• Title, Summary, Keyword: barriers

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A Study on the Barriers of Researcher's Access to Information (경보접근 장애요소의 심각도와 심각도 구성요인 간의 관계)

  • Lee Eun Chul
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Library and Information Science
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    • v.23
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    • pp.165-205
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    • 1992
  • The purpose of this research is to verify the hypothesis that the serious ness of barriers may have significant relevance to barrier components expressing the extent of barrier, e. g. their frequency of occurrence, effect of the barrier on the acquisition of information and on the research project and trend of the barrier. Major conclusions made in this research are summarized as follows: 1. Barriers that their frequency of occurrence are high, show high seriousness of barriers. This indicates that frequency of barriers affects the seriousness of barriers. 2. Barriers that their effects on the acquisition of information and on the research project are large, show high seriousness of barriers. This indicates that the effect of the barrier on the acquisition of information and on the research project affects the seriousness of barriers. 3. Barriers that their trends are increasing, show high seriousness of barriers. This indicates that the trend of the barrier affects the seriousness of barriers.

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Aerodynamic interaction between static vehicles and wind barriers on railway bridges exposed to crosswinds

  • Huoyue, Xiang;Yongle, Li;Bin, Wang
    • Wind and Structures
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.237-247
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    • 2015
  • Wind tunnel experiments are used to investigate the aerodynamic interactions between vehicles and wind barriers on a railway bridge. Wind barriers with four different heights (1.72 m, 2.05 m, 2.5 m and 2.95 m, full-scale) and three different porosities (0%, 30% and 40%) are studied to yield the aerodynamic coefficients of the vehicle and the wind barriers. The effects of the wind barriers on the aerodynamic coefficients of the vehicle are analyzed as well as the effects of the vehicle on the aerodynamic coefficients of the wind barriers. Finally, the relationship between the drag forces on the wind barriers and the aerodynamic coefficients of the vehicle are discussed. The results show that the wind barriers can significantly reduce the drag coefficients of the vehicle, but that porous wind barriers increase the lift forces on the vehicle. The windward vehicle will significantly reduce the drag coefficients of the porous wind barriers, but the windward and leeward vehicle will increase the drag coefficients of the solid wind barrier. The overturning moment coefficient is a linear function of the drag forces on the wind barriers if the full-scale height of the wind barriers $h{\leq}2.5m$ and the overturning moment coefficients $C_O{\geq}0$.

Compliance and Barriers to Self-care Behaviors in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes (제2형 당뇨병환자의 자가간호행위 이행과 장애수준)

  • Zhang, Hai Lian;Kim, Hyun Li
    • Journal of Korean Clinical Nursing Research
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.155-166
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    • 2010
  • Purpose: The purpose of the study was to examine the level and correlation of compliance and barriers to self-care behavior in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: The participants for this study were 122 patients with type 2 diabetes enrolled in the out-patient clinic of C national general hospital. Data collection was done by self-report questionnaires. Results: The mean score of the patients with type 2 diabetes for self-care behavior was higher than average level. Level of barriers to exercise was also higher than average, and higher than other barriers of diet and medication; There were low but significant correlations between self-care behavior and barriers to diet, exercise and medication; Variance in barriers to exercise, using alcohol, regular hospital visits, medical treatment and good foot care explained 29.6% of the variance in self-care behavior. Conclusion: According to the study, the self-care behavior of medication and barriers to exercise were the highest. Barriers to exercise highly influenced self-care behavior. Barriers to diet and exercise were significantly correlated the self-care behavior. Further study or interventions are necessary to decrease barriers in patients with type 2 diabetes.

Perceived Barriers to Exercise of Adults: Difference by Age, Gender and Residence (성인이 지각한 운동 장애 요인에 대한 성별, 나이별, 지역별 비교)

  • Kim, In-Ja;Lee, Eun-Ok;Choi, Hee-Jung
    • Korean Journal of Adult Nursing
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.193-204
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    • 2003
  • Purpose: Perceived barriers to exercise were investigated for adults. Method: A total 1266 subjects were selected by a quota sampling method with age, gender, and residence. Perceived barriers were categorized under 4 groups: knowledge, psychological, physical, and external factors. All 23 items of perceived barriers were responded on a dichotomous (yes/no) scale. Result: Mean number of perceived barriers was 4.61 and 87.9% subjects perceived at least one barrier which prevented involvement in exercise. External barriers ranked highest, followed in order by psychological, knowledge, and physical barriers. Most factors of perceived barriers were found to be different by age, gender, and residence, in that, the younger, female, living in Daejeon subjects were found to respond with more barriers than the older, male, living in Chungju or Seoul. Conclusion: Perceived barriers to exercise are differenct by age, gender, and residence. Therefore, it is recommended that age, gender, and residence of subjects must be considered in order to develop exercise programs and public campaigns.

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A Study on the Current Condition of Energy Education and Barriers of Energy Education Faced by Teachers - Focused on Energy Saving Policy Research School - (중학교의 에너지 교육 현황과 교사가 경험하는 에너지 교육 장애 요인 - 에너지 절약연구학교를 중심으로 -)

  • Seo, Eun-Jung;Yun, Sun-Jin
    • Hwankyungkyoyuk
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.26-39
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    • 2011
  • The purpose of this study is to review the current state of energy education in Korea and identifies barriers faced by teachers in doing energy education. For this purpose, this study carried out a questionnaire survey targeting energy saving policy research-schools. The results of this research are as follows. First, teachers facing barriers in energy education pointed out the lack of teaching text and students' interest in energy, and work stress as main barriers. Second, teachers facing barriers in energy education rather than teachers not facing barriers are inclined to do more education at Ordinance hour and Jongrye hours. It implies that more energy education textbooks for Ordinance hour and Jongrye hours need to be developed. Third, teachers facing barriers in energy education desire more chances for training program, compared with teachers who do not feel barriers. It implies that opportunities for teacher training program need to be expanded.

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Numerical Study of Enhanced Performance in InGaN Light-Emitting Diodes with Graded-composition AlGaInN Barriers

  • Kim, Su Jin;Kim, Tae Geun
    • Journal of the Optical Society of Korea
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.16-21
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    • 2013
  • In this paper, we report the effect of GaN/graded-composition AlGaInN/GaN quantum barriers in active regions on the electrical and optical properties of GaN-based vertical light emitting diodes (VLEDs). By modifying the aluminum composition profile within the AlGaInN quantum barrier, we have achieved improvements in the output power and the internal quantum efficiency (IQE) as compared to VLEDs using conventional GaN barriers. The forward voltages at 350 mA were calculated to be 3.5 and 4.0 V for VLEDs with GaN/graded-composition AlGaInN/GaN barriers and GaN barriers, respectively. The light-output power and IQE of VLEDs with GaN/graded-composition AlGaInN/GaN barriers were also increased by 4.3% and 9.51%, respectively, as compared to those with GaN barriers.

Perceived Benefits and Barriers of Exercise in Community-Dwelling Adults at a Local City in Korea (성인들이 지각하는 운동유익성 및 운동장애성에 관한 연구)

  • Hyoung, Hee-Kyoung
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Community Health Nursing
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.699-709
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    • 2002
  • Purpose: This descriptive study was aimed to assess the perceived benefits/barriers of exercise in community-dwelling adults in K city in Korea, and to provide a basic data for developing an exercise program for them as a nursing intervention. Method: The study subjects were 520 adults who lived in the K city. The data were collected from February 2 to March 5, 2002. The perceived benefits/barriers of exercise were measured by the Exercise Benefits/Barriers Scale (EBBS). The EBBS was developed by Sechrist. Walker, & Pender (1987) and revised by Jang & Shin (1999). Results: The adults reported that the exercise benefits were moderately high and the exercise barriers were moderately low. A significant relationship was found between the reported level of exercise and the perceived benefits/barriers of exercise. Age, gender, marital status, education, residence type were significantly correlated with perceived exercise benefits/barriers (p<.05). Conclusion: Community health nurses should plan exercise programs that minimize the perceived barriers to exercise and enhance the perceived benefits of exercise. In addition, those exercise programs should be implemented in the consideration of several demographic characteristics of the clinents.

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Examination of Proliferation Resistance Assessment for Nuclear Fuel Cycles

  • Lee, Yoon-Hee;Lee, Kun-Jai
    • Proceedings of the Korean Radioactive Waste Society Conference
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    • pp.73-73
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    • 2009
  • There are many factors to evaluate nuclear fuel cycle such as safety, public acceptance, economics, etc.. Transparency, proliferation, environment issues, public acceptance and safety are essential to expansion of nuclear industry and proliferation resistance is one of key constraints in the deployment of advanced nuclear energy systems. Proliferation resistance is being considered as one of the most important factors in assessing advanced and innovative nuclear systems. IAEA defmes proliferation resistance as characteristics of nuclear energy system that impedes the diversion or undeclared production of nuclear material [1]. Barriers to proliferation is consist of intrinsic and extrinsic barriers(institutional measures). Intrinsic barriers are characterized in material barriers and technical barriers in general. Material barriers is intrinsic, or inherent, qualities of materials that reduce the inherent desirability or attractiveness of the material as an explosive. Isotopic, chemical, radiological, mass and bulk, detectability barriers are considered as material barriers attributes [2]. Proliferation resistance is examined for several nuclear fuel cycles based on previous study which is focused on the intrinsic barriers [3-4]. Pyroprocessing and DUPIC are considered as reprocessing technologies in Korea and the PWR direct disposal is considered. Comparative assessments of the proliferation attributes and merits of different fuel cycle systems will be performed and the optimal back-end fuel cycle and strategy will be proposed.

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Barriers and Attitudes to Research Among Nurses in One Hospital in Korea

  • Kang Hee Sun;Kim Mi Jong
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.656-663
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    • 2005
  • Purpose. Nursing research is recognized as an essential basis for the continuous development of the scientific nursing knowledge and practice. An understanding of the barriers and attitudes to research among nurses is important to improve clinical nursing research activities. Method. Data were collected from nurses at a general hospital, located in D city, using a self-reported questionnaire, from March 15th to April 4th, 2003, and 133 questionnaires were used for the analyses. A 5 point-scale instrument was used to measure barriers and attitudes towards nursing research, with a Cronbach's alpha of .85 and .89, respectively. Results. Nurses had limited experience in research and were not well prepared to conduct it. Lack of experience, training and time were the major barriers for conducting research. However, the nurses had positive attitudes toward research. There was a difference in barriers (t = 2.68, P = .02) and research attitudes (t =- 2.74, P = .00) according to the nurses' position. Also, the nurses' research experience influenced research attitudes (t = -3.27, P = .00). The degree of research preparation (F = 6.98, P = .00) had an effect on the attitudes toward nursing research but not on the barriers. Conclusion. There is an urgent need to promote both the ability and environment for clinical nurses to actively participate in research. As the majority of nurses had little experience and low confidence in research and perceived many barriers, this promotion can be accomplished by enhancing their confidence in research through continuing education and by gradually eliminating the barriers to research.

An Empirical Study on the Logistics Barriers of Three Countries in Northeast Asia

  • Yoo, Chang-Kwon
    • The Journal of Distribution Science
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.23-30
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    • 2016
  • Purpose - This research focuses on the analysis of logistics barriers in Korea, China and Japan facing the barriers of overseas-expanded manufacturers with other countries. With the tree countries are emerging as the biggest trade partners in Northeast Asia, their logistics barriers are applied with similar verification methods of preceding researches such as Carter(1997). Research design, data and methodology - Collecting the statistics data from the three countries' overseas-expanded manufacturers, t-verification was performed in order to analyze average value and verify any significance. Additionally, multiple regression analysis was used to analyze any influence on the relationship in Korean logistics barrier and Chinese and Japanese expansion to Korean market. Results - Statistics suggested that three countries' logistics barriers are significantly differentiated by each verification categories, and Korean barrier negatively affected Chinese and Japanese manufacturers coming into Korean market. Conclusions - As a result of multiple regression analysis of the influencing relationship between Korea's logistics barrier and Chinese and Japanese companies coming into Korean market, all of the Korean barriers are affecting the companies as an obstructive factor, and it is proved to be statistically meaningful. Therefore, in order to reduce Chinese and Japanese companies' cost burden, it is necessary that not only reasonable charge system and taxation support but also comprehensive measure establishment reduce Korea's logistics barriers. However, since this research has a limitation in samples and shows a period of 5 years in the three nations' trade barriers, continuous and complementary researches are necessary in order to develop certain objectivity.