• Title, Summary, Keyword: baechu kimchi

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Antiobesity Effect of Baek-Kimchi (Whitish Baechu Kimchl) in Rats Fed High Fat Diet

  • Yoon, Ji-Young;Jung, Keun-Ok;Kim, So-Hee;Park, Kun-Young
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.9 no.3
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    • pp.259-264
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    • 2004
  • Baek-kimchi (whitish baechu kimchi) was evaluated for anti-obesity properties and effects on triglyceride (TG) and cholesterol in blood and adipose tissues in rats fed a high fat (20 %) diet, and compared to the similar effects of baechu kimchi. Baek-kimchi does not use red pepper powder but contains higher levels of sliced radish and pear than baechu kimchi. SD rats were raised for four weeks on either a normal diet (ND, based on the AIN-93M diet), high fat diet (HFD, supplemented with 16% lard oil in the ND), or HFD containing 5 % baek-kimchi or 5 % baechu kimchi. Feed consumption was not different among the groups, but weight gains were significantly lower in the groups fed either the normal diet or HFD with baek-kimchi or baechu kimchi diets than the group fed HFD alone. The weights of liver and epididymal and perirenal fat pads in baek-kimchi and baechu kimchi diet groups were lower than those of the HFD groups, but the baek-kimchi diet group had lower epididymal and perirenal fat pad weights than the baechu kimchi diet group (p<0.05). The baechu kimchi dietary group also had significantly lower triglyceride and cholesterol contents in liver and epididymal and perirenal fat, reversing the higher levels seen in HFD. Baek-kimchi and baechu kimchi diets were also effective in lowering serum triglyceride and cholesterol levels (p<0.05). These results suggest that baek-kimchi and baechu kimchi consumption can reverse the effects of HFD on weight gain and blood and tissue lipids, and that baek-kimchi is more effective than baechu kimchi. The greater effect is probably due to the higher content of radish and pear used in baek-kimchi.

Quality characteristics and functionalities of Korean and Japanese spring Baechu cabbages and the kimchi prepared with such cabbages (한국산 및 일본산 봄배추와 이를 이용하여 제조한 김치의 품질특성과 기능성)

  • Park, So-Eun;Bong, Yeon-Ju;Kim, Hee-Young;Park, Kun-Young
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.20 no.6
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    • pp.854-862
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    • 2013
  • We examined the quality characteristics and functionalities of Korean and Japanese spring Baechu cabbages and the kimchi prepared with them. To study the physiochemical properties of the cabbages and the kimchis, we measured their water content, pH, acidity, microbial counts, and springiness. On the third week of the kimchi fermentation at $5^{\circ}C$, their sensory properties and in vitro DPPH radical scavenging and anticancer activities using AGS human gastric cancer cells were determined. The Japanese Baechu contained 97.1% water, and the Korean Baechu, 92.4%. The comparison of the textures of the raw Baechu and the brined Baechu showed that the Korean Baechu had higher springiness scores than the Japanese Baechu. After four-week fermentation, the springiness score of the kimchi with Korean Baechu was 53.5%, significantly higher than the 41.4% of the kimchi with Japanese Baechu. The kimchi prepared with Korean Baechu had a low total bacterial count but higher Lactobacillus sp. and Leuconostoc sp. counts than the kimchi with Japanese Baechu. The kimchi prepared with Korean Baechu had the highest overall acceptability score in the sensory evaluation test. The DPPH radical scavenging activity of the kimchi with Korean Baechu was 83.2%, and that of the kimchi with Japanese Baechu, 46.1%. When the AGS human gastric cancer cells were treated with the kimchis, the kimchi prepared with Korean Baechu showed a 45% cancer cell growth inhibition rate, and the kimchi with Japanese Baechu, 26%, at 1 mg/mL of methanol extracts. At the 2 mg/mL concentration, the kimchis with Korean Baechu and Japanese Baechu showed 97% and 74% inhibition, respectively. The Korean Baechu showed better quality than the Japanese Baechu, and the kimchi prepared with the Korean Baechu showed better kimchi quality and functionality than the Japanese Baechu.

A Survey on Singapore University Students' Perceptions of Korean Commercial Kimchi (상업적 김치에 대한 싱가포르 대학생의 인식 조사)

  • Han, Jae-Sook;Han, Gyeong-Phil;Lee, Jin-Shik;Kim, Young-Jin
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.490-498
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    • 2007
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the perception of Korean kimchi in Singapore. A questionnaire was given to male 236(43.0%) and female 313(57.0%) college students residing in Singapore. The results are as follows: 86.9% of the participants answered that kimchi is Korean in origin, and 48.7% had eaten kimchi. Also 75.2% of the males and 65.2% of the females had purchased commercial kimchi at restaurants(p<0.05). Regarding the primary reason they purchased commercial kimchi, 62.1% responded 'its taste'(male 58.1%, female 65.0%), also 47.6% stated the package size was 50g(male 44.8%, female 49.7%). Among the kimchi they had experienced, 86.7% had eaten Baechu kimchi, 31.0% Mu kimchi and 30.9% Oi kimchi(males : 82.2% Baechu kimchi, 30.9% Oi kimchi, and 27.4% Mu kimchi, females: 90.0% Baechu kimchi, 33.6% Mu kimchi, and 26.2% Oi kimchi respectively). For their kimchi preference, 67.0% preferred Baechu kimchi, 9.4% Oi kimchi, and 7.1% Mu kimchi(males: 63.4% Baechu kimchi, 12.9% Oi kimchi and 5.4% Mu kimchi, females: 69.5% Baechu kimchi, 8.4% Oi kimchi and 6.9% Mu kimchi, respectively). After having eaten kimchi, 19.3% answer it tasted good, and the primary reason for liking kimchi, 'spicy and hot taste'(51.3%), The main reasons for not liking kimchi were the odor(garlic, ginger, anchovy juice, etc) and too spicy, respectively. Regarding improvements for its expanded consumption 32.0% answered 'not to improve', 18.0% answered 'don't make it too hot', 17.6% answered 'don't make it too salty', and 9.4% answered 'don't make it over-ripe'. For the overall perception of kimchi, the answer with the highest mean(3.95) was 'kimchi is a good side dish with cooked rice', which was significantly different than 'kimchi is delicious'(M=3.14, p<0.05).

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The Antigenotoxic Effects of Korean Native Fermented Food, Baechu Kimchi Using Comet Assay (Comet Assay를 이용한 전통발효식품인 배추김치의 항유전 독성효과)

  • 지승택;박종흠;현창기;신현길
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.316-321
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    • 2000
  • This study carried out to eluciate the cancer chemoprevention of Korean native fermented food, baechu kimchi using Comet assay (in other words, single cell microgel electrophoresis). For this purpose, baechu kimchi was fractionated by water, n-hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate. 5 strains of dominant fermented bacteria were isolated from baechu kimchi. The water fraction, n-hexane fraction, chloroform fraction, ethyl acetate fraction and water insoluble fractions showed no antigenotoxicitie in non-tumoral normal 3T3 cells. Among 5 bacteria isolates from baechu kimchi, two isolates bacteria 1 and 2 strongly inhibited genotoxicity of N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) in non-tumoral normal 3T3 cells (p<0.05). Bacteria 3, 4 and 5 were also not antigenotoxic.

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Effect of Pheasant and Soybean Extracts on The Characteristics of Quality of Baechu Kimchi (꿩육수와 콩즙을 첨가한 배추김치의 품질특성)

  • Park, Eo-Jin;Park, Geum-Soon;An, Sang-Hee
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.19 no.6
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    • pp.587-597
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    • 2004
  • Application of pheasant and soybean extracts to improve the quality of baechu kimchi was attempted. Pheasant and soybean extracts at various combinatory concentrations were added into baechu kimchi and fermented for 24 days at $10^{\circ}C$. Assay was performed on salinity, acidity, bacterial growth, sensory evaluations, and physical properties. The pH decreased, and acidity increased by fermentation time. The optimum pH 4.2 was reached within $12{\sim}15\;days$, and optimum acidity was reached within $6{\sim}9\;days$. The number of lactic acid bacteria was increased by fermentation time. Score of intensity characteristics in color. crispness carbonated taste, and overall quality were higher for the pheasant and soybean extracts added baechu kimchi(B) than for the control product(S). The result of L and a value of baechu kimchi were Higher in treatment than in control as fermentation time increased. The hardness of baechu kimchi with pheasant and soybean extracts(B) were higher than those of control(S).

Anticlastogenic Effect of Bcechu (Chinese cabbage) Kimchi and Buchu (leek) Kimchi in mitomycin C-induced micronucleus formations by supravital staining of mouse peripheral reticulocytes (Mitomycin C 유도 소핵 생성 유발에 대한 배추김치 및 부추김치 추출물의 마우스 말초혈에서의 억제 효과)

  • 류재천;박건영
    • Environmental Mutagens and Carcinogens
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.51-56
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    • 2001
  • Kimchi is a major Korean traditional fermented food, as a supplying source of vitamin and minerals which is prepared with various vegetables and condiments such as red pepper, garlic and salted fish etc. There are many types of Kimchi depending on the ingredients and preparation methods used. To investigate the clastogenicity and anticlastogenicity of Baechu (Chinese cabbage) Kimchi and Buchu (leek, Allium odorum) Kimchi in mouse, it was performed acridine orange supravital staining of micronucleus (AOSS-MN) assay using mouse peripheral reticulocytes. Baechu Kimchi and Buchu Kimchi were cultivated by organic agricultural technique, and Kimchi samples were prepared by methanol extraction and lyophilization. First of all, it was studied the clastogenicity of two Kimchi samples themselves (250-1,000 mg/kg) after oral adminstration in mouse. And also to study the anticlastogenic effect of oral administration of Kimchi samples, mitomycin C (MMC, 1 mg/kg, i.p.) was used as micronucleus inducing agent in this study. Dosing scheme was performed as simultaneous (co-treatment), 3 hr before (pre-treatment) and 3 hr after (post-treatment) with MMC treatment. Two Kimchi samples in the range of 250-1,000 mg/kg did not reveal any clastogenic effect in AOSS-MN assay in mouse. They also revealed anticlastogenic effects in post-treatment of Baechu Kimchi (1,000 mg/kg), and in pre-treatment of Buchu Kimchi (500 and 1,000 mg/kg) with statistical significance. The anticlastogenic effect revealed 1 and 6 hr after treatment of Baechu Kimchi, and Buchu Kimchi with 3 and 6 hr pretreatment. Consequently, it is suggested that antimutagenic and anticlastogenic mechanisms of Baechu and Buchu Kimchi in vivo attributed to sipindle formation and kinetic behavior of mutagens such as absorption and metabolism etc.

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A Survey on Americans' Area Perceptions for Korean Commercial Kimchi (미국인의 김치에 대한 지역별 인식 조사)

  • Han, Jae-Sook;Han, Gyeong-Phil;Lee, Jin-Shik;Kim, Young-Jin
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.19 no.5
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    • pp.681-689
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    • 2009
  • The purpose of this study was conducted to investigate the perception of Korean kimchi among Americans' living in different areas in the United States. A questionnaire was given to males 126 (40.4%) and females 186 (59.6%) residing in Illinois and California. The results were as follows: 86.0% of the participants answered that kimchi was Korean in origin, and 84.1% reported that they had eaten kimchi. Additionally, 56.8% and 52.3% of the respondents in Illinois and California had purchased commercial kimchi at home-made. Among the kimchi they had experienced, out of the total respondents, 92.4% had eaten baechu kimchi, 45.5% had eaten mu kimchi and 42.4% had eaten oi kimchi (When the responses from the residents of Illinois were evaluated: 100.0% of the respondents had eaten baechu kimchi, while 47.7% had eaten mu kimchi, and 40.9% had eaten bak kimchi. Evaluation of the responses of residents from California revealed that: 88.6% had eaten baechu kimchi, 45.5% had eaten oi kimchi, and 44.3% had eaten mu kimchi respectively). For evaluation of the their kimchi preference of the overall population revealed that, 71.0% preferred baechu kimchi, 9.2% oi kimchi, and 8.4% mu kimchi (Of the respondents in Illinois: 69.8% preferred baechu kimchi, 14.0% mu kimchi and 7.0% bak kimchi, while for Californians: 71.6% preferred baechu kimchi, 11.4% oi kimchi and 8.0% bak kimchi, respectively). Regarding the primary reason they purchased commercial kimchi, 64.9% responded 'its taste' (67.4% in Illinois and 63.6% in California), additionally, 40.0% stated of the package they purchased was 200g (51.2% in Illinois and 34.5% in California). After having eaten kimchi, 45.5% answer reported that it tasted good, and the their primary reason for liking kimchi was its, 'spicy and hot taste' (51.3%), The main reasons for not liking kimchi were the odor (garlic, ginger, anchovy juice, etc) and it being too spicy, respectively. Regarding improvements for its expanded consumption, 25.0% answered 'not to improve', 22.7% answered 'reduce the strength of the strong seasoning', and 20.5% answered 'to allow over-ripening'.

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Physicochemical Properties of Long-term Fermented Kimchi

  • Nam, Min-Hee;Kong, Chang-Suk;Bak, Soon-Sun;Lee, Yang-Bong;Rhee, Sook-Hee;Park, Kun-Young
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.46-50
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    • 2007
  • Physicochemical properties of commercial long-term fermented kimchies which are widely available in Korea were investigated. The commercial long-term fermented kimchies were fermented almost more than 6 months. Average values for saltiness, pH and acidity of the long-term fermented kimchies were $3.0{\pm}0.5%$, $4.0{\pm}0.2$, and $1.88{\pm}0.76%$, respectively. The long-term fermented kimchi showed similar Leuconostoc sp. and Lactobacillus sp. counts as baechu kimchi ripened properly during fermentation. The amount of Leuconostoc sp. and Lactobacillus sp. of the long-term fermented kimchi were $10^{7\sim8}$ CFU/mL and $10^{4\sim7}$ CFU/mL, respectively. The long-term fermented kimchi showed $0.32{\pm}0.18$ lightness, $1.73{\pm}0.98$ redness, $0.52{\pm}0.31$ yellowness. Long-term fermented kimchi showed higher lightness, redness, yellowness than well-fermented standardized baechu kimchi. Breaking strength of long-term fermented kimchi was higher than that of well-fermented standard baechu kimchi.

Effects of Brined Baechu Cabbage and Seasoning on Fermentation of Kimchi (절임 배추와 양념소가 김치 발효에 미치는 영향)

  • Yun, Ja-Young;Jeong, Ji-Kang;Moon, Suk-Hee;Park, Kun-Young
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.43 no.7
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    • pp.1081-1087
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    • 2014
  • This study investigated and compared the fermentation characteristics of intact kimchi and brined baechu cabbage and seasoning fermented separately. Fermentation characteristics of kimchi, brined baechu cabbage and seasoning, such as pH, acidity, microbial counts, and springiness were measured during the fermentation period (4 weeks at $4^{\circ}C$). Changes in pH, acidity, and microbial counts of the seasoning fermented separately were slower than those of brined baechu cabbage and kimchi itself. The fermentation characteristics of brined baechu cabbage were very similar to those of kimchi during the fermentation period. Additionally, we manufactured and fermented kimchi, after which baechu cabbage and seasoning were separated shortly before the measurements. Baechu cabbage and seasoning separated instantly from kimchi showed similar fermentation characteristics to their separately fermented counterparts. Changes in springiness of kimchi itself and brined baechu cabbage fermented separately were similar during the fermentation period. These results indicate that kimchi fermentation is affected by brined baechu cabbage more than seasoning.

Application of Baechu-Kimchi Powder and GABA-Producing Lactic Acid Bacteria for the Production of Functional Fermented Sausages

  • Yu, Hyun-Hee;Yoon, Gun Hee;Choi, Ji Hun;Kang, Ki Moon;Hwang, Han-Joon
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.37 no.6
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    • pp.804-812
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    • 2017
  • This study was carried out to determine the physicochemical, microbiological, and quality characteristics of a new type of fermented sausage manufactured by incorporating Baechu-kimchi powder and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-producing lactic acid bacteria (LAB). The LAB count was at the maximum level by day nine of ripening in inoculated sausages, accompanied by a rapid decrease in the pH. The addition of kimchi powder decreased the lightness ($L^*$) and increased the redness ($a^*$) and, yellowness ($b^*$) values, while also significantly increasing the hardness and chewiness of the sausage (p<0.05). Moreover, although the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances values increased in all samples during the study period, this increase was lower in the kimchi-treated samples, indicating a reduction in lipid oxidation. Overall, our results show that the addition of Baechu-kimchi powder to sausages reduced the off-flavor properties and improved the taste profile of the fermented sausage in sensory evaluations. The GABA content of all fermented sausages increased from 17.42-25.14 mg/kg on the third day of fermentation to 60.95-61.47 mg/kg on the thirtieth day. These results demonstrate that Baechu-kimchi powder and GABA-producing LAB could be functional materials in fermented sausage to improve quality characteristics.