• Title, Summary, Keyword: auxin

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Revisiting Apoplastic Auxin Signaling Mediated by AUXIN BINDING PROTEIN 1

  • Feng, Mingxiao;Kim, Jae-Yean
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.38 no.10
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    • pp.829-835
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    • 2015
  • It has been suggested that AUXIN BINDING PROTEIN 1 (ABP1) functions as an apoplastic auxin receptor, and is known to be involved in the post-transcriptional process, and largely independent of the already well-known SKP-cullin-F-box-transport inhibitor response (TIR1) /auxin signaling F-box (AFB) ($SCF^{TIR1/AFB}$) pathway. In the past 10 years, several key components downstream of ABP1 have been reported. After perceiving the auxin signal, ABP1 interacts, directly or indirectly, with plasma membrane (PM)-localized transmembrane proteins, transmembrane kinase (TMK) or SPIKE1 (SPK1), or other unidentified proteins, which transfer the signal into the cell to the Rho of plants (ROP). ROPs interact with their effectors, such as the ROP interactive CRIB motif-containing protein (RIC), to regulate the endocytosis/exocytosis of the auxin efflux carrier PIN-FORMED (PIN) proteins to mediate polar auxin transport across the PM. Additionally, ABP1 is a negative regulator of the traditional $SCF^{TIR1/AFB}$ auxin signaling pathway. However, Gao et al. (2015) very recently reported that ABP1 is not a key component in auxin signaling, and the famous abp1-1 and abp1-5 mutant Arabidopsis lines are being called into question because of possible additional mutantion sites, making it necessary to reevaluate ABP1. In this review, we will provide a brief overview of the history of ABP1 research.

Auxin-responsive SMALL AUXIN UP RNA genes : recent research progress and its application for crop improvement (옥신 반응 SMALL AUXIN UP RNA 유전자의 최근 연구 동향 및 작물 개량을 위한 적용)

  • Lee, Sang Ho
    • Journal of Plant Biotechnology
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    • v.40 no.2
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    • pp.59-64
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    • 2013
  • Auxin is a key plant hormone which regulates overall plant growth development. A number of researches to investigate auxin signaling identified three major classes of early auxin response genes: AUX/IAA, GH3 and SMALL AUXIN UP RNA (SAUR). Among these genes, in planta functions of SAUR gene family are largely ambiguous, while both AUX/IAA and GH3 genes are analyzed to mediate negative feedback on auxin response. SAUR genes encode small plant-specific proteins. SAUR gene products are highly unstable and transiently expressed in the tissue- and developmental-specific manners in response to auxin and various environmental stimuli. In the decades, molecular and genetic approaches to elucidate in planta functions of SAURs have been hampered by several factors such as the unstable molecular features and functional redundancy among them. However, a series of recent studies focusing on several subgroups of SAUR gene family made significant progress in our understanding of its biochemical and physiological functions. These works suggest that many SAUR proteins mainly regulate auxin-related cell expansion and auxin transport. In this review, the recent progress in SAUR research and prospects for crop improvement through its genetic manipulation are discussed.

Effect of Polyamine on Auxin Polar Transport in Corn Coleoptile Segments (Polyamine이 옥수수 자엽초 절편에서 오옥신 이동에 미치는 영향)

  • 허윤정
    • Journal of Plant Biology
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    • v.34 no.4
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    • pp.297-302
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    • 1991
  • The effects of polyamines on auxin polar transport were studied in corn coleoptile segments. Among putresine, spermidine and spermine tested in labelled auxin transport, spermidine inhibited auxin polar transport most strongly. Its inhibitory effect appeared after 1 h of transport period. Spermidine inhibited labelled auxin and 14C-benzoic acid accumulation into the tissue in the various pH range tested (pH 4.0-8.0). These results suggest that the inhibition of auxin transport may not be due to decrease in pH by spermine the effect of decreased pH in the extracellular space.

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Action of Calcium on Ethylene Biosynthesis Induced by Auxin and Cytokinin in Mungbean Hypocotyl Segments (녹두하배축에서 Auxin과 Cytokinin에 의한 에틸렌 생합성에 대한 Ca2+의 작용)

  • 문혜정;이준승
    • Journal of Plant Biology
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    • v.32 no.4
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    • pp.343-350
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    • 1989
  • Calcium promoted ethylene production from mungbean hypocotyl segments incubated in the presence of either auxin or cytokinin (kinetin). Time course studies indicated that the calcium effect on ethylene production had a longer latent period (about 6 h) in combination with kinetin than with auxin. Studies on the effects of agents that are known to interfere with either action or transport (uptake) of calcium on ethylene biosynthesis indicated different patterns between auxin- and kinetin-treated tissues. Auxin-induced ethylene production was inhibited by the calmodulin inhibitor, trifluoperazine (TFP), and this inhibition was overcome by high concentrations of calcium applied, but TFP had no significant effect on kinetin-induced ethylene production regardless of calcium in the medium. The calcium channel blocker, verapamil, inhibited auxin-induced, but had little effect on kinetin-induced, ethylene producton. In vivo activity of "ethylene forming enzyme (EFE)" was found to be substantially promoted by calcium treatment. The enzyme activity was further increased by kinetin when segments were simultaneously treated with calcium, but auxin did not have such an effect.an effect.

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Specific Inhibition of Polar Auxin Transport by n-Octanol in Maize Coleoptiles (옥수수(Zea mays L.) 자엽초 조직 절편에서 n-Octanol에 의한 옥신 극성 이동 억제)

  • 윤인선
    • Journal of Plant Biology
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    • v.36 no.1
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    • pp.67-74
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    • 1993
  • Both polar and gravity-induced lateral transport of auxin was markedly reduced in corn coleoptile segments by octanol treatment. Octanol enhance net auxin uptake without affecting that of benzoic acid, suggesting that the effect did not result from a nonspecific action on general membrane permeability. Since naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) action on both transport and net uptake of auxin was substantially decreased in the presence of octanol, a specific interaction of octanol with the NPA site (efflux carrier) can be postulated. Studies on in vitro binding of NPA to membrane vesicles indicated that octanol did not interfere with NPA binding. When basipetal transport of auxin was impared by plasmolysis, octanol still inhibited auxin transport in the plasmolyzed tissues. The results ruled out the possibility of octanol acting at the plasmodesmata. Kinetic analysis of growth indicated that IAA-sustained growth was rapidly blocked by octanol implicating a common system by which auxin transport is linked to auxin action. Possible mechanisms for octanol action will be discussed.

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Improvement of crop traits using auxin binding protein gene abp57 (옥신 호르몬 결합단백질 ABP57 유전자를 이용한 작물의 형질개선)

  • Kim, Dong-Hern;Lee, Keun-Pyo
    • Journal of Plant Biotechnology
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    • v.38 no.2
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    • pp.137-142
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    • 2011
  • Auxin is a group of small natural and synthetic molecules having diverse regulatory functions in plant growth and development. In this review, two auxin binding proteins identified by biochemical experiments to measure their auxin binding activities and biochemical functions are described. ABP1, a 22 kDa auxin binding protein, shows strong auxin binding affinity and possibly plays an important role in plant development, although its biochemical function are still unclear. ABP57, a 57 kDa soluble protein from rice shoots, has both of IAA binding activity and the plasma membrane proton pump activation. Although it is yet to be accomplished, the improvement of agronomic traits using auxin binding proteins is worth to be considered, since auxin is known to be related to such a diverse crop traits.

Inhibitory Effect of Mannose on Auxin-Induced Ethylene Production in Corn (Zea mays L.) Coleoptiles (옥수수 자엽초에서 오옥신 유발 에틸렌 생성에 대한 Mannose의 억제작용)

  • 조성혜
    • Journal of Plant Biology
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    • v.33 no.4
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    • pp.309-314
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    • 1990
  • Effect of mannose on auxin-induced ethylene production in corn (Zea mays L.) coleoptiles was studied. Auxin induced ethylene production decreased in proportion to mannose concentrations. The inhibitory effect of mannose appeared after 2 h of incubation. Ethylene production was significantly depressed by mannose at high concentration (10-5M-10-4M) of indole acetic acid (IAA), but not at low concentrations (10-8M-10-6M). The inhibition of auxin-induced ethylene production by mannose was specific, since other sugars such as galactose, glucose, sucrose and mannitol did not have an inhibitory effect. In an effort to elucidate mechanisms of mannose the effect on the auxin induced ethylene production, effect of the sugar on ACC synthase activity and ACC induced ethylene production was studied. Mannose failed to inhibit ACC mediated ethylene production, but decreased both the ACC content and ACC synthase activity in the tissue. These results suggest that the inhibitory effect of mannose on auxin induced ethylene production results from suppression of auxin induction of ACC synthase.

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The Promotive Effect of NAA, IBA and Ethychlozate on Rooting Cuttings of Certain Ornamental Plants and Some Physiological Studies. (관상식물 삽목발근에 있어서 NAA, IBA 및 Ethychlozate의 발근촉진효과와 그 생리학적연구)

  • Jeong, Hae-Jun;Gwak, Byeong-Hwa
    • The Journal of Natural Sciences
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    • v.1
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    • pp.115-198
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    • 1987
  • The present studies were undertaken to elucidate the influence of auxins, auxin-like substance-ethychlozate ("Figaron"),and pH and sort of rooting media on rooted propagation of certainornamental woody plant cuttings, and to see possible changes in internal compositions characterizing after root-promoting treatment as the cutting stage proceeded. The experimental check-up srevealed and summarized as seen in the following;I. Effect of three different auxin treatments on rooting cuttings: 1) Promotive influence of auxin varied according to different concentration levels, hours of dipping treatment of the auxins, and kind of plants. The greatest effect was obtained for Forsythia ksreana with NAA and IBA, for Ligustrurn obtusifolium var. variegatum with NAA and ethychlozate, for Hydrangea macrophylla, Magnolia kobus, and Magnolia liliflora with NAA, lBA and ethychlozate also. The most effective level of the promotive agents was found 200mg/l for NAA, 1000mg/l for IBA, and 200mg/l for ethychlozate. For Weigela florida and Gardenia jasminoides, range of the most effective level was shown relatively wide spread. 2) NAA was more effective at its optimal level of the rooting agent than ethychiozate for Weigela florida, Viburnum awabuki, Forsythia koreana, Acer palmatum 'Nomura', Bouga invillea glabra, Elaeagnus umbellata, Prunus tomentosa, Ligustrum obtusifolium, Pyracantha coccinea, Cestrum noctu rnum, Hydrangea macrophylla, Codiaeum variegatum, Rhododen dron lateritium, and Ilex crenata var. macrophylla, and yet ethychlozate was found either as equally as effective or more so than NAA for Zebrina pendula, Hibiscus syriacus, Fatshedera lizei, Schefflera arboricola, Campsis grandiflo ra, Ixora chinensis, Euonymus japonica, and Magnolia liliflora. On the contrary, no the auxin effect was noted with Lagerstroemia indica, Trachelospermum asiaticum, and Syringa vulgaris. This probably indicates that these species are genetically different for the auxin response.II. Effect of different pH and sorts of cutting media on rooting cuttings: 1) Bougainvillea showed best in rooting for the number and dry weight at pH 6.5, more with ethychlozate than NAA, while Ligustrum did at pH 5.0 more with NAA than ethychlozate. pH 4.0 medium resulted in the best rooting for Rhododendron with NAA, more than ethychlozate. 2) Use of cutting medium with peat: perlite: vermiculite = 1:1:1 showed to give the greatest rooting percent and dry weight, apart from considering the number of roots. This apparently meant the fact that cutting medium has more to do with root growth than root differentiation. Rhododendron yet showed results with cutting media that use of peat: perlite = 2:1 mixed is more effective on rooting than using peat alone.III. Effect of auxinic treatments on rooting cuttings and change in some cutting compositions: 1) Under the climatic conditions of July having temperature $26.3\pm$$2.4^{\circ}C$for cutting bed, new roots of Magnolia started to show up generally 20 days after the cutting was made, whereas Cestrum did much earlier than that, namely 14 days after. 2) Although total carbohydrate content of Magnolia cuttings showed no marked change without auxin treatment, it did so with the treatment, especially 30 days after the start of cutting. Cestrum cuttings demonstrated a gradual in crease in total carbohydrate content as rooting took place, and the content became reduced more with auxin than with out, just about when rooting proceeded to 14 days after the start of cutting. 3) Magnolia generally showed an increase in total nitrogen content as rooting proceeded more, and Cestrum showed a decrease in total nitrogen of cuttings. The auxin treatment exhibited no pertinent relation with change in plant nitro gen when rooting is promoted with auxin treatment. 4) An abrupt drop of total sugar and reducing sugar was noticed as Magnolia rooting started, and this reduction was parti cularly outstanding with auxin treatment. Starch content also was decreased in the later stage of cutting with auxin treatment, and was rather increased without auxin. Although sugar content soon increased as cutting started with auxin treatment in the case of Cestrum, it became reduced after rooting took place. 5) Total phenol content increased with rooting, and this was especially true when rooting started. This increase was reversed somehow regardless of auxin treatment. A decrease in phenol of Magnolia was found more striking with auxin than without in the later stage of the cutting period. 6)Avena coleoptile test for auxin-like substances presented the physiologically active factor is more in easy-to-root Magnolia liliflora than hard-to-root Magnolia kobus, and the activity of auxin-like substances was much increased with auxin treatment. The increase in the growth promoting substances was markedly pronounced when rooting just started. The active growth substances decreased in the later stage of cutting, and certain inhibitory substances started appearing. Cestrum also showed physiologically similar growth promoting substances accompanying auxin-like active substances if auxin is treated, and some strong inhibitory substances seemed to appear in the later stage of cutting. 7) Mung-bean-rooting test indicated biologically that endogenous growth substances in Magnolia all promoted mung-bean rooting, and activity of the growth substances apparently stimulated mung-bean rooting with auxin more than without. Here auxin treatment seemed to give a rise to an increased activity of endogenous growth substances in cuttings. This activity was found much greater with either NAA or IBA than ethychlozate, and showed its peak of the activity when rooting first started taking place. Certain inhibitory substances for Avena coleoptile growth strongly promoted mung-bean rooting, and it was also much like in the case of Cestrum.

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Recent research progress on the functional roles and regulatory mechanisms of SMALL AUXIN UP RNA gene family (SMALL AUXIN UP RNA 유전자 집단의 기능과 조절 메커니즘에 대한 최근 연구 동향)

  • Lee, Sang Ho
    • Journal of Plant Biotechnology
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    • v.45 no.3
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    • pp.183-189
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    • 2018
  • The plant hormone auxin regulates the overall metabolic processes essential for plant growth and development. Auxin signaling is mediated by early auxin response genes, which are classified into three major families: AUXIN/INDOLE ACETIC ACID (AUX/IAA), GRETCHEN HAGEN3 (GH3) and SMALL AUIN UP RNA (SAUR). The SAUR gene family is the largest family among early auxin response genes and encodes the small and highly unstable gene products. The functional roles of SAUR genes have remained unclear for many years. The traditional genetic and molecular studies on the SAUR functions have been hampered by their likely genetic redundancy and tandem arrays of highly related genes in the plant genome, together with the molecular characteristics of SAUR. However, recent studies have suggested possible roles of SAUR in a variety of tissues and developmental stages in accordance with the novel approaches such as gain-of-function and RNA silencing techniques. In this review, the recent research progress on the functional roles and regulatory mechanisms of SAUR and a set of possible future works are discussed.

Recent research progress on acid-growth theory (산-생장설에 대한 최근 연구 동향)

  • Lee, Sang Ho
    • Journal of Plant Biotechnology
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    • v.43 no.4
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    • pp.405-410
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    • 2016
  • Auxins are essential in plant growth and development. The auxin-stimulated elongation of plant cells has been explained by the "acid-growth theory", which was proposed forty years ago. According to this theory, the auxin activates plasma membrane $H^+-ATPase$ to induce proton extrusion into the apoplast, promoting cell expansion through the activation of cell wall-loosening proteins such as expansins. Even though accepted as the classical theory of auxin-induced cell growth for decades, the major signaling components comprising this model were unknown, until publication of recent reports. The major gap in the acid growth theory is the signaling mechanism by which auxin activates the plasma membrane $H^+-ATPase$. Recent genetic, molecular, and biochemical approaches reveal that several auxin-related molecules, such as TIR1/AFB AUX/IAA coreceptors and SMALL AUXIN UP RNA (SAUR), serve as important components of the acid-growth model, phosphorylating and subsequently activating the plasma membrane $H^+-ATPase$. These researches reestablish the four-decade-old theory by providing us the detailed signaling mechanism of auxininduced cell growth. In this review, we discuss the recent research progress in auxin-induced cell elongation, and a set of possible future works based on the reestablished acid-growth model.