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Helicobacter pylori babA2 Positivity Predicts Risk of Gastric Cancer in Ardabil, a Very High-Risk Area in Iran

  • Abdi, Esmat;Latifi-Navid, Saeid;Yazdanbod, Abbas;Zahri, Saber
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.733-738
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    • 2016
  • Background: Ardabil, a Northwestern province of Iran, was found to have the highest rate of gastric cancer (GC) in the country (ASRs = 51.8/100,000 for males and 24.9/100,000 for females) and one of the highest gastric cardia cancer rates in the world. The aim of the present study was to assess the associations of the cagA and babA2 status of Helicobacter pylori with GC in the Ardabil population. Materials and Methods: A total of 103 patients with non-atrophic gastritis (56) and GC (47), who underwent endoscopy at the Imam Khomeini Hospital in Ardabil, were assessed. The status of 16S rDNA, cagA and babA2 genes was determined using PCR and histopathological assessment was performed. Results: The following genotypic frequency was observed: cagA+ (50.6%), cagA-(49.4%), babA2+ (26.5%), babA2- (73.5%) cagA+/babA2+ (19.3%), cagA-/babA2+ (7.2%), cagA+/babA2-(31.3%), cagA-/babA2-(42.2%). Although the frequency of the cagA+, cagA+/babA2+ and cagA-/babA2+ genotypes in patients with GC (55.6%, 25.9%, and 14.8%, respectively) was higher than in those with NAG (48.2%, 16.1%, and 3.6%, respectively), the difference did not reach significance. In contrast, the presence of the babA2 gene (40.7% vs 19.6%) significantly increased the risk of GC; the age-sex-adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) was 5.068 (1.506-17.058; P=0.009), by multiple logistic regression. Conclusions: It is proposed that the H. pylori babA2 positivity might be considered as an important determinant of GC risk in Ardabil.

Association between Genotypes and Gastric Mucosal Lymphocytes in Helicobacter pylori-infected Children (Helicobacter pylori 감염 소아에서 유전형과 위점막 림프구)

  • Yom, Hye-Won;Cho, Min-Sun;Lee, Mi-Ae;Seo, Jeong-Wan
    • Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.140-149
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    • 2009
  • Purpose: Helicobacter pylori infection is probably acquired in childhood and persists as an asymptomatic infection for decades in most individuals. It is unclear why only a minority of those infected develop a clinical manifestation, even in childhood, such as peptic ulcer disease. H. pylori infection activates local immune responses and causes lymphocyte infiltration in the gastric mucosa. We have previously reported that both T and B cells in the lamina propria play important roles in the local immune response of H. pylori-infected children. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between H. pylori genotypes and gastric mucosal lymphocytes. Methods: Twenty-five H. pylori-infected children (10 with peptic ulcer disease and 15 with gastritis) were enrolled in this study. We investigated the genotypes (cagA, cagE, vacA, and babA2) and evaluated the association with clinical manifestations, histopathology, and gastric mucosal lymphocytes. Results: The prevalence of cagA, cagE, vacA s1m1, and babA2 was 80%, 60%, 84%, and 88%, respectively. The most prevalent (68%) combination of cagA, vacA, and babA2 genotypes was cagA+/vacA s1m1+/babA2+. H. pylori genotypes were not associated with clinical manifestations, histopathology, or gastric mucosal lymphocytes. Conclusion: There was no association between the cagA, cagE, vacA, or babA2 status and gastric mucosal lymphocytes. The role of the host immune response in relation to H. pylori genotypes and disease potential in children needs further studies.

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Expression of lewis antigen in gastric mucosa of children with Helicobacter pylori infection (Helicobacter pylori에 감염된 소아의 위점막에서 Lewis 항원의 발현)

  • Chung, Ju-Young;Lim, Seong Jig;Han, Tae Hee
    • Pediatric Infection and Vaccine
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.97-103
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    • 2007
  • Purpose : Lewis antigen has been known to have a role in the attachment of H. pylori to the gastric mucosa, but its expression pattern in children with H. pylori infection is still unclear. The recently described blood group antigen-binding adhesin BabA is known to mediate adherence of H. pylori to Lewis B receptors on gastric epithelium. We investigated the expression of Lewis antigen in gastric mucosa of Korean children with H. pylori infection. Methods : The expression of Lewis A ($Le^a$), B ($Le^b$), X ($Le^x$), and Y ($Le^y$) was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in H. pylori positive biopsy specimens from 35 children (antral gastritis in 30, peptic ulcer in 5) and in H. pylori negative specimens from 19 children. PCR assays for cagA and babA2 gene of H. pylori were performed. Results : We confirmed the expression of $Le^a$ in 60%, $Le^b$ in 97%, $Le^x$ in 100%, and $Le^y$ in 100% of the superficial epithelium of the 35 H. pylori positive children. In H. pylori negative patients, $Le^a$, $Le^b$, $Le^x$, and $Le^y$ expression was 52%, 100%, 89%, and 100%, respectively. The cagA gene was detected in 65% and babA2 gene in 25% of 35 patients. No differences in neutrophil activity and chronic inflammation were found according to the presence of cagA and babA2 genes in H. pylori. Conclusion : $Le^b$, $Le^x$ and $Le^y$ antigen were highly expressed in gastric mucosa of Korean children, but they were not associated with the status of H. pylori infection and the positivity of babA2 gene. Further studies for other mucosal receptors and toxins are needed to define the immune responses to H. pylori infection in gastric mucosa of Korean children.

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A Study of Commercial Menu on Korean Style Restaurant (한식식당의 판매 식단 실태에 관한 연구)

  • 문현경
    • Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.151-164
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    • 1994
  • This research was conducted to survey kinds and frequencies of side dishes served in commercial Korean style restaurant in some part of Korea. The results were summerized as follows: 1. The average number of side dishes in Tang(Korean soup) was 3.3 that is Bae-chu Kimchi. Si-Kum-chi namul, Moeng-ran jeot and O-jing-o jeot in ordering frequencies. 2. In Chigae(stew) and Pi-bim bab(mixed rice including Sot bab) the average number of side dishes was about 4 Jungol and that of Jim was from 3 to 5 and the kinds of side dishes were variety of menu items. 3. Meons (noodles) were served with 1 or 2 kinds of side dishes those based of Bae-chu Kimchi and added 1 Kind of side dish. 4. Han-jeong-sik (Korean style full course meny) was served with 16 kinds of side dishes averge it was consisted of Bab(steamed rice) side dishes such as U-gu-zi guk(vegetable soup) Deun-jang chigae (fermented soy stew) Hong-o jim (fish stew) Go-sa-ri namul Pulgogi Ho-bak jeon, Beon-sut bokum Yuk hoi Bae-chu kimchi Mung-ran jeot Sae-u tuikim and Gam-ja tuikim in ordering frequences.

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A Study on Changes in the Cooking Process of Red Beans Used to Prepare Bab in Cooking Books Written during Last 100 Years (팥을 이용한 밥의 조리과정 변화 연구 - 근대 이후 조리서를 중심으로 -)

  • Lee, Kyung-Ran
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.678-686
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    • 2009
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in the cooking process of red beans used to prepare Bab (cooked rice) in cooking books published from late 19th century to the present. There are 3 different types of Bab that use red beans; Jungdeungbab, Patbab and Patsura, and cooking process vary between different cooking books. For making Jungdeungbab, one method is to cook the red beans in the water first, and then only the water, after draining the cooked red beans, is used to cook rice. The other method is to smash the cooked red beans and collect the water that passes through the smashed red beans to cook the rice. For Patbab, 2 cooking methods were found. One is to cook the whole red beans first and then to add them to the rice for cooking. Another method is to break the red beans into two pieces and mix them with rice and cook them together. Patsura is the red bean used to prepare the Bab offered to Kings during the Chosun dynasty(1392~1910). The cooking process of Patsura is similar to both Jundeungbab and Patbab. In Ijogungjeongyoritonggo(1957), the cooking method of Patsura is similar to that of Patbab; breaking red beans into two pieces and then mixing them with rice and cooking them together. Another method, which is similar to Jungdeungbab, is found in Ijogungjeongyoritonggo(1957) and Hangukyoribaekguasajeon(1976). In Ijogungjeongyoritonggo(1957), the cooking method is to cook the red beans first and then squeeze them after putting them into a sack and then using the extract to cook rice. In Hangukyoribaekguasajeon(1976), the red bean is prepared by first cooking red beans in water, and then only the water, after draining the cooked red bean, is used to cook rice. In further studies, the cooking procedures used in the previous period of the late 19th century should be examined.

A Bibliographical Study on the Manufacturing Procedure of Hosanchun (호산춘양조에 관한 문헌적 고찰)

  • 남궁석;이성우;배상면
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.133-138
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    • 1992
  • The research on the manufacturing procedure of Hosanchun jun in the classical literature(17 kinds) showed that the most usually brewed rice wine in it is the 3rd step rice wine, which is brewed by adding rice wine base to it at the intervals used quantity are as follows. Nonglutinous rice(88.2%), flour(82.3%), and nu-ruk(100%) are used in the 1st step of brewing, and nonglutinous rice(82.3%), glutinous rice(17.6%), flour(23.5%), and nu-ruk(11.3%) are used in the 2nd sep, and glutinous rice, flour, and 3rd step of brewing. The grains are used in the form of -paste(88.2%) in the 1st, and in the form of paste(64.7%) and steamed water-soaked rice(sul-bab)(29.4%) in the second step, and sul-bab(64.7%) in the 3rd step of brewing. Nu-ruk is used in small quantity in the 3rd step but it is used I somewhat larger quantity in the 2nd step of brewing.

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Revision of the Target Pattern based on Single Serving Size of Dishes for Korean Adolescent Meal Plan (음식의 1인1회 분량을 적용한 청소년의 권장식사패턴 고안)

  • Park, Mi Jin;Kim, Youngnam
    • Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.21-29
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    • 2015
  • Objectives: Maintaining a balanced diet is very crucial for adolescents. However, adolescents, who may have a short notion about the amount of food, find it difficult to plan daily meals by applying the target pattern proposed by the Korean Nutrition Society. This study was carried out to revise the target pattern based on cooked dishes instead of raw material food groups as an easier way for Korean adolescents to plan their meals. Methods: Target pattern for Korean adolescents were revised based on the following: $1^{st}$, categorize dish groups, $2^{nd}$, calculate representative values of each dish based on the adolescent' intake amount. $3^{rd}$, assign the recommended number of intake for each dish. Validity of the target pattern for Korean adolescent meal plan was examined by the energy content, energy contribution ratio, and NAR & INQ of nutrients. Results: The 11 dish groups categorized were bab; gook tang gigae; side dishes of meat, fish, egg, legume, kimchi, vegetable, seaweed; and between meal of fruit, and milk dairy product. Based on the representative energy values, recommended number of intake were assigned to each dish. For boys, bab and gook tang gigae: 3 each; meat, fish, egg, and legume: 1 each; kimchi and vegetable: 3 each; seaweed: 1; fruit and milk dairy product: 2 each were assigned. For girls, bab and gook tang gigae: 2 each; meat, fish, egg, and legume: choice of 3 dishes, 1 each; kimchi and vegetable: 3 each; seaweed: 1; fruit and milk dairy product: 2 each were assigned. Energy contents, energy contribution ratio of carbohydrate, protein, and fat for boys and girls were in adequate range. The NARs were 1.0 and INQs were ${\geq}1.0$ for all nutrients examined. Conclusions: Revised dish-based, instead of food-based adolescent target patterns for boys and girls were easier and a valid way of Korean adolescent meal planning.

Conformance Test for MPEG-4 Shape Decoders (MPEG-4 Shape Decoder의 적합성 검사)

  • 황혜전;박인수;박수현;이병욱
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences
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    • v.25 no.6B
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    • pp.1060-1067
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    • 2000
  • MPEG-4 visual coding is an object-based system. The current video coding standards, H.261, MPEG-1, and MPEG-2 encode frame by frame. On the other hand, MPEG-4 separately encodes several objects, such as video objects and audio objects, in the same frame. Each transmitted object is decoded and composed in one frame. Shape coding is a process of coding visual objects in a frame. In this paper we present conformance test method for MPEG-4 shape decoders. This paper reviews the basic shape decoding standard, and proposes conformance test methods for BAB type decoder, and CAE decoder for intra and inter VOPs. Our test generates all possible cases of shape motion vector difference and context.

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Awareness and Knowledge on Korean Traditional Food among the Residents in Gyeongju & Pohang Area (경주.포항지역 거주민의 한국 전통음식에 대한 인식 및 지식에 관한 연구)

  • Ha, Dong-Hyun;Kwon, Mi-Young
    • Culinary science and hospitality research
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.17-30
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    • 2009
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate awareness and knowledge on Korean traditional food among the residents in Gyeongju and Pohang area and develop and maintain it. 452 copies of a questionnaire were surveyed and analyzed statistically. The research findings were as follows. Firstly, males prefer a la Carte menu while females prefer kimchi, bab(boiled rice) juk(rice-gruel), guksu(noodles) and mandu(dumplings). Secondly, the residents favor kimchi, bulgogi and bibimbab with assorted mixtures. Thirdly, comparing the positive perception of Korean traditional food between males and females, females were more aware of traditional food and informed than males. Lastly, correspondence analysis showed that thirties prefer bab, tang(soup) and guksu while forties gu-i(roast) & jeon(panfried food) with seasonings and fifties kimchi & jang(sauce and paste). Also, high school graduates prefer eumcheong & han-gwa while college graduates bab, tang, and guksu. The residents whose monthly incomes are under W1,000,000 favor bab, tang and guksu, and those who earn over W5,000,000 per month favor kimchi & jang. The higher educational levels and incomes were, the higher qualitative factors were evaluated. Based on those findings, Korean traditional food should be generalized and more kinds of its menu should be developed.

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A Study on the Survey of the Meals outside Home in Seoul (서울 거주자를 대상으로 한 외식에 관한 조사연구)

  • 안숙자
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.82-93
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    • 1985
  • An investigation was conducted on Seoulites' meals outside home by age group and sex, and the resultant findings are as follows: 1. To effectively conduct this survey were taken 201 teen males, 242 teen females, 202 young males, 232 young females, 219 men and 195 women. 2. For the kinds of meals they have outside home, breakfast forms 0.7%, lunch 35.7%, supper 22.2%, and snacks 14.4%. 3. Men subjects "lunch out everyday" by 39.9%, young males by 30.7%, and young females by 29%. 4. The reason why they lunch out indicates "convenient" by 37.4%, "carrying a lunch box is inconvenient" by 21.2%, "hard to prepare the lunch box" by 12.9%. 5. Regarding the favorite food taken for lunch, almost all the men prefer Korean food by 73.9% 6. Ra Myun and noodle occupy the highest Percentage of young females by 79.3% ; Chinese food the highest percentage of women by 27.7%, but the lowest percentage come from Japanese food by 1.1%. 7. The preference of kinds of food when having a meal outside home is ascribed to "prefer"by 50~75.7%, the highest percentage of all. 9. The price they pay for lunch outside home amounts to less than 900 wons in teens and young males 1, 000~2, 000 wons in men and women. The price of a meal outside home per capita a day, when taken by family unit, averages to 3, 694 wons. For the number of meals outside home, "more than once a month" forms 41.7%. 9. On the mooted points raised when having a meal outside home, "unsanitary' forms 36.7%, "expensive in prices" 26.1%, "lack of nutritution" 10.6%. 10. Teen males, when viewed from food preference for lunch outside home, take Ra Myun, Ddokbokki, Chinese noodle, while teen females, Ddokbokki, bread, Chinese noodle: young males, Sundubu Baekban, Bibim Bab, Ra Myun, Yokge Jang; young females, Sundubu Baekban, pork cutlet, Bibin Bab: men, Solnone Tang, Daenjang Chikae, Baekban, Kalbi Jongsik Bibim Bab : women, Bulkogi Jongsik, Neang Moyn, and Chinese noodle. 11. When seen from the nutrition of meals taken outside home, the prices of noodle and boiled rice range from 600 to 1, 000 wons, while their energy ranges from 407 to 745 kcal, Protein from 14.2 to 30.3g. On the other hand, the Price of western food averages to 1, 900~2, 500 wons, while its energy ranges from 1, 061 to 1, 129 kcal, proteio from 45.9 to 72.9g. It is revealed that noodle or boiled rice is not nutritious enough to be taken as a meal.s revealed that noodle or boiled rice is not nutritious enough to be taken as a meal.

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