• Title, Summary, Keyword: batter stability

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The Effects of NaCl on the Physicochemical Properties of DFD and Normal Pork Meat Batter (NaCl 첨가가 DFD육 및 정상육 batter의 이화학적 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Cheon-Jei;Lee, Eui-Soo;Jeong, Jong-Yoen;Kweon, Taeg-Sang
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.206-210
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    • 2003
  • Effects of NaCl concentration (0, 1, 2, and 3%) on the physico-chemical characteristics of dark, firm, dry (DFD) and normal meat batter were examined. Before heating, pH values of DFD and normal meat batter decreased up to 0.23 (DFD) and 0.2 (normal) units, which after heating increased up to $0.16{\sim}0.28$ and $0.17{\sim}0.23$ units, as NaCl concentration increased from 0 to 3%. Cooking loss and diameter reduction of DFD meat batter were lower than those of nomal meat batter and decreased. whereas protein solubilities and emulsion stabilities of DFD and normal meat increased, with increasing NaCl concentration. Protein solubility and emulsion stability of DFD meat were higher than those of nomal meat (p<0.05). Viscosity and hardness of DFD meat batter were higher than those of normal meat batter and increased as NaCl concentration increased from 0 to 3%.

Network Structure and Dextran Formation of Jeungpyeon Made with Yeast Starter

  • Hahn, Young-Sook;Lee, Hae-Eun;Park, Ju-Yeon;Woo, Kyung-Ja
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.77-81
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    • 2006
  • The dextransucrase activity of microorganisms which were identified as contributing to the fermentation of jeungpyeon made with yeast was measured. The dextran generated during fermentation was quantified and the viscosity changes were measured. The mechanism of network structure formation was clarified by observing the inside of the network structure over the fermentation periods ranging from 1 to 7 hr using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The pH of jeungpyeon batter decreased significantly as the fermentation proceeded, whereas the viscosity increased. The identified lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Tetragenococcus halophilus, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. dextranicum. The yeast was identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae A/Tor. Pretorien. The dextransucrase extracted from those microorganisms showed high activity. On the other hand, the amount of dextran generated from the batter increased significantly beyond 2 hr of fermentation, and the viscosity increment showed a similar trend. The SEM photos showed that the most homogeneous fine network structure was observed in the batter fermented for 2 hr. Therefore, we assumed that the dextran that was generated by microorganisms during fermentation interacted with the components of the batter to increase the stability of the network structure.

Physical and Sensory Properties of Chiffon Cake Prepared with Mulberry Powder (오디 분말을 첨가한 Chiffon Cake의 물리적.관능적 특성)

  • Lee, Young-Ju;Sim, Chang-Hwan;Chun, Soon-Sil
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.508-516
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    • 2009
  • Chiffon cakes with 2, 4, 6, 8, or 10% of mulberry powder were made. Specific gravity and batter stability of chiffon cake batter were measured. And moisture content, color, height, weight, texture of chiffon cakes were measured. Consumers also evaluated the chiffon cakes for their liking. Specific gravity of control batter was 0.5 and there were no significant differences between control and chiffon cakes with 2, 4, 6, and 8% of the mulberry powder. The sample with 10% mulberry powder had specific gravity of 0.64 and it was significantly higher compared to the control. Stability of the batters were measured using Turbiscan and the control was the least stable whereas the batter with 2% mulberry powder was the most stable. The moisture content and weight of the cake did not differ between the control chiffon cake and cakes with mulberry powder. The height of the cake was the highest for the control cake at 7.56cm, but the differences between control, and samples with 2, 4, 6, and 8% mulberry powder were not significant. The sample with 10% mulberry powder had lower height of 6.55cm. 'L', 'a', and 'b' values of crust decreased significantly with increased content of mulberry powder. Crumb color('L' and 'b' values) decreased as mulberry powder content increased, while the 'a' value increased. Hardness significantly decreased as mulberry content increased. However, fracturability and springiness did not differ between control and sample cakes. Resilience of the control and sample cakes prepared with 2% mulberry powder were lowest, and resilience increased significantly as the amount of mulberry powder increased beyond 4%. Control cake was preferred overall by consumers, while the color, softness, and flavor of mulberry powder prepared cakes(particularly 2% powder) were specifically preferred. Mulberry flavor and astringency increased as the amount of mulberry powder increased, while sweetness did not change. The intensity of the egg flavor significantly decreased as the amount of mulberry powder increased. Intensity ratings of off-flavor did not differ among control and sample cakes. We recommend the addition of 2~6% mulberry powder to the recipe for chiffon cake.

Effects of Wheat Fiber on the Quality of Meat Batter (Wheat Fiber 첨가가 Meat Batter의 품질에 미치는 영향)

  • Choi, Yun-Sang;Lee, Mi-Ai;Jeong, Jong-Youn;Choi, Ji-Hun;Han, Doo-Jeong;Kim, Hack-Youn;Lee, Eui-Soo;Kim, Cheon-Jei
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.22-28
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    • 2007
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of wheat fiber as a replacement for isolated soy protein (ISP) or concentrated soy protein (CSP) on the quality characteristics of meat batter. Meat batter formulations were prepared with 2% levels of ISP, CSP, or wheat fiber. The pH values of each formulation were not significantly different (p>0.05). The L-values of meat batter containing wheat fiber, ISP, or CSP were higher than the control, however the a- and b-values were lower than the control (p<0.05). Relative to the control meat batter, the water holding capacity, viscosity, hardness, gumminess, and chewiness of meat batter containing ISP, CSP, or wheat fiber was significantly higher than the control (p<0.05). All supplemented meat batters had significantly lower cooking loss and emulsification stability than the control (p<0.05), with no significant difference among the supplemented meat batters. The results of this study show that the use of wheat fiber as an ISP or CSP replacer does not affect the overall quality of meat batter.

Physicochemical and Sensory Characteristics of Sponge Cake System Prepared with Domestic and Imported Wheat Flour (국내산과 수입 밀가루로 제조한 스폰지 케익의 이화학적 및 관능적 특성)

  • Oh, Myung-Suk;Kim, Hye-Young L.;Lee, Yong-Sik;Kim, Hee-Sun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.22 no.6
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    • pp.813-819
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    • 2007
  • Physicochemical and sensory properties of sponge cakes using 2 kinds of domestic wheat flour(white flour, whole wheat flour) and imported cake flour were investigated. In the proximate analysis, white flour had higher contents of water and protein compared with those of imported flour. Whole wheat flour had the highest contents of protein, lipid and ash. Regarding the batter, imported flour sample showed lower specific gravity and higher viscosity than those of domestic flour sample, implying that there was more air incorporation and higher batter stability. As a result, imported flour batter produced larger cake compared to that of domestic flour batter. But indexes of symmetry and uniformity showed no significant difference among the samples. In textural analysis using rheometer, cakes with imported flour were softer compared with that with domestic flour. In gumminess and brittleness, cakes with domestic white flour showed the highest value while that with the imported flour showed the lowest value. For the color measurements of cake crumb, no significant difference in DE was found among the samples. Regarding the cross-sections of the cake observed using SEM, imported flour produced cake with smaller and more even air cells compared to that with the domestic flour cake. In sensory evaluation, cakes with the domestic white flour showed the highest moistness value. But there was no significant difference in springiness, firmness, adhesiveness and ease of swallow among the samples. In conclusion, cakes with domestic white flour and whole wheat flour were as good as that with imported cake flour for the sponge cake preparation.

Effects of Dietary Fiber Extracted from Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima Duch.) on the Physico-Chemical and Sensory Characteristics of Reduced-Fat Frankfurters

  • Kim, Cheon-Jei;Kim, Hyun-Wook;Hwang, Ko-Eun;Song, Dong-Heon;Ham, Youn-Kyung;Choi, Ji-Hun;Kim, Young-Boong;Choi, Yun-Sang
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.36 no.3
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    • pp.309-318
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    • 2016
  • In this study, we investigated the effects of reducing fat levels from 30% to 25, 20, and 15% by substituting pork fat with water and pumpkin fiber (2%) on the quality of frankfurters compared with control. Decreasing the fat concentration from 30% to 15% significantly increased moisture content, redness of meat batter and frankfurter, cooking loss, and water exudation, and decreased fat content, energy value, pH, and lightness of meat batter and frankfurter, hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, chewiness, and apparent viscosity. The addition of 2% pumpkin fiber was significantly increased moisture content, yellowness of meat batter and frankfurter, hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, chewiness, and apparent viscosity, whereas reduced cooking loss and emulsion stability. The treatment of reduced-fat frankfurters formulated with 20 and 25% fat levels and with pumpkin fiber had sensory properties similar to the high-fat control frankfurters. The results demonstrate that when the reduced-fat frankfurter with 2% added pumpkin fiber and water replaces fat levels can be readily made with high quality and acceptable sensory properties.

Rheological Characteristics of Flour Batters in the Presence of Mugwort Powder (쑥 분말을 첨가한 소맥분의 리올로지 특성에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Hyun-Ja;Park, Sang-Hae;Kang, Kun-Og
    • The Korean Journal of Community Living Science
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.231-237
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    • 2009
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effects of mugwort powder on two types of flour batters, i.e., medium and cake, using the Falling Number test, RVA test, alveogram, and farimogram. The mugwort powder was added at 3% and 5% on the medium and cake flour bases, respectively. The Falling Numbers of the medium and cake flour batters with mugwort powder were increased due to the alteration of the protein in the flour. Analysis of the RVA characteristics showed that the addition of mugwort powder did not have significant effects on the initial pasting temperature. Peak viscosity, holding strength, final viscosity, and set back values of the medium flour batter were not consistent, but those of the cake flour batter were decreased. The characteristics of the alveogram showed that the addition of mugwort powder increased the extensibility and the swelling index. Farinogram demonstrated that the addition of mugwort powder decreased the water absorption and improved the stability of the medium and cake flour batters.

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Effects of Maesil Extract on the Quality Characteristics of Yellow Layer Cake(I) - Rheology Characteristics of Cake Batter - (매실 엑기스 첨가가 Yellow Layer Cake의 품질 특성에 미치는 영향(I) - 케이크 반죽의 리올로지 특성 -)

  • Choi, Bong-Soon;Nam, Yoon-Joo;Hwang, Seong-Yun;Kang, Kun-Og
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.539-546
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    • 2008
  • This study was conducted in order to investigate the effects of maesil extract on medium and cake flour using the falling number and RVA tests, as well as farinography, and alveography. The maesil extract were added on the medium and cake flour bases, 3% and 5% each. The falling numbers of the medium and cake flour with maesil extract were increased due to alteration of the protein in the flour. Analysis of the RVA characteristics showed that the addition of maesil extract did not have a significant effect on the initial pasting temperature. Peak viscosity, holding strength, final viscosity, and the breakdown and setback values of the medium flour were not consistent, but those of the cake flour decreased. Farinography demonstrated that the addition of maesil extract decreased water absorption and improved the stability of the medium and cake flour. The characteristics of the alveogram showed that the addition of maesil extract increased the extensibility and swelling index. Based on the experimental data, the processing rheology may be good when using maesil extract to make yellow layer cake.

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Quality Characteristics of Meat Batters Containing Dietary Fiber Extracted from Rice Bran (미강 추출 식이섬유 혼합물을 첨가한 돈육 유화물의 품질특성)

  • Choi, Yun-Sang;Jeong, Jong-Youn;Choi, Ji-Hun;Han, Doo-Jeong;Kim, Hack-Youn;Lee, Mi-Ai;Shim, So-Yeon;Paik, Hyun-Dong;Kim, Cheon-Jei
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.228-234
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    • 2007
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate quality characteristics of the meat batter containing dietary fiber extracted rice bran. The formulations of meat batters were manufactured in a model system with 2% raw rice bran and 2, 4, 6% levels of dietary fiber extracted rice bran, respectively. The proximate compositions of dietary fiber extracted rice bran were 53.27% dietary fiber, 6.10% crude fat, 22.99% crude protein, 12.78% crude moisture, and 7.41% crude ash. Compared with control of uncooked meat batter, the pH value of all treatments were significantly different(p<0.05). The pH of cooked meat batter were similar to uncooked meat batter. $CIE\;L^*-\;and\;CIE\;b^*-value$ of uncooked meat batter containing dietary fiber extracted rice bran were lower than control, but CIE $a^*-value$ of treatment was higher than those in control(p<0.05). All treatments had significantly lower cooking loss and emulsion stability than control(p<0.05). Compared with control, viscosity of the treatments containing dietary fiber extracted rice bran were observed significantly higher than those in control (p<0.05). And then hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, and chewiness of treatments were higher than in control(p<0.05). Conclusively, the results of this study showed that addition of dietary fiber extracted rice bran affected the high quality properties of meat batter.

Effects of Edible Seaweed on Physicochemical and Sensory Characteristics of Reduced-salt Frankfurters

  • Choi, Yun-Sang;Kum, Jun-Seok;Jeon, Ki-Hong;Park, Jong-Dae;Choi, Hyun-Wook;Hwang, Ko-Eun;Jeong, Tae-Jun;Kim, Young-Boong;Kim, Cheon-Jei
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.35 no.6
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    • pp.748-756
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    • 2015
  • The effects of sea tangle, sea mustard, hijiki, and glasswort were investigated based on the proximate composition, salinity, cooking loss, emulsion stability, pH, color, texture profile analysis, apparent viscosity, and sensory characteristics of reduced-salt (NaCl) meat batter and frankfurters. The moisture content, salinity, lightness of the meat batter and frankfurter, hardness, gumminess, and chewiness of the reduced-salt frankfurters with sea weeds were lower than the control without seaweed (p<0.05). The protein content, springiness, and cohesiveness of the reduced-salt frankfurters were not significantly different among the treatments (p>0.05). The moisture content, salinity, cooking loss, lightness, redness, hardness, gumminess, and chewiness of treatments with sea tangle and with sea mustard were lower than the control (p<0.05). Among the sensory traits, color was highest in the control (p<0.05). The flavor was also highest in the control. The treatments with sea tangle and with sea mustard samples had high tenderness, juiciness, and overall acceptability scores similar to the control (p<0.05). The results of this study show that the combination of low-salt and seaweed in the formulation successfully improved reduced-salt frankfurters, improving sensory characteristics to levels similar to the regular salt control (1.5%).