• Title, Summary, Keyword: awareness measure

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A Study on Developing Crowding Measurement Tools for Foodservice Corporations (외식기업 혼잡 만족 측정 도구 개발에 관한 연구)

  • Jeon, Hyu-Jin;Yang, Tai-Seok
    • Culinary science and hospitality research
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.1-17
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    • 2006
  • This study is to develop a viable measurement tool of crowdedness in restaurants. First, to measure customer’s awareness of crowdedness related to each different environmental factor in a restaurant, 49 factors of crowdedness awareness were selected based on the previous studies and then properties of each factor affecting customer’s satisfaction for crowdedness were analyzed. To analyze effects of each factor upon the satisfaction rate, a Multiple Regression Analysis was conducted with the crowdedness awareness as an independent variable and satisfaction of crowdedness as a dependent variable. The results showed that when an analysis of the environmental factors in the crowdedness awareness was conducted in an effort to develop a measurement tool of crowdedness awareness in restaurants, that would be fit for the domestic food service market, based upon 49 factors of restaurant environment. Focusing on expectation and satisfaction rate, it was found that rating the satisfaction level would be a much more effective tool to measure crowdedness awareness because satisfaction rate appeared to be more closely related to the awareness than the results obtained from the Multiple Regression Analysis with a difference between expectation and satisfaction scores as an independent variable.

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Reaction Research on the Visuospatial Ability and the Situation Awareness of Older Drivers in Driving (노인 운전자의 운전 중 시공간능력과 상황인식에 대한 반응)

  • Lim, Yongsuk;Lee, Jungwon
    • 한국노년학
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    • v.32 no.4
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    • pp.1087-1099
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    • 2012
  • The purpose of this paper is to examine how visuospatial ability affects the situation awareness for older drivers while driving. For this study, the Rey-Osterrith Complex Figure (ROCF) was used to measure the visuospatial ability of older drivers. The ROCF is used to measure visuospatial construct and memory abilities, and Real-Time Probes were used to measure the situation awareness with UC-win/Road simulation. Sixty drivers participated in this research (N = 30 older drivers, median = 70 years old and N = 30 younger drivers, median = 27 years old). Based on the results of this analysis, a repeated measure ANOVA was used to analyze the effect on each level of situation awareness related to visuospatial ability in driving. The results indicate that the visuospatial ability of older drivers serves as a crucial factor in determining the potential for older drivers to safely continue to drive. The results also imply the necessity of ROCF development to support and improve the visuospatial ability of older drivers.

Development of a Breast Cancer Awareness Scale for Thai Women: Moving towards a Validated Measure

  • Rakkapao, Nitchamon;Promthet, Supannee;Moore, Malcolm A;Hurst, Cameron P
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.851-856
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    • 2016
  • Background: Breast cancer is a major health problem among women around the world. Recent developments in screening and treatment have greatly improved the prognosis of patients with breast cancer in developed countries. However, in developing countries breast cancer mortality remains high.Breast cancer awareness is a first and important step in reducing breast cancer mortality. The development of a validated instrument to measure breast cancer awareness is crucial for the understanding and implementation of suitable health education programs to facilitate early deletion and minimize mortality. Objective: The objective of this study was to develop an instrument for the assessment of breast cancer awareness in Thai women. Materials and Methods: This methodological study was conducted in two stages: (1) literature searches and semi-structured interviews were conducted to generate items of the breast cancer awareness scale (B-CAS) which were subsequently examined for content and face validity, and (2) an exploration of the factor structure of the resulting instrument and an examination of its reliability. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire in Thai women aged 20-64 in August, 2015. Results: A total of 219 women (response rate 97.4 %) participated in this validation study. The B-CAS contains five domains with 53 items on breast cancer awareness: 1) knowledge of risk factors, 2) knowledge of signs and symptoms, 3) attitude to breast cancer prevention, 4) barriers of breast screening, and 5) health behavior related to breast cancer awareness. Items with a content validity index < 0.80 were excluded, and factor structure for the remaining items reflected the hypothesized five factor model. The scales based on all retained items was shown to have strongly internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's ${\alpha}=0.86$). Conclusions: The B-CAS provides good psychometric properties to assess breast cancer awareness in women. It can be used to examine breast cancer awareness in Thai women and it could lead to the development and evaluation of suitable educational interventions for raising breast cancer awareness. Future research should focus on further validating the B-CAS including an assessment of construct and criterion-based validity.

Promoting Oral Cancer Awareness and Early Detection using a Mass Media Approach

  • Saleh, Amyza;Yang, Yi-Hsin;Ghani, Wan Maria Nabillah Wan Abd;Abdullah, Norlida;Doss, Jennifer Geraldine;Navonil, Roy;Rahman, Zainal Ariff Abdul;Ismail, Siti Mazlipah;Talib, Norain Abu;Zain, Rosnah Binti;Cheong, Sok Ching
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.1217-1224
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    • 2012
  • Background and Aim: Less than 50% of oral cancer cases are diagnosed at early stages of the disease and this is in part due to poor awareness and lack of knowledge on the signs and symptoms of oral cancer. This study sought to measure the baseline awareness of oral cancer in Malaysia and aimed to increase public awareness and knowledge of oral cancer using a mass media campaign. Methods: Baseline awareness and impact of the campaign was measured using self-administered questionnaires sent via email to individuals. The campaign was aired on two national television channels and the reach was monitored through an independent programme monitoring system. Results: 78.2% of respondents had heard of oral cancer, and this increased significantly after the campaign. However, the ability to recognize signs and symptoms remains unchanged. We found that the level of awareness differed between the distinct ethnic subgroups and the reach of the campaign was not uniform across all ethnicities. Conclusion: This substantial study to measure the oral cancer awareness in Malaysia provides important baseline data for the planning of public health policies. Despite encouraging evidence that a mass media campaign could increase the awareness of oral cancer, further research is required to address the acceptability, comprehensiveness and effectiveness. Furthermore, different campaign approaches may be required for specific ethnic groups in a multi-ethnic country such as Malaysia.

Sociodemographic Predictors of Recall and Recognition of Colorectal Cancer Symptoms and Anticipated Delay in Help-Seeking in a Multiethnic Asian Population

  • Loh, Kwong Weng;Majid, Hazreen Abdul;Dahlui, Maznah;Roslani, April Camilla;Su, Tin Tin
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.6
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    • pp.3799-3804
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    • 2013
  • Background: Colorectal cancer is the second most common cancer in Malaysia. The prognosis of the disease is excellent if detected at an early stage, but the majority of Malaysian patients present at late stages. We aimed to assess the awareness of cancer warning signs and anticipated delay in help-seeking as possible contributors to this phenomenon. Materials and Methods: A population-based cross-sectional survey using the Colorectal Cancer Awareness Measure was initiated in Perak, Malaysia. A total of 2,379 respondents aged 18 years and above were recruited using a multi-stage sampling in five locations. Analysis of covariance was used to examine independent sociodemographic predictors of scores for symptom awareness. Results: Younger age, being female, a higher education, and higher income were significantly associated with better scores for both recall and recognition of warning symptoms. Among the ethnic groups, Malays had better recognition of symptoms whereas Chinese recalled the most symptoms. Passing bloody stool was associated with the least anticipated delay and unexplained anal pain had the highest anticipated delay. Conclusions: The level of awareness across all ethnicities in Malaysia is generally low, especially among minorities. Targeted public education, which is culturally and linguistically appropriate, should be developed to encourage early help-seeking and improve clinical outcomes.

A Canonical Correlation between Employee's Business Ethics Awareness and the Business Ethics Practice in Foodservice Industry (기업윤리의 인식수준과 실천수준 사이의 관계 연구;외식산업체 종사원을 중심으로)

  • Jung, Hyo-Sun;Yoon, Hye-Hyun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.163-171
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    • 2008
  • The purpose of this study was to measure employee ‘awareness’ and ‘practice’ of business ethics in the foodservice industry, and to determine possible correlations between these two variables. Self administrated questionnaires were completed by 1003 employees and data were analysed to ascertain frequency, factor, reliability, correlation and canonical correlation. Two factors were obtained from factor analysis of business ethics(BE) awareness; “Organizational awareness”, and “Individual awareness”. Similarly, two factors were also obtained for business ethics practice; “Systematic practice”, and “Compensatory practice”. Canonical correlation analysis produced two significant functions. For canonical function 1, it was found that organizational awareness of BE was positively correlated with systematic practice. For canonical function 2, it was found that individual awareness of BE was negatively correlated with the compensatory practices of BE. The findings of this study demonstrate that higher organizational awareness of business ethics in the foodservice industry led to higher systematic practices of BE, while higher individual awareness of BE led to lower compensatory practices of BE. In conclusion, higher organizational awareness of BE places a higher priority on building an external system from an institutional perspective, while higher employees awareness of BE leads to higher expectation from the company, resulting in relatively low compensatory practices.

Relationships Among Language Ability, Foreign Language Learning Experience, and Metalinguistic Ability in Korean Preschool Children (유아의 모국어 능력, 외국어 경험 정도와 상위언어 능력간의 관계)

  • Han, You Me;Cho, Bok Hee
    • Korean Journal of Child Studies
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.199-216
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    • 1999
  • The 121 five-year-old Korean subjects of this study were divided in 3 groups based on their experience in learning a foreign language (English). A battery of tests was administered to measure spoken and written language ability and the 3 metalinguistic domains of phonological, semantic, and syntactic awareness. Spoken language ability was positively correlated with semantic and syntactic awareness. The relative importance of each metalinguistic domain varied with level of written language development. Phonological awareness was the only predictor of decoding. Syntactic awareness and phonological awareness were significant variables in sentence comprehension. Metalinguistic ability was a better predictor of written language development than spoken language ability. Foreign language learning experience had an effect on syntactic awareness: low experience was superior to no experience, but high experience was not superior to low experience.

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Awareness of Risk Factors for Cancer among Omani adults- A Community Based Study

  • Al-Azri, Mohammed;AL-Rasbi, Khadija;Al-Hinai, Mustafa;Davidson, Robin;Al-Maniri, Abdullah
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.13
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    • pp.5401-5406
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    • 2014
  • Background: Cancer is the leading cause of mortality around the world. However, the majority of cancers occur as a result of modifiable risk factors; hence public awareness of cancer risk factors is crucial to reduce the incidence. The objective of this study was to identify the level of public awareness of cancer risk factors among the adult Omani population. Materials and Methods: A community based survey using the Cancer Awareness Measure (CAM) questionnaire was conducted in three areas of Oman to measure public awareness of cancer risk factors. Omani adults aged 18 years and above were invited to participate in the study. SPPSS (ver.20) was used to analyse the data. Results: A total of 384 participated from 500 invited individuals (response rate =77%). The majority of respondents agreed that smoking cigarettes (320, 83.3%), passive smoking (279, 72.7%) and excessive drinking of alcohol (265, 69%) are risks factors for cancer. However, fewer respondents agreed that eating less fruit and vegetables (83, 21.6%), eating more red or processed meat (116, 30.2%), being overweight (BMI> 25) (123, 32%), doing less physical exercise (119, 31%), being over 70 years old (72, 18.8%), having a close relative with cancer (134, 34.9%), infection with human papilloma virus (HPV) (117, 30.5%) and getting frequent sunburn during childhood (149, 38.8%) are risk factors for cancer. A significant association was found between participant responses and their educational level. The higher the educational level, the more likely that respondents identified cancer risk factors including smoking (p<0.0005), passive smoking (p= 0.007), excessive drinking of alcohol (p<0.0005), eating less fruit and vegetables (p= 0.001) and infection with HPV (p<0.0005). Conclusions: The majority of respondents in this study in Oman were not aware of the common risk factors for cancer. It may be possible to reduce the incidence of cancers in Oman by developing strategies to educate the public about these risk factors.

Cultural Awareness of Students in a Nursing Education Program (간호학 전공학생의 교육과정에 대한 문화적 자각)

  • Oh, Hyun-Jin;Kim, Hyun-Jee
    • The Journal of Korean Academic Society of Nursing Education
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.446-454
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    • 2013
  • Purpose: South Korea is rapidly changing into a multicultural society; the nursing discipline faces the need to educate its students in cultural competence to meet the health care needs of an ethnically diverse population. However, there is little evidence suggesting that nursing programs provide this education. The purpose of this study was to measure nursing students' cultural awareness in a nursing education program. Methods: Four hundred thirty-three nursing students at 4 universities in Daejeon participated in this cross-sectional descriptive study, which was held from August to September 2012. Data collection was conducted via questionnaires based on the Cultural Awareness Scale(CAS), and demographics included general and cultural characteristics. Results: The mean cultural awareness score was 4.54, which was relatively low compared to studies completed in other countries. The highest rating was in the cognitive awareness subscale, and the lowest was in the general education experiences subscale in CAS. The level of cultural awareness was significantly different in those who had experienced overseas travel. Those students also perceived a greater need for cultural education. Conclusion: The study's finding suggest the need for a transcultural nursing education program designed to enhance the level of cultural awareness in Korea's nursing students.

Breast Cancer Awareness among Saudi Females in Jeddah

  • Radi, Sahar Mahmoud
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.7
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    • pp.4307-4312
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    • 2013
  • Breast cancer is the most frequent malignancy of women worldwide. It is the leading cause of female cancer related disability and mortality. In Saudi Arabia breast cancer ranks first among cancerous diseases in females. In the Gulf region, and especially in Saudi Arabia, few studies have been conducted to address breast cancer awareness. The purpose of the current study was therefore to investigate the level of breast cancer awareness among Saudi females in Jeddah, focusing on knowledge of breast cancer warning signs, risk factors, screening programs and breast self-examination (BSE). The design of this study was an exploratory correlational analysis. The sample comprised 200 Saudi females aged 20 and older living in Jeddah. Data were collected using face-to-face interviews. Breast cancer awareness was measured using a modified Arabic version of the Breast Cancer Awareness Measure (Breast CAM) version 2. Descriptive statistical analysis, Pearson's Product Moment correlation coefficients and ANOVA test were used to answer study questions. Out of 200 participants, 50.5% were aware of breast lump as a warning sign of breast cancer, 57.5% claimed that family history was risk factor, 20.5% had undergone breast screening, 79% heard about BSE, and 47.5% knew how to perform BSE. Findings indicated that Saudi females level of awareness of breast cancer is very inadequate. Public awareness interventions are needed in order to overcome an ever-increasing burden of this disease among Saudi females.