• Title, Summary, Keyword: azurite

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The Characterization of Natural Inorganic Pigment Made of Malachite and Azurite (공작석과 남동석으로 제조한 천연 무기안료의 특성 연구)

  • Kang, Yeong Seok;Mun, Seong Woo;Park, Ju Hyeon;Jeong, Hye Young
    • Journal of the Mineralogical Society of Korea
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.249-256
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    • 2018
  • Seokrog and Seokcheong are traditional pigments that have been used as green and blue pigments in Korean traditional coloring heritage. Natural minerals such as malachite and azurite are known as raw materials. Seokrog and Seokcheong are mainly imported from aborad, such as China and Japan, and some blue pigments are reported to have been produced domestically. However, considering the geologic environment where carbonate minerals are difficult to produce, the possibility is not high. Malachite and azurite ores were purchased and analyzed for their composition. The pigments were manufactured by traditional procedure and analyzed to characterize the pigments. The Seokrog pigments had an $L^*$ value of about 59-83, an $a^*$ value of less than -20, and a slightly higher saturation than commercial products. The oil absorption was 22-29 mL/100 g, showing excellent opacity of 99.2 % or more. In the case of Seokcheong pigment, the range of $L^*$ values was 35-65 and $b^*$ values were below -15, indicating relatively lower saturation than commercial products. The oil absorption was 21-26 mL/100 g, showing an excellent opacity of 99.1 % or more like the Seokrog pigment. Azurite ore contain impurities such as malachite and quartz in addition to azurite, and the impurities contained in the pigments derived from azurite ore likely influenced on the characteristics such as their color and oil absorption.

Effect to the Copper System Pigments by the Nitrogen Dioxide(NO2) Gas (이산화질소(NO2)가 구리(Cu)계통 안료에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Ji Won;Lee, Hwa Soo;Lee, Han Hyeong;Kim, Myoung Nam;Kang, Dai Ill
    • Journal of Conservation Science
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.403-409
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    • 2015
  • Malachite and Azurite are the typical copper system pigments which used the mural paintings since ancient times. The mural painting is at risk for damages of the painting layer by atmosphere gas because it is exposed at external environment. In this study, it did experiment about an effect to Malachite and Azurite by environmental pollution gas($NO_2$, $CO_2$, $SO_2$) then analysis and estimate about test for pieces using mural painting colored that two pigments. As a result, Malachite and Azurite were changed on $NO_2$ but not changed $CO_2$ and $SO_2$. Especially as the concentration of $NO_2$ is increased, exfoliation of the pigment layer weave remarkably formed pores on the pigment particles on SEM, the phenomenon to be pieces were observed together with smaller particles. In the case of Malachite that were exposed to $NO_2$ gas, new compounds(Rouaite : dicopper (nitrate(V) trihydroxide, $Cu_2(NO_3)(OH)_3$)) was appeared by XRD analysis. Therefore, there had been able to verify the fact that the cause exfoliation and discoloration phenomena accompanied by chemical changes for Malachite and Azurite.

High Pressure Behavior Study of Azurite (고압 하에서 남동석의 거동에 대한 연구)

  • Kim, Young-Ho;Choi, Jinwon;Choi, Jaeyoung
    • Journal of the Mineralogical Society of Korea
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.277-285
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    • 2018
  • Azurite ($Cu_3(CO_3)_2(OH)_2$) was compressed up to 21.52 GPa for its behaviors at ambient temperature. High pressure experiment was performed using the symmetrical diamond anvil cell employed in the angle dispersive X-ray diffraction method. Pressure was determined by ruby fluorescence calibration method. No phase transitions were observed within the present pressure limit and bulk modulus was determined to be 54.4 GPa when ${K_0}^{\prime}$ is fixed to be 4. Applying the normalized pressure-strain analysis, reliability of the azurite compression pattern was checked.

The Characteristics of Particle Size in Natural Mineral Pigment for Azurite Raw Material (남동광석(Azurite) 원료 천연 광물 안료의 입도분포 특징)

  • Go, In Hee;Jeong, Hye Young;Park, Ju Hyeon;Jeong, Sir Lin;Jo, A Hyeon
    • Journal of Conservation Science
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.331-339
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    • 2015
  • This study were conducted the particle-size analysis on 57 blue pigments to understand the step distribution characteristics of blue pigments made out of Azurite by using Malvern's Mastersizer 2000. As the result, most of the conventional blue pigments in Korea, Japan, and Chinese showed good granularity step separation except for few, and the smaller the particle, the more the Span value increased and the wider the granularity distribution range. On the basis of Friedman and Sanders's Grain size, most of the pigments were sand size to silt size. 72.2% of B-100 was clay size and 2.5% of A-14 was gravel size. Even the same components can differ by the grain size directly affecting the important property such as color formation, oil absorption, specific gravity, usability, etc. so the information about the granularity distribution would be used for basic data to deal with natural pigments.

A Study on the Weathering Resistance of Fixatives Used on Conservation of Painting Layer of Korea Wooden Painting (한국 판벽화 채색층 보존처리 고착제의 내후성 연구)

  • Lee, Seul;Han, Kyeong Soon
    • Journal of Conservation Science
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    • v.34 no.5
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    • pp.397-405
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    • 2018
  • Currently, there are very few studies on Korean wall paintings. Therefore, this study discusses the current conditions of wooden paintings and the characteristics of the adhesive agent in the painting layer separation. Korean land pine was chosen as the support, while white oysters shells, orpiment, red ocher, Noerok, and azurite were used as pigments. With four adhesive agents, including animal glue, Gelidium, methyl cellulose, and PVAc (caparol binder), a comparative experiment was conducted, by dividing them into two concentrations, of 0.5% and 1.5%. The temperature, humidity, and ultraviolet rays, which are contributing environmental factors in cultural assets after fixing, were artificially investigated. After deterioration, observed color difference, fixing, and the surface. Results showed that the animal glue strongly fixing all the colored layers compared to the other adhesives; however, azurite had a partial change when used outdoors. With Gelidium, which functioned similar to animal glue, the azurite was affected by the ultraviolet rays; nevertheless, despite the variations in temperature and humidity, it had the best gripping force compared to the other adhesive agents. Methyl cellulose was glossy at a high concentration, and was relatively strong against rapid changes in temperature and humidity. PVAc significantly reduced the binding force, compared to other adhesive agents.

A Consideration of Pigments name on Ceremonial writing of Youngsan Ritual Ceremony Buddhist Painting, BongJeongsa (봉정사 영산회괘불도 화기에 기록된 안료명에 대한 고찰)

  • Song, You Na;Kim, Gyu Ho
    • Journal of Conservation Science
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.13-25
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    • 2014
  • This study interpreted the chemicals of the pigments and the coloring techniques employed on Youngsan Ritual Ceremony Buddhist Painting through a nondestructive analysis method and a microscopic observation. Based on the interpretation, this study closely examined the chemical properties of the names of the coloring materials specified on the ceremonial writing of the Buddhist painting. It is estimated that lead white was used for the white pigments, orpiment and organic pigment for the yellow pigment, cinnabar/vermilion, minium, red ochre, and red dyes for the red pigments, malachite or atacamite for the green pigments, azurite and indigo for the blue pigments, and ink stick for the black pigments. The pigment names specified on the ceremonial writing are juhong, jungcheong, hayeop, whangdan, and whanggeum, and it was verified that juhong is cinnabar or vermilion, jungcheong is azurite, hayeop is malachite or atacamite, whangdan is minium, and whanggeum is a gold foil.

Occurrence and Mineralogical Properties of Green-Blue Inorganic Pigments in Korea (국내 녹색-청색계열 무기안료의 산출과 광물학적 특성)

  • Jeong, Gi Young;Cho, Hyen Goo;Do, Jin Young
    • Journal of the Mineralogical Society of Korea
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.33-46
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    • 2018
  • Traditional inorganic pigments applied to dancheong, buddhist painting, and wall painting were produced from natural minerals which were later replaced by synthetic pigments, resulting in the loss of the recipe to prepare mineral pigments. This study examined the domestic occurrence and mineralogical characteristics of green and blue mineral pigments required for the conservation of cultural heritage. Cuprous green-blue mineral pigments were found as the weathering products of waste dumps and ores of abandoned Cu-Pb-Zn sulfide mines. Mineralogical analyses using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy identified diverse hydrous copper sulfate pigments of green (brochantite and devilline) and blue color (linarite, bechererite, and schulenbergite) with minor green pigments of antlerite and atacamite commonly associated with cerussite, smithsonite, anglesite, and cuprite. Noerok, a green silicate pigment, replaced the fractured basalt lava. Celadonite was responsible for the green color of Noerok, closely associated with opal in varying ratio. Glauconite, green silicate pigment, was identified in the Yellow Sea sediments. Malachite and azurite, the most important green and blue pigments of Korean cultural heritage, were not identified in this study.

The Nondestructive Analysis of the Pigments on the Korean 12-fold scheen, Haehakbando-do (해학반도도 채색안료에 대한 비파괴 특성 분석)

  • Kim, Gyu-ho;Song, Yuo-na;Lim, Duck-su;Song, Jeong-ju
    • 보존과학연구
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    • pp.121-147
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    • 2007
  • A large variety of mineral pigments has been used for Korean paintings and it has known that organic pigments have been used together on the Buddhist painting and the portrait. Haehakbando-do, which is from Honolulu Academy Museum in the United States, 12-fold screen was commissioned by Court of the late Joseon Dynasty in order to pray for the King's longevity. Therefore, it seems that all material used including pigments were selected very carefully and a great deal of technical effort was gone into its process. The purposes of this research were to estimate the pigments and the contributory elements of each color used on Haehakbando-do, in accordance with the conservation treatment carried out by Gochang Conservation Institute throughout last year. Without extracting sample, property of pigment was measured by nondestructive method, X-ray spectral analysis, and by comparing with the data about ancient pigments. In spite of the limited range of pigment analysis by nondestructive method, it should be noted that this method would not cause damage to the cultural properites. White pigment was found in all colored parts except the background, so it can be suggested that white color was used as a grounding of other color pigments. This would be flake white[$2PbCO_3{\cdot}Pb(OH)_2$] as Pb was found. Pb was the only element could be found in yellow, however, it can be organic pigment like Gamboge as same as background. Red would be Cinnabar (HgS) as hydrargyrum (Hg) was detected. For the light purple in cloud, organic pigments were probably used since any element is not detected except for Pb, which is used for background. It is possible that green color is the mixture of Malachite[$CuCO_3{\cdot}Cu(OH)_2$] and Azurite [$2CuCO_3{\cdot}Cu(OH)_2$], which share Cu as their main element. Azurite[$2CuCO_3{\cdot}Cu(OH)_2$] was used for bluish pigments. Black is carbon compound. For gold, solid gold (Au) was detected. It shows that gold was gilded on the flake white background. Red painted on the frame of screen was identified as Cinnabar (HgS) and the gold pattern was solid gold (Au). The supporting leg of folding screen was made of brass because both copper and zinc were detected. In conclusion, white pigment was used as grounding of all colors of Haehakbando-do, and specific pigments were used for each color. Additionally, result from the analysis of several pigments shows that mineral pigment and organic pigment, or different mineral pigments were mixed to make various colors.

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A Study on the Physical Properties of Natural Mineral Pigments Used in Restoration and Conservation of Cultural Asset - Focusing on Seokcheong (문화재 보존 및 복원에 사용되는 천연 광물성안료의 물성평가 - 석청(石靑)중심으로)

  • Park, Ju-Hyun;Jeong, Hye-Yeong;Go, In-Hee;Jeong, Sir-Lin;Jo, A-Hyeon
    • 보존과학연구
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    • pp.11-32
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    • 2015
  • The purpose of this study is to analyse the properties of natural mineral pigments used in restoration and conservation of cultural assets. For this study blue-based pigments that are sold in market were selected. The component analysis using by XRF and XRD shows that blue pigment consist of Azurite. And each specimens were evaluated particle size, chromaticity, specific gravity and oil-absorption according to rating system of pigments particle size. Results show that the value of L* increase with the decrease in particle size. The results suggest that the physical properties which is specific gravity, oil-absorption and chromaticity depend on the particle sizes of pigments. When it comes to particle size of pigments decreased by increasing the number of rating system. In addition, the chromaticity related to particle size. The result from this study expects to be used as useful referencing data for conservation and restoration of cultural heritage and understanding phenomena of the properties according to various particle size of Seokcheong pigment.

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Optimal Methodologies for Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopic Analysis of Traditional Pigments in Powder Form

  • Ha, Taewoo;Lee, Howon;Sim, Kyung Ik;Kim, Jonghyeon;Jo, Young Chan;Kim, Jae Hoon;Baek, Na Yeon;Kang, Dai-ill;Lee, Han Hyoung
    • Journal of the Korean Physical Society
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    • v.70 no.9
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    • pp.866-871
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    • 2017
  • We have established optimal methods for terahertz time-domain spectroscopic analysis of highly absorbing pigments in powder form based on our investigation of representative traditional Chinese pigments, such as azurite [blue-based color pigment], Chinese vermilion [red-based color pigment], and arsenic yellow [yellow-based color pigment]. To accurately extract the optical constants in the terahertz region of 0.1 - 3 THz, we carried out transmission measurements in such a way that intense absorption peaks did not completely suppress the transmission level. This required preparation of pellet samples with optimized thicknesses and material densities. In some cases, mixing the pigments with polyethylene powder was required to minimize absorption due to certain peak features. The resulting distortion-free terahertz spectra of the investigated set of pigment species exhibited well-defined unique spectral fingerprints. Our study will be useful to future efforts to establish non-destructive analysis methods of traditional pigments, to construct their spectral databases, and to apply these tools to restoration of cultural heritage materials.