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The Physicochemical Properties and Cooking Qualities of Barley (보리의 이화학적 특성과 취반성에 관한 연구)

  • 장학길;정일희
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.23 no.5
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    • pp.816-821
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    • 1994
  • The physicochemical properties and cooking qualities of six cultivars of covered barley, four malting barley and six naked barley were investigated. The 1, 000 kernel weight was heavier in the malting barley and ash content was the highest in covered barley. The varietal variation of amylose content was 17.7 to 20.2%. $\beta$-Glucan viscosity was generally lower in the malting barely, and varied greatly among barley cutivars with 2.16 to 8.47 cSt. The pearling rate was highest in naked barley with a mean of 75.5% and protein content of aw and pearled barely was significantly different with cultivars. In the cultivars tested, Doosan 8, Youngsan and Iri 5 showed the higher milling rate. Amylose patterns showed that the covered barley cultivars has lower gelatinization temperature and higher peak height and height at 50 $^{\circ}C$ than the malting and naked barley. The water absorptions were highest in covered barley cultivars , and lowest in naked barley cultivars. The soluble solid was highest in naked barley cultivars.

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A Study on the Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Sikhyes made of Different Various of Barley (보리의 종류를 달리한 보리식혜의 이화학적 특성)

  • Kim, An-Na;Choi, Soo-Keun
    • Culinary science and hospitality research
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.30-41
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    • 2015
  • This study was prepared by varying the type of barley sikhye to promote the use of barley. to learn the quality characteristics of traditional beverage sikhye, sikhyes were made out of different kinds of barley such as amethyst barley, black naked barley, tetrastichum barley, tetrastichum waxy barley, naked barley and naked waxy barley. The result of the study is as following. Regarding the length/width ratio of barley grain, black naked barley was the biggest; while amethyst barley was the smallest. Moisture content of barley grain was in the range of 54.96~71.74%. The saccharification liquid pH was in the range of 5.40~5.63 and the soluble solid content was in the range of 15.37~18.73 brix %. The saccharification liquid of sikhye made of tetrastichum waxy barley had the highest soluble solid content; while the saccharification liquid of sikhye made of black naked barley had the lowest soluble solid content. Reducing sugar was in the range of 4.35~7.42 mg/ 100 g; at which tetrastichum waxy barley sikhye had the highest reducing sugar while black naked barley sikhye had the lowest reducing sugar. The result of reducing sugar was similar to the result of soluble solid content. Black naked barley had low Lightness, redness and yellowness in its cooked rice grain and saccharification liquid. The result of barley sikhye characteristics was as following. Black naked barley had the strongest fullness while tetrastichum waxy barley had the weakest fullness. Black naked barley had strong feeling after swallowing the barley rice grain; while tetrastichum waxy barley had weak feeling after swallowing the barley rice grain. The result of feeling after swallowing the barley rice grain had correlation with fullness. The result of preference test was as following. naked waxy barley sikhye and naked barley sikhye had best outlook. In the smell, amethyst barley sikhye was the best. regarding texture, naked barley sikhye and naked waxy barley sikhye had high preference. In overall preference, naked barley sikhye was the best. Like above, there were differences in quality in sikhyes dependent on the variety of barley. In particular, tetrastichum waxy barley and naked barley will be able to increase the amount of sweetness without malt production during sikhye.

Quality Properties of Barley Kochujang Added wih Germinated Barley Powder (발아보리가루를 첨가한 보리 고추장의 품질 특성)

  • Seo, Jae-Sil;Park, In-Duck
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.187-194
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    • 2014
  • The physicochemical and sensory properties of barley Kochujang added with germinated barley powder were periodically examined during storage at 20 for 40 days. The pH of barley Kochujang added with germinated barley powder increased gradually according to the level of added germinated barley powder, whereas it decreased gradually during storage. On the other hand, acidity showed the opposite relationship with addition level. Salinity of the samples decreased gradually according to the amount of added germinated barley powder. Amino nitrogen content of barley Kochujang increased gradually according to the amount of added germinated barley powder, whereas it increased gradually during storage. L-, a-, and b-values of samples increased gradually according to the amount of added germinated barley powder, whereas they decreased gradually during storage. As a result of the sensory evaluation, barley Kochujang added with 5% germinated barley powder was found to be superior in taste, viscosity, and overall preference. Sensory evaluation revealed that addition of 5% germinated barley powder was optimum for improving Kochujang quality.

Effects of Barley Straw Application on Growth and Yield in Soybean (보릿짚 시용이 콩의 생육 및 수량에 미치는 영향)

  • 김수경;손범영;김대호;김은석;강동주
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.45 no.6
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    • pp.387-391
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    • 2000
  • Barley straw is a good source of organic matter for next crop growth following barley. This study was conducted to investigate effects of barley straw application methods (application, removal, or incineration) on growth and yield in soybean cultivation following barley. A soybean variety, Eunhakong, was sown on 12 June with drill-seeder attached to tractor after tillage. Barley straw application resulted in increase in organic matter content compared to removal and incineration of barley straw, and soil physical properties such as water content and porosity, were improved by application and incineration of barley straw. Weed occurrence was deterred by 44% in barley straw application and by 31% in barley straw incineration compared with removal of barley straw. Number and dry weight of soybean nodules were move abundant in barley straw application than the other treatments at 4 and R2 stages. Barley straw application had less for dry weight than barley straw removal but greater than incineration of barley straw about 30 days after seeding. However barley straw application caused greater top dry weight 90 days after seeding. Root dry weight was not affected by barley straw application method at all growth stage. There're no significant differences in soybean yield among barley straw application methods.

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Effects of Processed Barley on Growth Performance and Ileal Digestibility of Growing Pigs

  • Chu, K.S.;Kim, J.H.;Chae, B.J.;Chung, Y.K.;Han, In K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.249-254
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    • 1998
  • Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of processing of barley on the growth performance and ileal and fecal digestibility of growing pigs. In Exp. 1, a total of 20 cannulated pigs (10.80 kg BW) were allotted to four treatments. Treatments were coarse ground barley as a control (CON), finely ground barley (FINE), extruded barley (EXT) and enzyme supplemented coarse ground barley (ENZ). In Exp. 2, a total of 100 growing pigs (36.50 kg BW) were allocated to the same treatments in completely randomized block design based on sex and body weight. In the first trial, pigs fed extruded barley showed significantly higher crude protein digestibility over pigs fed finely ground barley (p < 0.05). Pigs fed finely ground barley generally showed lower nutrients digestibility. Extrusion and ${\beta}$-glucanase supplementation showed a trend to improve nutrients digestibility. However, fine grinding rather reduced nutrients digestibility. The similar trend was found in the digestibility of essential amino acids. Fine grinding of barley significantly reduced amino acids digestibility. Extrusion and enzyme supplementation were found to improve amino acids digestibility of barley in growing pigs. In the growth trial, pigs fed extruded barley grew significantly faster than any other processed barley fed pigs. And extrusion of barley significantly improved feed/gain of pigs (p < 0.05). Fine grinding of barley and enzyme supplementation did not improve growth performance of pigs. In conclusion, fine grinding and enzyme supplementation does not appear to be an economical feed processing for growing pigs when barley is employed in the diets, while extrusion can be recommended as an effective feed processing technique for barley.

Effect of Temperature on the Extraction of β-Glucan from Different Jeju Barley Varieties

  • Kim, Hyo Jin;Kim, Hyun Jung
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.48 no.3
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    • pp.296-300
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    • 2016
  • The effect of different temperatures (45, 55, 65, and $75^{\circ}C$) on the extraction of ${\beta}$-glucan and the properties of extracted ${\beta}$-glucan were investigated with four different varieties of barley. Jeju naked barley, blue barley, beer barley, and black barley contained 6.85, 5.13, 3.58, and 4.16% of ${\beta}$-glucan, respectively. ${\beta}$-glucan in barley was extracted in the range of 64.88 to 93.84% depending on the extraction temperature and barley variety. The ${\beta}$-glucans in Jeju naked barley, Jeju blue barley, and black barley were optimally extracted at $65^{\circ}C$ for 3 h and Jeju beer barley at $75^{\circ}C$. The extracted ${\beta}$-glucan resolubilized to 43.48-81.73% and the ratio of ${\beta}(1{\rightarrow}3)$ to ${\beta}(1{\rightarrow}4)$ linkage was in the range of 1:3.8-5.8. These results suggest that purification and properties of ${\beta}$-glucan depend not only on the water extraction temperature, but also on the barley variety.

Study on Bread-making Quality with Mixture of Waxy Barley-Wheat Flour 1. Rheological Properties of Dough Made with Waxy Barley-Wheat Flour Mixture (흰찰쌀보리 가루를 이용한 제빵특성 연구 1. 흰찰쌀보리-밀가루 혼합분 박죽의 물성)

  • 유정희
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.28 no.5
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    • pp.1034-1043
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    • 1999
  • Rheological properties of dough made from waxy barley(Iri28) flour wheat flour mixtures with additives were investigated for the preparation of waxy barley bread using farinograph, extensograph and amy lograph. The water absorption, development time and dough weakness increased as the waxy barley flour level increased in all blends; however, dough stability decreased. Farinogram properties of 10% waxy barley flour added mixture were similar to those of 100% wheat flour. The addition of A.A(ascorbic acid), gluten, HPMC(hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose) improved rheological properties of dough with 30% waxy barley flour added mixture. In particular, stability and weakness of the dough showed greater dough improving effect by addition of A.A. For the extensograph data, strength, resistance and extensibility of dough decreased with increasing level of waxy barley flour. With the addition of additives, extensogram properties were variable for 30% waxy barley flour mixture. Of these additives, gluten had highest value in strength of dough. Addition of A.A and HPMC to 30% waxy barley flour added mixture resulted in an increase in the resistance and a decrease in the extensibility. Waxy barley flour added mixtures showed little higher gelatinization temperature on amylograph data than control. Maximum viscosity reduced as the waxy barley flour level increased. Also 30% waxy barley flour added mixture containing A.A and HPMC showed a decrease in maximum viscosity. But addition of gluten to 30% waxy barley flour mixture resulted an increase in the maximum viscosity. All of 30% waxy barley flour added mixture with additives had lower gelatinization temperature than those without additives. In the SEM images, starch granules were dispersed in a protein matrix. A non continuous, loose protein starch matrix was observed in all waxy barley flour mixture by SEM. Addition of additives gave the dough a more continuous structure with interactions between the starch granule and protein component.

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Effect of Barley Flour Addition on Quality Characteristics of Vegetable Pancake (보릿가루의 첨가가 부침개의 품질특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, In-Seon
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.333-341
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    • 2017
  • Purpose: This study investigated the quality characteristics of vegetable pancake prepared with various levels of barley flour. Methods: The pH level and spreadability of the batters as well as the color, texture, and sensory evaluation of the vegetable pancake were analyzed. Results: The results show that spreadability of batter significantly decreased as the substitution amount of barley flour increased (p<0.001). The pH level of the batter significantly decreased as the substitution amount of barley flour increased (p<0.001). Redness and yellowness increased as the substitution amount of barley flour increased. For texture, the sample groups with substituted barley flour showed high characteristics of hardness, gumminess, and chewiness. Principal component analysis showed that the sample group with a high substitution amount of barley flour was characterized by relatively high darkness, roasted grain aroma, bitterness, astringent, and chalkiness. Acceptance test found that the sample group with 15% barley flour received higher acceptance than the sample group with 0% barley flour in terms of color, texture, and overall acceptance. Conclusion: Acceptance test found that the sample group with 15% or 30% of barley flour had significantly higher or similar acceptance attributes than the sample group without barley flour, which suggests the possibility of developing vegetable pancake with barley flour.

Effects of Ozone and Light Illumination on the Enzymation Activity of Malt (오존 및 광선의 처리가 맥아 효소활성에 미치는 영향)

  • 오만진;김혜정;이정호;최성현;권병구
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.67-73
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    • 1999
  • In order to increase the enzymatic activity of malt used as a source of traditional processing foods, the enzymatic activities of various barley were examined and the effects of ozone and light illumination treatment on the enzymatic activities of amylase, amylase, and glucanase in malt during man ufacture were also examined. Barley didn't show amylase activity prior to soaking, but the activity of barley increased quickly after soaking. Glutinous barley showed the highest amylase activity among Duru barley, Ol barley, two rowed barley and naked barley. Naked barley showed the lowest activity. The amylase activity was the highest in Duru barley and decreased in the order of in glutinous barley, naked barley and two rowed barley. It was showed that the enzymatic activity of malt was higher than that of control when malt was soaked for 24hr at the concentration of 0.3ppm of ozone. The enzymatic activity of malt treated with light illumination was higher than that of control. The bud and root of light illuminated malt was much stronger than that of control. The root of light illuminated malt was much shorter than that of control. In addition, light illuminated malt showed a little green color which matches the demand of consumer. These studies demonstrated that both ozone and light illumination treatment increased the enzymatic activity of malt to result in high quality of malt manufacture.

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Studies on Processing Techniques in Barley II. The Processing and Cooking Quality of Cut-polished Barley in Naked Barley (보리의 가공기술 개선연구 II. 쌀보리의 할맥가공특성과 취반성)

  • Kim, Y.S.;Chang, H.K.;Park, N.P.
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.287-291
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    • 1988
  • These studies were carried out to find out the polishing properties and cooking quality of the cut-polished barley. Naked barley, Youngsanbori which was produced in Chonnam province, Korea in 1981, was applied for this experiment. Polished barley was produced by the conventional method and cut-barley was manufactured by the method established by Wheat and Barley Research Institute. The yield of cut-polished barley was 68.2% and that of conventionally polished barley was 70.1 %. The ratio of length to width was 2.88 in cut-polished barley and that of conventionally polished barley was 1.36. And weight of 1,000 kernel was 9.5g in cut-polished barley and 18.5g in conventionally polished barley. Energy consumption was found to be 91.1kW/1,000kg in conventionally polished barley and 105kW/1,000kg in cut-polished barley. Whiteness, water uptake ratio and expanded volume of cooked barley were 45.5, 225.7 and 283% in conventionally polished barley and 49.5, 312.7 and 318% in cut-polished barley, respectively.

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