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REVISIT TO ALEXANDER MODULES OF 2-GENERATOR KNOTS IN THE 3-SPHERE

  • Song, Hyun-Jong
    • East Asian mathematical journal
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    • v.36 no.3
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    • pp.359-364
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    • 2020
  • It is known that a 2-generator knot K has a cyclic Alexander module ℤ[t, t―1]/(Δ(t)) where Δ(t) is the Alexander polynomial of K. In this paper we explicitly show how to reduce 2-generator Alexander modules to cyclic ones by using Chiswell, Glass and Wilsons presentations of 2-generator knot groups $$<\;x,\;y\;{\mid}\;(x^{{\alpha}_1})^{y^{{\gamma}_1}},\;{\cdots}\;,\;(x^{{\alpha}_k})^{y^{{\gamma}_k}}\;>$$ where ab = bab-1.

N-Oxidation of Pyrazines by Bromamine-B in Perchloric Acid Medium: Kinetic and Mechanistic Approach

  • Puttaswamy;Shubha, J.P.
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.30 no.9
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    • pp.1939-1945
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    • 2009
  • Kinetic investigations on the oxidation of pyrazine and four 2-substituted pyrazines viz., 2-methylpyrazine, 2-ethylpyrazine, 2-methoxypyrazine and 2-aminopyrazine by bromamine-B (BAB) to the respective N-oxides have been studied in HCl$O_4$ medium at 303 K. The reactions show identical kinetics being first-order each in $[BAB]_o\;and\;[pyrazine]_o$, and a fractional- order dependence on $[H^+]$. Effect of ionic strength of the medium and addition of benzenesulfonamide or halide ions showed no significant effect on the reaction rate. The dielectric effect is positive. The solvent isotope effect was studied using $D_2$O. The reaction has been studied at different temperatures and activation parameters for the composite reaction have been evaluated from the Arrhenius plots. The reaction showed 1:1 stoichiometry and the oxidation products of pyrazines were characterized as their respective N-oxides. Under comparable experimental conditions, the oxidation rate of pyrazines increased in the order: 2-aminopyrazine > 2-methoxypyrazine > 2-ethylpyrazine > 2-methylpyrazine > pyrazine. The rates correlate with the Hammett $\sigma$ relationship and the reaction constant $\rho$ was found to be -0.8, indicating that electron donating centres enhance the rate of reaction. An isokinetic temperature of $\beta$ = 333 K, indicated that the reaction was enthalpy controlled. A mechanism consistent with the experimental results has been proposed in which the rate determining step is the formation of an intermediate complex between the substrate and the diprotonated species of the oxidant. The related rate law in consistent with observed results has been deduced.

A Study on the Book ${\ulcorner}Buinpilji{\lrcorner}$ ("부인필지(夫人必知)"의 조리과학적 고찰)

  • Lee, Hyo-Gee;Cha, Gyung-Hee
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.369-384
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    • 1996
  • The Buinpilji is a book of food and clothes which was published in 1915 by Binghugak, Lee. The food part of Buinpilji is as follows: (1) The staple food are 2 kinds of Bab, Juk, and Guksoo. (2) The side dishes are 7 kinds of Kimchi, 4 kinds of Tang and Marunchan, 3 kinds of Jim, Jockgall, and Po, 2 kinds of Namul, Jon, Kui, and Jockpyun, and 1 kinds of Son, Shinsonro, Pokkum, Hoe, and Sundae. (3) There are also 10 kinds of Dock, 13 kinds of Kwajungryu, and 8 kinds of Umchungryu. (4) There are 14 different kinds of wine. (5) For seasoning there are 6 kinds of soybean sauce and oils and 1 kinds of vinegar. (6) There are 177 ways of preparing the ingredient 18 kinds of cutting terms, 22 heating terms. 29 expressions of taste can be found in the book.

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A Report on Korean Food Items I -Bab.Jouk.Mieum.Kuksu.Tokkuk.Sujebi- (한국음식 종목의 총람보고 I -밥.죽.미음.국수.떡국.수제비-)

  • Yoon, Seo-Seok;Kim, Mi-Kyung;Han, Kyung-Sun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.93-102
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    • 1987
  • It is quite natural that the preference of food should be changed by the effect of the social environments and economic conditions of each period, however, the Korean traditional food has been enrooted firmly as one of the fundamental elements in our life which has been formed in harmony with the natural surroundings and the human life patterns in Korea. As a result of my study on Korean food through various documents and papers which were published in the part from Yi Dynasty till now, about 4,000 items were collected. This paper is prepared to report some of those items with a brief summary.

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Isolation and Characterization of Calmodulin 2 (CICAM2) Gene from Codonopsis lanceolata

  • Lee, Kang;In, Jun-Gyo;Yu, Chang-Yeon;Min, Byung-Hoon;Chung, Ill-Min;Kim, Se-Young;Kim, Yeong-Chae;Yang, Deok-Chun
    • Plant Resources
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    • v.7 no.3
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    • pp.174-180
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    • 2004
  • Calmodulin, a $Ca^{2+}$-binding protein, has no enzyme activity. It combines with $Ca^{2+}$ and makes variable proteins to an active form. Calmodulin 2 is a ubiquitous protein in plants. To investigate the defense mechanism against various stresses, a clone encoding a calmodulin 2 protein was isolated from a cDNA library prepared from taproot mRNAs of Codonopsis lanceolata. The cDNA, designated CICAM2, is 719 nucleotides long and has an open reading frame of 450 bp with a deduced amino acid sequence of 149 residues. The deduced amino acid sequence of CICAM2 showed a high similarity with calmodulins of P. x hybrida (P27163) 97%, N. tabacum (BAB61908) 97%, S. tuberosum (AAA74405) 96%, Z. mays (CAA74307) 92%, C. richardii (AF510075) 93%, M. truncatula (AAM81203) 91%, and G. max (P62163) 91%. The transcriptional expression of the CICAM2 gene, was gradually increased by the CaCl$_2$ treatment. Whereas its expression And it was gradually decreased in the cold stress treatment.ent.

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Food of China Yunnan Baizu (증국 운남성 백족의 음식문화)

  • Shin, Kye-Sook
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.225-232
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    • 2000
  • The Purpose of this study was to understand the China Yunnan Baizu food. This study was performed a visit market based on in- depth interview with food experts those who lived in Baizu province. The results were summarized as follows. The main food of Baizu were Bab, Dduk(BaBa), Nuddle(Mi xian) made from rice. They ate all kind of food from vegetables, fish, and pork, but the remarkable thing was that there were practical limit to select the ingredient. They would use some fermented products such as Pao-chai, Yan-chai, Zha. Pao-chai was fermented vegetables like Kimchi, Yan-chai was similar with Changachi in Korea, and Zha was prepared from meat and fish. Menus for Banquets were included 8 kinds of cold appetizer, 8 kinds of hot dishes, and 2 kinds of sweet desserts. The ingredients were local products and they considered hot, sour, cold taste importantly. The method of cooking was simple and Rusan, Sengpi was the most traditional Baizu food. Ru san is one of dishes prepared from the milk, and milk pedimented product. Sengpi was uncooked pork.

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A Study on the cooking in "Umsikbup" ("음식법(찬법)"의 조리학적 고찰)

  • 박미자
    • Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.283-302
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    • 1996
  • The Umsikbup is a book of Korean woman's life in the Yi-dynasty which published in middle of nineteenth century by unknown author. I have studied the food habits of the Yi-dynasty that wrote in umsikbup as followings ; The stape foods are Bab (boiled cooked rice) 1, Myons (noodles) 4 and Mandu 5 kinds. The side dishes are Guk (soup) 3, Sinsollo 1, Jim 9, Jijim 1, Nooruemi 6, Sun 2, Po 3, Muchim 1, Jabans 3, Jockpyuns 2, Pyunyuk 1, Chae 2, and Kimchi 1 kinds. Thare are D'ock 22, Kwajung 46, Beverages 9 and alcohol are 4 kinds. There are many kinds of Dasikk of the Kwajung in the Umsikbup than no other cooking books. The seasonings are soybean sauce 5, honey 6, oil 4 and sesame seeds 3, ect. There are the description of food types in the seasonal variation and also there are the wisdom of life and avoiding food ; toxic meats, fishes, vegetables and fruits in the taboo food. There are most of Kwajung in the Chanhap (food packed in nest of boxes) in addition to beverages, D'ock, Mandu, decoration methods in the seasonal variation. There are many food making terms which are 163 kinds of prepared cooking term 27 kinds of cutting terms and 17 kinds of boiling terms. And 18 kinds of expression of taste can be seen in this book. There are 24 kinds of table were and cooking kitchen utensils, but many of them came to usefulness 12 kinds of measuring units are very non-scientific because that is not by weight but by bulk or volume.

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A Survey on Uses, Preference and Recognition of Apple (사과의 이용실태, 기호도 및 인식에 대한 조사연구)

  • Choi, Young-Hee;Lee, Su-Jin
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.204-213
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    • 2005
  • This study was focused on the analysis of questionnaire that surveyed the uses, preference and recognition on apple. The subjects of this study consisted of 452 female(married 238, unmarried 214) in Daegu area. Among those respondents, 49.1% answered that they ate apple after dinner. Respondents preferred as purchase place fruits store(34.5%), traditional market(22.6%), and big discount store(21.7%), in order. Taste(46.0%) was the most important as purchase criterion. 49.1% of respondents preferred small amount below 2-3kg every one purchase. In preference survey on apples, 80.5% of total subjects responded 'like' or 'very like', and 73.6% of those subjects who favorably responded liked the 'taste' of apples. The preference survey study on apple foods revealed that respondents preferred the most apple juice(M=3.47), fellowed by apple jam(M=3.35) and apple vinegar(M=3.21). On the other hand, apple bab(M=2.29) and apple jook(M=2.23) had the most low preference score. The recognition survey study on apple revealed that respondents knew relatively well the followings: apple is natural food(M=4.25), apple is good for body and apple is good for beauty(M=4.20). Respondents required apple to be fresher(41.0%) and taster(37.4%). 89.4% of respondents expected that consumption of apples would be increased or maintain at the present level.

A Study on the Perception and Awareness of Native Local Foods - Centering around Gimhae, Gyeongnam Province - (향토음식에 대한 의식 및 인지도에 관한 연구 - 경남 김해지역을 중심으로 -)

  • Park, Kyong-Tae
    • Culinary science and hospitality research
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.98-110
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    • 2011
  • This study aims to furnish the basic data in securing momentum for taking interest in inheriting and developing the native local foods in Gimhae by examining the perception and awareness of the native local foods among the local residents in Gimhae, Gyeongnam Province. As the results of this study, the definition of native local foods was surveyed as follows. Foods that have been handed down for generations by using local agricultural products as their ingredients; a local food restaurant was the most preferred place to eat native local foods; the most chosen reason why they should eat native local foods was 'good for health'; as for the necessity of inheriting and developing the native local foods, most of them agreed, and it was because they felt they should protect their food culture; and 'native local foods contests' were the best way to promote the native local foods. As the results of analyzing the awareness of 12 kinds of native local foods in Gimhae, there were significant differences in Kongnamul-bab, Minmul Jangeo-gui, Gajuk-jaban, Kongip-mulkimchi by gender, in Hobakogari-namul, Moomallaengi-jangachi, Kongip-mulgimchi by ages, and in Kongnamul-bab, Gajuk-jaban, Kongip-mulgimchi by the residential districts. Accordingly, in order to inherit and develop the native local foods which are the precious cultural assets in Gimhae, there should be continued opportunities and interest to promote them through the local festivals and events along with publicity activities for the native local foods.

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Preparation and Reconstitution of Core-shell Type Nanoparticles of Poly(ε -caprolactone)/Poly(ethyleneglycol)/Poly(ε -caprolactone) Triblock Copolymers

  • Jeong, Young-Il;Ryu, Jae-Gon;Kim, Young-Hoon;Kim, Sung-Ho
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.23 no.6
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    • pp.872-879
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    • 2002
  • One of the improtant characteristics of core-shell type nanoparticles is the long-term storage and reuse as an aqueous injection solution when required. For this reason, reconstruction of lyophilized core-shell type nanoparticles is considered to be essential . BAB type triblock copolymers differ from AB type diblock copolymers, which contain the A block as a hydrophilic part and the B block as a hydrophobic part. by not being easily redistributed into phosphate-buffered saline (PBS, pH 7.4, 0.1 M). Therefore, lyophilized core-shell type nanoparticles of CEC triblock copolymer were reconstituted using a somication process with a bar-type sonicator in combination with a freezing-thawing process. Soncation for 30s only resuspended CEC nanoparticles in PBS; their particle size distribution showed a monomodal pattern with narrow size distribution. The bimodal size distribution pattern and the aggregates were reduced by further sonication for 120 s but these nanoparticles showed a wide size distribution. The initial burst of drug release was increased by reconstitution process. The reconstitution of CEC core-shell type nanoparticles by freezing-thawing resulted in trimodal distribution pattern and formed aggregates, although freezing-thawing process was easier than sonication . Drug release form CEC nanoparticles prepared by freezing-thawing was slower than from the original dialysis solution. Although core-shell typenanoparticles of CEC triblock copolymers were not easily performed. Cytotoxicity testing of core-shell type nanoparticles of CEC-2 triblock copolymers containing clonazepam (CNZ) was performed using L929 cells. Cytotoxicity of CNZ was decreased by incorporation into nanoparticles.