• Title/Summary/Keyword: autorotation

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Trim Range and Characteristics of Autorotation(I): Rotor Speed Limit and Pitch Range (자동회전의 트림 범위와 특성(I): 로터 스피드 한계와 피치범위)

  • Kim, Hak-Yoon;Choi, Seong-Wook
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Aeronautical & Space Sciences
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    • v.39 no.6
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    • pp.487-497
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    • 2011
  • Numerical analysis has been performed to investigate the rotor speed and pitch range variations when the airspeed is increased in autorotation. Transient Simulation Method(TSM) was used to obtain the steady states of autorotation. The rotor blade was analyzed by the two-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes solver in order to adapt to the airspeed increase and the results were used in the transient simulation method. Meanwhile, the Pitt/Peters inflow theory was used to supply the induced velocity fields. For the prescribed torque equilibrium state, the combinations of velocity, shaft angle, and pitch angle were produced to investigate the rotor speeds and variable ranges. The rotor tip Mach number and rotor speed were correlated and the trim range of pitch angle was observed with respect to the shaft angle decrease.

A Study on the Behavior of Skid Gear During the Helicopter Autorotation (헬리콥터 오토로테이션시 착륙장치 거동에 관한 연구)

  • Choi, Hyung-Tai;Oh, Jung-Jin;Kim, Geun-Won;Shin, Ki-Su
    • Journal of the Korea Institute of Military Science and Technology
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    • v.15 no.6
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    • pp.746-753
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    • 2012
  • ROK military helicopters are frequently exposed to the hazard situations due to the characteristic of operation. Especially, helicopter accident may lead to critical damage of human and structure. Accordingly, pilots have to train the autorotation procedures and learn the skill to prevent hard landing. In this paper, the behavior of skid gear subject to the helicopter autorotation was conducted by using numerical method. The computer simulation approach by using finite element method was employed to accomplish this goal. Additionally, the behavior of skid gear was evaluated for the different landing conditions. In conclusion, the maximum stress concentration was occurred at the attached area of skid cross-tube to the fuselage. Also, it was revealed that the most proper attitude was level landing to prevent hard landing.

Trim Range and Characteristics of Autorotation(II): Advance Ratio Variation and Flapping Characteristics (자동회전의 트림 범위와 특성(II): 전진비 변화와 플래핑 특성)

  • Kim, Hak-Yoon;Choi, Seong-Wook
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Aeronautical & Space Sciences
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    • v.39 no.6
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    • pp.498-504
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    • 2011
  • The flapping characteristics and advance ratios at torque equilibrium state of autorotation were investigated when the airspeed, shaft angle, and pitch angle were varied. To simulate the airspeed increase, the aerodynamic data analyzed by using the compressible Navier-Stokes solver and Pitt/Peters inflow theory were used. Transient Simulation Method(TSM) was used to catch the torque equilibrium states. The maximum flapping angles at torque equilibrium state were correlated to the airspeed, shaft angle, and pitch angle. By comparing flapping behavior to the variation of advance ratio, the phenomenon that the extension of reverse flow area of retreating blade affects the characteristics of autorotation was qualitatively considered.

Performance Analysis of Autorotation(1) : Analysis Method and the Effect of Aerodynamic table (자동회전의 성능해석(1) : 해석 기법과 공력 테이블의 영향)

  • Kim, Hak-Yoon
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Aeronautical & Space Sciences
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    • v.40 no.1
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    • pp.1-11
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    • 2012
  • Performance analysis was performed for an autorotating rotor. For a given airspeed, shaft angle, and collective pitch, the steady state of autorotation was judged by using the transient simulation method(TSM), then the thrust, lift, and drag coefficient for that state were computed. Average thrust was calculated from the instantaneous thrusts, in which the TSM was used in blade thrust integration. The analysis method was applied to the model rotor that had been tested by wind tunnel. Some comparison between analysis and test was provided. Two types of two-dimensional airfoil aerodynamic data were utilized in analysis, and they were made by Navier-Stokes Solver in terms of Reynolds and Reynolds-Mach number. The quantitative difference of results using two data set was examined and compared.

Autorotation of square plates, with application to windborne debris

  • Martinez-Vazquez, P.;Sterling, M.;Baker, C.J.;Quinn, A.D.;Richards, P.J.
    • Wind and Structures
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.167-186
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    • 2011
  • This paper presents the results of measurements relating to the aerodynamic forces on flat square plates which were allowed to rotate at different speeds about their horizontal axis, by modifying the velocity of the incoming flow. A 1 m square test-sheet and a 0.3 m square test-sheet were fitted with a number of pressure sensors in order to obtain information relating to the instantaneous pressure distribution acting on the test-sheet; a compact gyroscope to record the angular velocity during the rotational motion was also implemented. Previous work on autorotation has illustrated that the angular velocity varies with respect to the torque induced by the wind, the thickness and aspect ratio of the test-sheet, any frictional effects present at the bearings, and the vorticity generated through the interaction between the plate and the wind flow. The current paper sets out a method based on the solution of the equation of motion of a rotating plate which enables the determination of angular velocities on autorotating elements to be predicted. This approach is then used in conjunction with the experimental data in order to evaluate the damping introduced by the frictional effects at the bearings during steady autorotation.

Developmental Trends of High Performance Rotorcraft and the Analytic Method of Autorotation (고성능 회전익기의 개발동향과 자동회전의 해석기법)

  • Kim, Hak-Yoon;Sheen, Byung-jun
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Aviation and Aeronautics
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.60-67
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    • 2014
  • Technical history of VTOL aircraft is examined from the early helicopter appearance to recent experimental rotorcraft in order to distinguish the core issues of those aircraft. Performance and technological challenges of some VTOL aircraft such as tilt rotor, convertiplane, gyroplane, and coaxial helicopter are discussed. As a new generation high performance rotorcraft, Sikorsky X2 is intensively investigated. Considering the developmental history of X2, the autorotational ability at high speed is recognized as a core technology. Analytic method of autorotation and some results are shown and presents research subjects related to the future Korean high performance rotorcraft.

An Exploratory Study on the Speed Limit of Compound Gyroplane(1) : Aerodynamic Analysis of Rotor and Airframe (복합 자이로플레인의 한계 속도에 대한 탐색연구(1) : 로터와 기체의 공력해석)

  • Shin, Byung-joon;Kim, Hak-Yoon
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Aeronautical & Space Sciences
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    • v.43 no.11
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    • pp.971-977
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    • 2015
  • A numerical analysis for the performance of compound gyroplane in forward flight was performed. TSM(Transient Simulation Method) was used to analyze the performance of autorotating rotor. CFD was conducted for the fuselages to recognize the variation of aerodynamic performance according to flight speed. At given conditions; airspeed, shaft angle and collective pitch, the quasi-static states of autorotation were determined and the variation of rotor performance was observed. Performance analysis results showed that the effect of aerodynamic characteristics in accordance with the shape of fuselage is so important that the streamlined fuselage is essential to fly fast. Forward flight speed limit is dependent on the autorotation performance of rotor.

An Unsteady Numerical Method of Autorotation and the Effect of 2D Aerodynamic Coefficients (자동회전의 비정상 수치해법과 2차원 공력계수의 영향)

  • Kim, Hak-Yoon;Sheen, Dong-Jin
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Aeronautical & Space Sciences
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    • v.37 no.2
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    • pp.121-130
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    • 2009
  • An unsteady numerical simulation method for an autorotating rotor in forward flight was developed. The flapping and rotational equations of motion of autorotation are continuously integrated for given time steps, meanwhile the induced velocity field at disc plane is obtained by the dynamic inflow theory embodying the unteadiness. The transitions from arbitrary initial states to equilibrium states were simulated. Steady autorotations as numerical solutions of equations were predicted by using two sources of blade airfoil data. The simulations using airfoil data which were obtained by a two dimensional Navier-Stokes solver in terms of angles of attack and Reynolds numbers have shown good agreements with wind tunnel experimental results.

Performance Analysis of Autorotation(2) : Performance of High Speed Autorotaion (자동회전의 성능해석(2) : 고속 자동회전의 성능)

  • Kim, Hak-Yoon
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Aeronautical & Space Sciences
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    • v.40 no.1
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    • pp.12-22
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    • 2012
  • Performance variation of autorotating rotor was investigated. The shaft angle of the rotor is reduced while the flight velocity is increased. The BO-105 helicopter rotor blade was replaced by untwisted NACA 0012 airfoil and the rotor was simulated by using Transient Simulation Method(TSM) to judge the autorotation region for the variables. To simulate the compressibility effect at high speed flight, two-dimensional aerodynamic data was analyzed by compressible Navier-Stokes solver and Pitt/Peters inflow theory was adopted to simulate the induced velocity field. Thrust and lift coefficients, lift to drag ratio variations were investigated, also the lift and power were compared to those of BO-105 helicopter. Sharing lift and power between the autorotating rotor and wing was considered when the compound aircraft concept is introduced.

Aerodynamic Charasteristics of Tumbling-Rectangular-Flat Plate Under Free Flight

  • Shimizu, Kosuke;Funaki, Jiro;Hirata, Katsuya
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Propulsion Engineers Conference
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    • 2004.03a
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    • pp.353-356
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    • 2004
  • When a body falls in fluid, the body often experiences autorotations, namely, various kind of rotating motions, such as tumbling, flat spin and coming. Tumbling is a rotating motion with an axis perpendicular to a falling direction. Tumbling is a very important phenomenon in aeronautical and space engineering, ballistics and meteorology. For example, when an satellite re-en-tries into the atomosphere, its body collapses into many fragments which are disperse in the wide range of field. Some fragments fall in tumbling motion. Then tumbling is useful to predict fragment's motion.(omitted)

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