whether. The purpose of this study was to predict the prevalence of PPD and the correlation between PPD and thyroid disease through ultrasonography. January 2010 to November 2011, Obstetrics & Gynecology in M-clinical center admitted 230 patients within 1 year postpartum were enrolled. EPDS by PPD scale depression screening and general characteristics of subjects were investigated and thyroid was examined that ultrasonography and thyroid blood tests. A total of 230 patients non PPD group were 53.0% and PPD group were 47.0%. In ultrasonography, among 27 patients who changed in size of thyroid, non PPD group were 14.8% and PPD group were 85.2%. Among 124 patients who thyroid nodules were presence, non PPD were 35.8% and PPD group were 64.2%. In ultrasonography, PPD group were higher incidence than non PPD group were changes in size of thyroid and the presence of nodules. There was significant difference between the changed in size of thyroid and thyroid nodules were presence the two group. Definitive histopathological diagnosis was benign in 33 patients (non PPD group were 45.5%, PPD group were 54.5%), malignancy in 5 patients (only PPD group were 100%), thyroiditis in 3 patients (non PPD group were 33.3%, PPD group were 66.7%). The results of thyroid blood tests, abnormal TSH level were 7 patients (non PPD group were 28.6%, PPD group were 71.4%) and abnormal Free T4 level were 9 patients (non PPD group were 44.4%, PPD group were 55.6%). There was no significant difference between the abnormal TSH level and Free T4 level of the two group. 5 patients were diagnosed as thyroid dysfunction. Of these, 2 patients were subclinical hyperthyroidism in non PPD group, 2 patients were subclinical hyperthyroidism and 1 patient was subclinical hyperthyroidism in PPD group. This study was significant the correlation between PPD and thyroid gland disease through ultrasonography. And the objective results of this study might be able to provide guideline that understanding, prevention and treatment for PPD and thyroid disease.

Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Breast Cancer Patients with BRCA Mutation (BRCA 유전자 변이가 있는 유방암 환자의 자기공명영상)

  • Chung, Sun Young;Cha, Joo Hee;Kim, Hak Hee;Shin, Hee Jung;Kim, Hyun Ji;Chae, Eun Young;Shin, Ji Eun;Choi, Woo Jung;Hong, Min Ji;Ahn, Sei Hyun;Lee, Jong Won;Jung, Kyung Hae
    • Investigative Magnetic Resonance Imaging
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.207-214
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    • 2013
  • Purpose : To evaluate the MRI findings of breast cancer with BRCA mutation. Materials and Methods: We collected information of the breast cancer patients who underwent the test for BRCA gene mutation as well as preoperative breast MRI from January 2007 to December 2010. A total of 185 patients were enrolled; 33 of these patients had BRCA mutations and 152 patients did not. Among them, a total of 231 breast cancers were detected. Images of the 47 breast cancers with BRCA mutation and of the 184 breast cancers without mutations were evaluated to compare the morphologic and enhancement features on MRI. Results: With MR imaging, there were no significant difference in morphologic characteristic between two groups. However, enhancement pattern in the group with BRCA mutation were more likely to have persistent enhancement (p < 0.233), and LN metastasis was more common in breast cancers without BRCA mutation. Breast cancers with BRCA 2 mutation tend to show more persistent enhancement pattern than BRCA 1 mutation. Conclusion: In breast cancer patients with BRCA mutation, MRI didn't show significant difference in morphologic characteristics, however breast cancers with BRCA gene mutation carriers tend to have benign morphologic features on MRI, such as Type 1 kinetic curve enhancement.

Investigation of False Positive Rates Newborn Screening using Tandem Mass Spectrometry (TMS) Technology in Single Center (단일기관에서 이중 질량 분석법(tandem mass spectrometry technology)을 이용한 선천성 대사이상 검사의 위양성율에 대한 연구)

  • Kim, Hyunsoo;Shin, Son Moon;Ko, Sun Young;Lee, Yeon Kyung;Park, Sung Won
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Inherited Metabolic disease
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.18-23
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    • 2016
  • Objective: Newborn screening leads to improved treatment and disease outcomes, but false-positive newborn screening results may impact include parental stress and anxiety, perception of child as unhealthy, parent-child relationship dysfunction, and increased infant hospitalizations. The purpose of this study was to investigate of the false positive rates and the causative factors of false positive results in Tandem Mass Spectrometry (TMS) in single center. Methods: Records were reviewed for all 18,872 subjects who were born in Cheill General Hospital, during January 1st, 2012 to December 31st, 2014. 17,292 neonates (91.62%) were tested for tandem mass screening almost in 2-5th day of life. Newborn babies whose first results were abnormal had been tested repeatedly by same methods in 7-14 day. If the results were abnormal again, further evaluation was performed. TMS analysis included data for the 43 disorders screened for using TMS broken down into three categories: fatty acid oxidation disorders, organic acidurias, and aminoacidopathies. The impact of several factors on increased false positive rates was analyzed using a multivariate analysis: time from birth to sample collection, birth weight, birth height, BMI, gender, gestational age, delivery type. Results: Males of the subjects were 8942 (51.7%), female 8350 (48.3%), the mean gestational age was $38.6{\pm}1.7$ weeks, the average birth weight $3,155.6{\pm}502.4g$, the average birth height $49.1{\pm}2.9cm$, and the average BMI $13.0{\pm}3.8(kg/m^2)$. Vaginal delivery cases were 9713 (56.2%), caesarean section 7,579 (43.8%). The average date of the inspection was $2.8{\pm}1.1$ days. 224 cases were identified as TMS positive. All the subjects were false positive (222/17,292, 1.30%) except 2 cases (1 male; benign phenylketonuria and 1 female; Short chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency). The false positive rates were 0.61% in fatty acid oxidation disorders, 0.25% in organic acidurias, and 0.45% in aminoacidopathies. In our study, the date of inspection got late, the false positive rates got higher. Because almost the cases of late test date were in treatment in neonatal intensive care unit so their test date was affected by their medical conditions. False positive rate was higher in extreme immaturity${\leq}27$ weeks than newborns of gestational age >27 weeks [OR=6.957 (CI=1.273-38.008), p<0.025] and extremely low birth weight<1,000 g than newborns of birthweight ${\geq}1,000g$ [OR=5.616 (CI=1.134-27.820), p<0.035]. Conclusion: False positive rate of TMS was 1.30% in Cheil General Hospital. Lower gestational age and birth weight impacted on increased false positive rates. Better understanding of factors that influence the reporting of screening tests, and the ability to modify these important factors, may improve the screening process and reduce the need for retesting. of screening tests, and the ability to modify these important factors, may improve the screening process and reduce the need for retesting.

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Buddhist Sculpture of Late Silla and Early Goryeo Period at Myeongju and the Gulsan School of Seon Buddhism (명주지역 나말여초 불교조각과 굴산선문)

  • Choe, Songeun
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.45 no.2
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    • pp.54-71
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    • 2012
  • This paper investigates Buddhist sculptures of the Gulsan-sa School of Seon Buddhism, which was established by the priest Beomil(梵日) at Myeongju(溟州), present-day Gangneung(江陵) area, and prospered until the late Goryeo period. There are very few surviving Buddhist images at Gulsan2 temple-site showing the Buddhist art when Beomil or his disciples, Gaecheong(開淸) and Haengjeok(行寂), were active, except a set of huge stone pillars for temple-banners and a stone monk stupa. It is therefore necessary to focus on pieces of artworks in Gangneung and nearby areas to explore the characteristics of Buddhist art of Gulsan-sa from the late Silla to early Goryeo period. For example, the stone relief seated Buddha image, one of Four Buddhas of Four Directions, and a stone relief of standing Guardian King both from the stone pagoda at Mujin temple-site(無盡寺址) can be compared with stupa reliefs at the capital Gyeongju area in their high quality of carving. The stone octagonal base showing seven lions on each of seven sides at Boheon-sa(普賢寺) demonstrates that it was made as a part of an octagonal lotus pedestal for a Vairocana Buddha now lost. Since Boheon-sa was erected by Gaechung, a disciple of Beomil as a branch of Gulsan-sa, it is fair to assume that the Vairocana image at Boheon-sa might have been closely related to the Buddhist images at Gulsan-sa in its style and iconography. The stone seated Bodhisattva from Hansong temple-site(寒松寺址) displays a benign face, exquisite necklace, and exotic iconography in its hand gesture and high cylindrical crown. The stone seated Buddha at Cheonghak-sa(靑鶴寺), brought from a temple-site where fragments of roof-tiles with the inscription of Heukam-sa(黑岩寺) were discovered, displays the late Silla and early Goryeo period. Heukam-sa seems to have been related to Gulsan-sa or have been one of the branches of Gulsan-sa. Extant fragments of artworks at Myeongju implicate the high quality of Buddhist art of Gulsan-sa in its iconography and style as well as unique features of Gulsan-sa Seon School.

A Literature Study of Dermatosurgical Diseases in the ImJeungJiNamUiAn (臨證指南醫案에 나타난 피부외과 질환에 대한 문헌고찰)

  • Cho, Jae-Hun;Chae, Byung-Yoon;Kim, Yoon-Bum
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology and Dermatology
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.271-288
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    • 2002
  • Authors investigated the pathogenesis and treatment of dennatosurgical diseases in the ImJeungJiNamUiAn(臨證指南醫案). 1. The symptoms and diseases of dermatosurgery were as follows; 1) BanSaJinRa(반사진라) : eczema, atopic dermatitis, seborrheic dermatitis, psoriasis, lichen planus, pityriasis rosea, hives, dermographism, angioedema, cholinergic urticaria, urticaria pigmentosa, acne, milium, syringoma, keratosis pilaris, discoid lupus erythematosus, hypersensitivity vasculitis, drug eruption, polymorphic light eruption, rheumatic fever, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis(Still's disease), acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis(Sweet's syndrome), Paget's disease, folliculitis, viral exanthems, molluscum contagiosum, tinea, tinea versicolor, lymphoma, lymphadenitis, lymphangitis, granuloma annulare, cherry angioma 2) ChangYang(瘡瘍) : acute stage eczema, seborrheic dermatitis, stasis ulcer, intertrigo, xerosis, psoriasis, lichen planus, ichthyosis, pityriasis rosea, rosacea, acne, keratosis pilaris, dyshidrosis, dermatitis herpetiformis, herpes gestationis, bullae in diabetics, pemphigus, lupus erythematosus, fixed drug eruption, erythema multiforme, toxic epidermal necrolysis, toxic shock syndrome, staphylococcal scaled skin syndrome, scarlet fever, folliculitis, impetigo, pyoderma gangrenosum, tinea, candidiasis, scabies, herpes simplex, herpes zoster, chicken pox, Kawasaki syndrome, lipoma, goiter, thyroid nodule, thyroiditis, hyperthyroidism, thyroid cancer, benign breast disorder, breast carcinoma, hepatic abscess, appendicitis, hemorrhoid 3) Yeok(疫) : scarlet fever, chicken pox, measles, rubella, exanthem subitum, erythema infectiosum, Epstein-Barr virus infection, cytomegalovirus infection, hand-foot-mouth disease, Kawasaki disease 4) Han(汗) : hyperhidrosis 2. The pathogenesis and treatment of dermatosurgery were as follows; 1) When the pathogenesis of BalSa(발사), BalJin(發疹), BalLa(발라) and HangJong(項腫) are wind-warm(風溫), exogenous cold with endogenous heat(外寒內熱), wind-damp(風濕), the treatment of evaporation(解表) with Menthae Herba(薄荷), Arctii Fructus(牛蒡子), Forsythiae Fructus(連翹) Mori Cortex(桑白皮), Fritillariae Cirrhosae Bulbus(貝母), Armeniaoae Amarum Semen(杏仁), Ephedrae Herba(麻黃), Cinnamomi Ramulus(桂枝), Curcumae Longae Rhizoma(薑黃), etc can be applied. 2) When the pathogenesis of BuYang(부양), ChangI(瘡痍) and ChangJilGaeSeon(瘡疾疥癬) are wind-heat(風熱), blood fever with wind transformation(血熱風動), wind-damp(風濕), the treatment of wind-dispelling(疏風) with Arctii Fructus(牛蒡子), Schizonepetae Herba(荊芥), Ledebouriellae Radix(防風), Dictamni Radicis Cortex(白鮮皮), Bombyx Batrytioatus(白??), etc can be applied. 3) When the pathogenesis of SaHuHaeSu(사후해수), SaJin(사진), BalJin(發疹), EunJin(은진) and BuYang(부양) are wind-heat(風熱), exogenous cold with endogenous heat(外寒內熱), exogenous warm pathogen with endogenous damp-heat(溫邪外感 濕熱內蘊), warm pathogen's penetration(溫邪內陷), insidious heat's penetration of pericardium(伏熱入包絡), the treatment of Ki-cooling(淸氣) with TongSeongHwan(通聖丸), Praeparatum(豆?), Phyllostachys Folium(竹葉), Mori Cortex(桑白皮), Tetrapanacis Medulla(通草), etc can be applied. 4) When the pathogenesis of JeokBan(적반), BalLa(발라), GuChang(久瘡), GyeolHaek(結核), DamHaek(痰核), Yeong(?), YuJu(流注), Breast Diseases(乳房疾患) and DoHan(盜汗) are stagnancy's injury of Ki and blood(鬱傷氣血), gallbladder fire with stomach damp(膽火胃濕), deficiency of Yin in stomach with Kwolum's check (胃陰虛 厥陰乘), heat's penetration of blood collaterals with disharmony of liver and stomach(熱入血絡 肝胃不和), insidious pathogen in Kwolum(邪伏厥陰), the treatment of mediation(和解) with Prunellae Spica(夏枯草), Chrysanthemi Flos(菊花), Mori Folium (桑葉), Bupleuri Radix(柴胡), Coptidis Rhizoma(黃連), Scutellariae Radix(黃芩), Gardeniae Fructus(梔子), Cyperi Rhizoma(香附子), Toosendan Fructus(川?子), Curcumae Radix(鬱金), Moutan Cortex(牧丹皮), Paeoniae Radix Rubra(赤芍藥), Unoariae Ramulus Et Uncus(釣鉤藤), Cinnamorni Ramulus(桂枝), Paeoniae Radix Alba(白芍藥), Polygoni Multiflori Radix (何首烏), Cannabis Fructus (胡麻子), Ostreae Concha(牡蠣), Zizyphi Spinosae Semen(酸棗仁), Pinelliae Rhizoma(半夏), Poria(백복령). etc can be applied. 5) When the pathogenesis of BanJin(반진), BalLa(발라), ChangI(瘡痍), NamgChang(膿瘡). ChangJilGaeSeon(瘡疾疥癬), ChangYang(瘡瘍), SeoYang(署瘍), NongYang(膿瘍) and GweYang(潰瘍) are wind-damp(風濕), summer heat-damp(暑濕), damp-warm(濕溫), downward flow of damp-heat(濕熱下垂), damp-heat with phlegm transformation(濕熱化痰), gallbladder fire with stomach damp(膽火胃濕), overdose of cold herbs(寒凉之樂 過服), the treatment of damp-resolving(化濕) with Pinelliae Rhizoma(半夏), armeniacae Amarum Semen(杏仁), Arecae Pericarpium(大腹皮), Poria(백복령), Coicis Semen(薏苡仁), Talcum(滑石), Glauberitum(寒水石), Dioscoreae Tokoro Rhizoma(??), Alismatis Rhizoma(澤瀉), Phellodendri Cortex(黃柏), Phaseoli Radiati Semen(?豆皮), Bombycis Excrementum(?沙), Bombyx Batryticatus(白??), Stephaniae Tetrandrae Radix(防己), etc can be applied. 6) When the pathogenesis of ChangPo(瘡泡), hepatic abscess(肝癰) and appendicitis(腸癰) are food poisoning(食物中毒), Ki obstruction & blood stasis in the interior(기비혈어재과), damp-heat stagnation with six Bu organs suspension(濕熱結聚 六腑不通), the treatment of purgation(通下) with DaeHwangMokDanPiTang(大黃牧丹皮湯), Manitis Squama(穿山甲), Curcumae Radix(鬱金), Curcumae Longae Rhizoma(薑黃), Tetrapanacis Medulla(通草), etc can be applied. 7) When the pathogenesis of JeokBan(적반), BanJin(반진), EunJin(은진). BuYang(부양), ChangI(瘡痍), ChangPo(瘡泡), GuChang(久瘡), NongYang(膿瘍), GweYang(潰瘍), Jeong(정), Jeol(癤), YeokRyeo(疫?) and YeokRyeolpDan(疫?入?) are wind-heat stagnation(風熱久未解), blood fever in Yangmyong(陽明血熱), blood fever with transformation(血熱風動), heat's penetration of blood collaterals(熱入血絡). fever in blood(血分有熱), insidious heat in triple energizer(三焦伏熱), pathogen's penetration of pericardium(心包受邪), deficiency of Yong(營虛), epidemic pathogen(感受穢濁), the treatment of Yong & blood-cooling(淸營凉血) with SeoGakJiHwangTang(犀角地黃湯), Scrophulariae Radix(玄參), Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix(丹參), Angelicae Gigantis Radix(當歸), Polygoni Multiflori Radix(何首烏), Cannabis Fructus(胡麻子), Biotae Semen(柏子仁), Liriopis Tuber(麥門冬), Phaseoli Semen(赤豆皮), Forsythiae Fructus(連翹), SaJin(사진), YangDok(瘍毒) and YeokRyeoIpDan(역려입단) are insidious heat's penetration of pericardium(伏熱入包絡), damp-warm's penetration of blood collaterals(濕溫入血絡), epidemic pathogen's penetration of pericardium(심포감수역려), the treatment of resuscitation(開竅) with JiBoDan(至寶丹), UHwangHwan(牛黃丸), Forsythiae Fructus(連翹), Curcumae Radix(鬱金), Tetrapanacis Medulla(通草), Acori Graminei Rhizoma(石菖蒲), etc can be applied. 9) When the pathogenesis of SaHuSinTong(사후신통), SaHuYeolBuJi(사후열부지), ChangI(瘡痍), YangSon(瘍損) and DoHan(盜汗) are deficiency of Yin in Yangmyong stomach(陽明胃陰虛), deficiency of Yin(陰虛), the treatment of Yin-replenishing(滋陰) with MaekMunDongTang(麥門冬湯), GyeongOkGo(瓊玉膏), Schizandrae Fructus(五味子), Adenophorae Radix(沙參), Lycii Radicis Cortex (地骨皮), Polygonati Odorati Rhizoma(玉竹), Dindrobii Herba(石斛), Paeoniae Radix Alba(白芍藥), Ligustri Lucidi Fructus (女貞子), etc can be applied. 10) When the pathogenesis of RuYang(漏瘍) is endogenous wind in Yang collaterals(陽絡內風), the treatment of endogenous wind-calming(息風) with Mume Fructus(烏梅), Paeoniae Radix Alba (白芍藥), etc be applied. 11) When the pathogenesis of GuChang(久瘡), GweYang(潰瘍), RuYang(漏瘍), ChiChang(痔瘡), JaHan(自汗) and OSimHan(五心汗) are consumption of stomach(胃損), consumption of Ki & blood(氣血耗盡), overexertion of heart vitality(勞傷心神), deficiency of Yong(營虛), deficiency of Wi(衛虛), deficiency of Yang(陽虛), the treatment of Yang-restoring & exhaustion-arresting(回陽固脫) with RijungTang(理中湯), jinMuTang(眞武湯), SaengMaekSaGunjaTang(生脈四君子湯), Astragali Radix (황기), Ledebouriellae Radix(防風), Cinnamomi Ramulus(桂枝), Angelicae Gigantis Radix(當歸), Ostreae Concha(牡蠣), Zanthoxyli Fructus(川椒), Cuscutae Semen(兎絲子), etc can be applied.

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Computed Tomography-guided Localization with a Hook-wire Followed by Video-assisted Thoracic Surgery for Small Intrapulmonary and Ground Glass Opacity Lesions (폐실질 내에 위치한 소결질 및 간유리 병변에서 흉부컴퓨터단층촬영 유도하에 Hook Wire를 이용한 위치 선정 후 시행한 흉강경 폐절제술의 유용성)

  • Kang, Pil-Je;Kim, Yong-Hee;Park, Seung-Il;Kim, Dong-Kwan;Song, Jae-Woo;Do, Kyoung-Hyun
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    • v.42 no.5
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    • pp.624-629
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    • 2009
  • Background: Making the histologic diagnosis of small pulmonary nodules and ground glass opacity (GGO) lesions is difficult. CT-guided percutaneous needle biopsies often fail to provide enough specimen for making the diagnosis. Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) can be inefficient for treating non-palpable lesions. Preoperative localization of small intrapulmonary lesions provides a more obvious target to facilitate performing intraoperative. resection. We evaluated the efficacy of CT-guided localization with using a hook wire and this was followed by VATS for making the histologic diagnosis of small intrapulmonary nodules and GGO lesions. Material and Method: Eighteen patients (13 males) were included in this study from August 2005 to March 2008. 18 intrapulmonary lesions underwent preoperative localization by using a CT-guided a hook wire system prior to performing VATS resection for intrapulmonary lesions and GGO lesions. The clinical data such as the accuracy of localization, the rate of conversion-to-thoracotomy, the operation time, the postoperative complications and the histology of the pulmonary lesion were retrospectively collected. Result: Eighteen VATS resections were performed in 18 patients. Preoperative CT-guided localization with a hook-wire was successful in all the patients. Dislodgement of a hook wire was observed in one case. There was no conversion to thoracotomy, The median diameter of lesions was 8 mm (range: $3{\sim}15\;mm$). The median depth of the lesions from the pleural surfaces was 5.5 mm (range: $1{\sim}30\;mm$). The median interval between preoperative CT-guided with a hook-wire and VATS was 34.5 min (range: ($10{\sim}226$ min). The median operative time was 43.5.min (range: $26{\sim}83$ min). In two patients, clinically insignificant pneumothorax developed after CT-guided localization with a hook-wire and there were no other complications. Histological examinations confirmed 8 primary lung cancers, 3 cases of metastases, 3 cases of inflammation, 2 intrapulmonary lymph nodes and 2 other benign lesions. Conclusion: CT-guided localization with a hook-wire followed by VATS for treating small intrapulmonary nodules and GGO lesions provided a low conversion thoracotomy rate, a short operation time and few localization-related or postoperative complications. This procedure was efficient to confirm intrapulmonary lesions and GGO lesions.