• Title, Summary, Keyword: barrier

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PRICING EXTERNAL-CHAINED BARRIER OPTIONS WITH EXPONENTIAL BARRIERS

  • Jeon, Junkee;Yoon, Ji-Hun
    • Bulletin of the Korean Mathematical Society
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    • v.53 no.5
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    • pp.1497-1530
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    • 2016
  • External barrier options are two-asset options with stochastic variables where the payoff depends on one underlying asset and the barrier depends on another state variable. The barrier state variable determines whether the option is knocked in or out when the value of the variable is above or below some prescribed barrier level. This paper derives the explicit analytic solution of the chained option with an external single or double barrier by utilizing the probabilistic methods - the reflection principle and the change of measure. Before we do this, we examine the closed-form solution of the external barrier option with a single or double-curved barrier using the methods of image and double Mellin transforms. The exact solution of the external barrier option price enables us to obtain the pricing formula of the chained option with the external barrier more easily.

The Effect of Multi-lamellar Emulsion (MLE) on Skin Barrier Function: Can an Improve Permeability Barrier Provide a Solution for Itching due to Skin Barrier Malfunction\ulcorner

  • Youm, Jong-kyung;Kim, Yang-hee;Park, Byeong-deog;Jeong, Se-kyoo;Park, Eung-ho;Ahn, Sung-ku;Lee, Seung-hun
    • Proceedings of the SCSK Conference
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    • pp.765-779
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    • 2003
  • Physiological lipid mixtures comprised of cholesterol, ceramide and free fatty acid better maintain epidermal homeostasis and have been recently used for dermatoses induced by skin barrier damage, for example for atopic dermatitis and xerotic skin. Itching and dry atopic dermatitis of the skin may be related to altered skin barrier function. In a previous study, the use of multi-lamellar emulsion (MLE), which is a lipid mixtures containing cholesterol, pseudoceramide and free fatty acid, has been shown to accelerate the recovery of the epidermal permeability barrier. In this study, we assessed the efficacy of MLE compared with a currently used anti-itch moisturizer (AIM), the active ingredients of which are menthol and camphor, on barrier recovery after barrier disruption. To clarify the effect of MLE and AIM after acute barrier perturbation, we measured the relation between transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and the barrier recovery rate at 3, 6, 24, and 48 hours after tape stripping hairless mice and then observed changes in the stratum corneum (SC), including the intercellular lipid structure and secretion of lamellar bodies, by electron microscopy. MLE treated skin recover skin barrier function more rapidly, and AIM treated skin delayed barrier repair. Morphological changes in the epidermis, of MLE treated skin revealed well-conserved lipid multi-lamellar structures at 24 h after tape stripping, whereas AIM treated skin showed altered lamellar bilayers within the SC interstices at 48 h. In addition, MLE treated skin showed an increase in the number of LBs and in their secretions and a decrease in the number of SC layers versus AIM treated skin. These results suggest that MLE may accelerate the production of an epidermal permeability barrier in hairless mice by increasing the number and secretion of LB and improve the dryness and itch associated with an altered epidermal permeability barrier.

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Performance Evaluation of Steel and Composite Safety Barrier for Bridge by Vehicle Crash Simulation (차량 충돌 시뮬레이션에 의한 강재 및 복합소재 교량용 방호울타리 성능 비교)

  • Kim, Seung-Eock;Cho, Pan-Kyu;Hong, Kab-Eui;Jeon, Shin-Youl
    • Journal of the Computational Structural Engineering Institute of Korea
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.175-182
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    • 2010
  • A composite safety barrier for bridge has been developed and the performance of the composite safety barrier for bridge has been compared with the steel safety barrier for bridge through computer simulation. As the structural strength performance, the composite safety barrier for bridge is superior to the steel safety barrier for bridge according that the deformation of the composite safety barrier for bridge is 17.0% of that of the steel safety barrier for bridge. As the passenger protection performance, the composite safety barrier for bridge is superior to the steel safety barrier for bridge according that THIV and PHD of the composite safety barrier for bridge are 47.1% and 49.0% respectively of those of the steel safety barrier for bridge. As the behavior of the vehicle after crash, the composite safety barrier for bridge is superior to the steel safety barrier for bridge showing the increased exit velocity and the reduced exit angle. Both of the steel and composite safety barrier for bridge are not scattered in the analysis.

Analyses on Environment-friendliness of Root Barrier Materials based on Fish Toxicity Test (어독성 실험에 따른 방근재 친환경 특성 분석)

  • Woo, Ji-Keun;Kim, Sung-Kyun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Environmental Restoration Technology
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.42-51
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    • 2010
  • The purpose of this study is to analyze the characteristics of environment-friendliness of Root Barrier materials based on comprehensive experiments on harmfulness of Root Barrier materials and fish toxicity of Oryzias latipes mortality to verify eco-toxicity of each method of construction and Root Barrier material, which are to be applied by taking eco-toxicity into account when building ecological flows in upper areas on natural and artificial grounds. As a result, the following conclusions have been reached in this study: 1. In regard of the harmfulness analyzed, each material showed a different result of analytical value in each lab tank. Compared to lab tank, pH (la), DO (lb), T-N (VI) and T-coli (la) were in the same grade, but COD, SS, T-P and F-coli were less than that of control, respectively increased or decreased by material were analyzed. 2. In the experiment of fish toxicity, Barrier sheet was found to have 66.7% of fish mortality, indicating strong fish toxicity. Synthetic rubber system root barrier sheet (20.0%) was analyzed to have medium fish toxicity, while Synthetic resin system root barrier-waterproof sheet (3.3%), Synthetic rubber system membrane root barrier sheet (3.3%) and Synthetic resin system root barrier sheet (0.0%) showed relatively lower mortality and fish toxicity. To sum up such results as found in the experiment mentioned so far, the values of harmfulness and root penetration resistance analyzed were different in each lab tank, but there was absolutely little correlation with the mortality gained from the experiment on fish toxicity. In the experiment of fish toxicity, environment-friendly root barrier materials were analyzed, and it was found that Synthetic resin system root barrier sheet, Synthetic resin system root barrier waterproof sheet and Synthetic rubber system membrane root barrier sheet are highly environment-friendly. In contrast, Synthetic rubber system root barrier sheet was found to have medium-level environment-friendliness. Also, Barrier sheet was analyzed to have low environment-friendliness.

Analysis of Electrical Properties of Ti/Pt/Au Schottky Contacts on (n)GaAs Formed by Electron Beam Deposition and RF Sputtering

  • Sehgal, B-K;Balakrishnan, V-R;R Gulati;Tewari, S-P
    • JSTS:Journal of Semiconductor Technology and Science
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.1-12
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    • 2003
  • This paper describes a study on the abnormal behavior of the electrical characteristics of the (n)GaAs/Ti/Pt/Au Schottky contacts prepared by the two techniques of electron beam deposition and rf sputtering and after an annealing treatment. The samples were characterized by I-V and C-V measurements carried out over the temperature range of 150 - 350 K both in the as prepared state and after a 300 C, 30 min. anneal step. The variation of ideality factor with forward bias, the variation of ideality factor and barrier height with temperature and the difference between the capacitance barrier and current barrier show the presence of a thin interfacial oxide layer along with barrier height inhomogenieties at the metal/semiconductor interface. This barrier height inhomogeneity model also explains the lower barrier height for the sputtered samples to be due to the presence of low barrier height patches produced because of high plasma energy. After the annealing step the contacts prepared by electron beam have the highest typical current barrier height of 0.85 eV and capacitance barrier height of 0.86 eV whereas those prepared by sputtering (at the highest power studied) have the lowest typical current barrier height of 0.67 eV and capacitance barrier height of 0.78 eV.

A Practical Engineering for Advanced Barrier Materials: A Brief Review (차세대 Barrier 물질 개발 동향)

  • An, Hee Seong;Lee, Jong Suk
    • Membrane Journal
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.85-98
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    • 2015
  • A global trend of replacing metal or glass containers with polymer-based packaging materials has been prevalent in the food packaging industry due to their ease in processibility, excellent transparency, and good cost efficiency. Barrier polymers tend to show low permeabilities for atmospheric gases such as oxygen, carbon dioxide, and water vapor, which allow them to be utilized in the food and beverage packaging industry. With the current global trend, expansion of polymeric packaging materials to new markets such as oxygen sensitive juices, flavored water, and energy drinks requires improved $CO_2$ and $O_2$ barrier properties. The improvement of the existing polymer-based barrier platform will enable a rapid market impact. In this paper, the current barrier technologies such as (1) antiplasticization-induced barrier materials, (2) synergistic effect of antiplasticization and crystallization, (3) new barrier polymers, (4) nanocomposite materials, and (5) polymer blending are introduced with their characterization techniques for the development of advanced packaging materials.

A Study on The Stiffened Barrier Panel Against Rock Fall in Rural Hillside (산간지역 낙석 방지책 보강 방안에 관한 연구)

  • Jeong, Byung Joo
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Rural Architecture
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.129-136
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    • 2005
  • In this paper, barrier panels against falling stones have been studied experimentally with various specimens. Test results show that stiffened barrier panels show more sufficient capacity than unstiffened barrier. Each type barrier panel can be used for various situations. New barrier panel is good for increasing strength and improving environment and maintaining cost down.

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Evaluation of the Performance of the Noise Barrier Using the BEM (경계요소법에 의한 방음벽의 성능 평가)

  • Hwang, Cheal-Ho
    • Transactions of the Korean Society for Noise and Vibration Engineering
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.94-100
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    • 2008
  • Noise barriers are being used more often to solve problems of noise pollution from traffic noise. Several types of noise barriers are being installed to increase the cost-effectiveness of noise barrier installation. In this study, the insertion loss is analyzed to evaluate the effectiveness of the noise barrier by using the BEM. In order to check the validity of the BEM, the BEM and Lam's theoretical analysis are compared with measurement, which is performed in the anechoic chamber for the 1/10 scale-down model, and good agreements are obtained. By using the two dimensional boundary element method, the insertion loss is calculated and analyzed for several typical noise barriers such as the vertical barrier, the barrier with an oblique edge on top, the T-shaped barrier and the barrier with interference device on top. With these analyses, it is possible to design more cost-effective noise barriers appropriate for a particular area.

Effect of Double Noise-Barrier on Air Pollution Dispersion around Road, Using CFD

  • Jeong, Sang Jin
    • Asian Journal of Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.81-88
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    • 2014
  • Noise-barriers on both sides of the roadway (hereafter referred to as double noise-barriers), are a common feature along roads in Korea, and these are expected to have important effects on the near-road air pollution dispersion of vehicle emissions. This study evaluated the double noise-barrier impact on near-road air pollution dispersion, using a FLUENT computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. The realizable k-${\varepsilon}$ model in FLUENT CFD code was used to simulate vehicle air pollutant dispersion, in around 11 cases of double noise-barriers. The simulated concentration profiles and surface concentrations under no barrier cases were compared with the experimental results. The results of the simulated flows show the following three regimes in this study: isolated roughness (H/W=0.05), wake interface (H/W=0.1), and skimming flow (H/W>0.15). The results also show that the normalized average concentrations at surface (z=1 m) between the barriers increase with increasing double noise-barrier height; however, normalized average concentrations at the top position between the barriers decrease with increasing barrier height. It was found that the double noise-barrier decreases normalized average concentrations of leeward positions, ranging from 0.8 (H/W=0.1, wake interface) to 0.1 (H/W=0.5, skimming flow) times lower than that of the no barrier case, at 10 x/h downwind position; and ranging from 1.0 (H/W=0.1) to 0.4 (H/W=0.5) times lower than that of the no barrier case, at 60 x/h downwind position.

A Study on the Design of Barriers for the Active Noise Barrier Development (능동형 방음벽 개발을 위한 방음벽 디자인 연구)

  • Cha, Sang-Gon;Kim, Dong-Hwan
    • The Transactions of The Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers
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    • v.60 no.12
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    • pp.2361-2367
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    • 2011
  • In this paper survey and analysis of recent trends in noise barriers and noise measurements and assessments were conducted for providing design basis of ANC barriers. Looking at the results, transparent barrier(glass) has received the most attention in domestic and foreign countries, because it has a harmony with the surrounding environment and easy installation in a small space. For optimal barrier design using computer simulation, reliability of simulation has been verified and classified into 5 groups, according to barrier's upper cross section. Evaluation results of barrier's performance and design using computer simulation are as follows : In the case of the "B-type" barrier, it has improved maximum 2.5dB(A) at each point(R1~R6) and have a good workability. Therefore, "B-type" Barriers applied to the next active noise barrier system will be possible.