• Title, Summary, Keyword: atmospheric dispersion

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Dispersion Modeling of Fine Carbon Fibers in Atmospheric Boundary Layer (대기경계층에서 미세 섬유 확산 모델링)

  • Kim, Seog-Cheol;Hwang, Jun-Sik;Lee, Sang-Kil
    • Journal of the Korea Institute of Military Science and Technology
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.169-175
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    • 2008
  • A fine carbon fibers dispersion model is implemented to calculate the scattering range and ground level concentration of carbon fibers emitted at certain altitudes of atmospheric boundary layer. This carbon fibers dispersion model was composed by coupling a commonly used atmospheric dispersion model and an atmospheric boundary layer model. The atmospheric boundary layer model, applying the Monin-Obukov Similarity Rule obtained from measurement input data at ground level, was used to create the atmospheric boundary layer structure. In the atmospheric dispersion model, the Lagrangian Particle Model and the Markov Process were applied to calculate the trajectory of scattered carbon fibers relative to gravity and aerodynamic force, as well as carbon fibers specification.

Enhancement of Vertical Atmospheric Dispersion Due to Roughness (조도에 기인한 연직방향 대기확산의 증대)

  • 박목현
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.14 no.6
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    • pp.643-650
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    • 1998
  • Many atmospheric dispersion models have been based on the Gaussian distribution concept of plume spread. In application of Gaussian plume dispersion models, vertical dispersion coefficient 3 has been known as a sensitive variable. Vertical diffusivity K2 (=Oz2/2t) tends to increase with surface roughness, and the value of K3 in urban area is larger than that in rural area due to heat emission as well as increased roughness. Though Pasquill proposed a modification scheme for qz vs x system of Pasquill-Gifford under consideration of roughness effect in 1976, there appears not to be realistic reexamination on the modification scheme. In this study literature review on the effect of terrain or roughness on venical plume dispersion has been carried out in order to improve the prediction results of atmospheric pollution concentration. Again a few research objectives on vertical atmospheric dispersion in complex terrain were Proposed.

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SST Effect upon Numerical Simulation of Atmospheric Dispersion (대기확산의 수치모의에서 SST 효과)

  • 이화운;원경미;조인숙
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.15 no.6
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    • pp.767-777
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    • 1999
  • In the coastal region air flow changes due to the abrupt change of surface temperature between land and sea. So a numerical simulation for atmospheric flow fields must be considered the correct fields of sea surface temperature(SST). In this study, we used variables such as latent heat flux, sensible heat flux, short and long wave radiation of ocean and atmosphere which exchanged across the sea surface between atmosphere and ocean model. We found that this consideration simulated the more precise SST fields by comparing with those of the observated results. Simulated horizontal SST differences in season were 2.5~4$^{\circ}C$. Therefore we simulated the more precise atmospheric flow fields and the movement and dispersion of the pollutants with the Lagrangian particle dispersion model. In the daytime dispersion pattern of the pollutants emitted from ship sources moved toward inland, in the night time moved toward sea by land/sea breeze criculation. But air pollutants dispersion can be affected by inland topography, especially Yangsan and coastal area because of nocturnal wind speed decrease.

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A Comparative Study of k-ε Algebraic Stress Model and Mellor-Yamada Model Applied to Atmospheric Dispersion Simulation Using Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model (라그랑지 입자 모델을 이용한 k-ε Algebraic Stress Model과 Mellor-Yamada Model의 비교 연구)

  • 김상백;오성남
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.47-58
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    • 2004
  • The $textsc{k}$-$\varepsilon$ algebraic stress model (KEASM) was applied to atmospheric dispersion simulation using the Lagrangian particle dispersion model and was compared with the most popular turbulence closure model in the field of atmospheric simulation, the Mellor-Yamada (MY) model. KEASM has been rarely applied to atmospheric simulation, but it includes the pressure redistribution effect of buoyancy due to heat and momentum fluxes. On the other hand, such effect is excluded from MY model. In the simulation study, the difference in the two turbulence models was reflected to both the turbulent velocity and the Lagrangian time scale. There was little difference in the vertical diffusion coefficient $\sigma$$_{z}$. However, the horizontal diffusion coefficient or calculated by KEASM was larger than that by MY model, coincided with the Pasquill-Gifford (PG) chart. The applicability of KEASM to atmospheric simulations was demonstrated by the simulations.s.

A Study on Mesoscale Atmospheric Dispersion of Radioactive Particles Released from Nuclear Power Plants (원전부지 주변 국지순환에 따른 방사성 물질의 대기확산 특성 연구)

  • Lee, Gab-Bock;Lee, Myung-Chan;Song, Young-I1
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.273-288
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    • 1997
  • A three dimensional sea-land breeze model and Lagrangian particle dispersion model have been employed for the study on the mesoscale atmospheric dispersion of radioactive materials released from Wolsung NPPs. In this study, atmospheric dispersion simulations are carried out under two synoptic weather conditions : the geostrophic flow is a weak northerly wind(CASE 1) and a strong northerly wind(CASE 2) on a clear day in spring. The results show that atmospheric dispersion is affected by sea-land breeze and the recirculation of particles by the change of wind direction between sea breeze and land breeze plays an important role in atmospheric concentration distribution of radoactive materials.

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SITE-SPECIFIC ATMOSPHERIC DISPERSION CHARACTERISTICS OF KOREAN NUCLEAR POWER PLANT SITES

  • Han, M.H.;Kim, E.H.;Suh, K.S.;Hwang, W.T.;Choi, Y.G.
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.305-309
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    • 2001
  • Site-specific atmospheric dispersion characteristics have been analyzed. The northwest and the southwest wind prevail on nuclear sites of Korea. The annual isobaric surface averaged for twenty years around Korean peninsula shows that west wind prevails. The prevailing west wind is profitable in the viewpoint of radiation protection because three of four nuclear sites are located in the east side. Large scale field tracer experiments over nuclear sites have been conducted for the purpose of analyzing the atmospheric dispersion characteristics and validating a real-time atmospheric dispersion and dose assessment system FADAS. To analyze the site-specific atmospheric dispersion characteristics is essential for making effective countermeasures against a nuclear emergency.

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A Simple Model for Dispersion in the Stable Boundary Layer

  • Kang Sung-Dae;Kimura Fujio;Lee Hwa-Woon;Kim Yoo-Keun
    • Environmental Sciences Bulletin of The Korean Environmental Sciences Society
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.35-43
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    • 1997
  • Handling the emergency problems such as Chemobyl accident require real time prediction of pollutants dispersion. One-point real time sounding at pollutant source and simple model including turbulent-radiation process are very important to predict dispersion at real time. The stability categories obtained by one-dimensional numerical model (including PBL dynamics and radiative process) are good agreement with observational data (Golder, 1972). Therefore, the meteorological parameters (thermal, moisture and momentum fluxes; sensible and latent heat; Monin-Obukhov length and bulk Richardson number; vertical diffusion coefficient and TKE; mixing height) calculated by this model will be useful to understand the structure of stable boundary layer and to handling the emergency problems such as dangerous gasses accident. Especially, this simple model has strong merit for practical dispersion models which require turbulence process but does not takes long time to real predictions. According to the results of this model, the urban area has stronger vertical dispersion and weaker horizontal dispersion than rural area during daytime in summer season. The maximum stability class of urban area and rural area are 'A' and 'B' at 14 LST, respectively. After 20 LST, both urban and rural area have weak vertical dispersion, but they have strong horizontal dispersion. Generally, the urban area have larger radius of horizontal dispersion than rural area. Considering the resolution and time consuming problems of three dimensional grid model, one-dimensional model with one-point real sounding have strong merit for practical dispersion model.

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Mitigation of Ammonia Dispersion with Mesh Barrier under Various Atmospheric Stability Conditions

  • Gerdroodbary, M. Barzegar;Mokhtari, Mojtaba;Bishehsari, Shervin;Fallah, Keivan
    • Asian Journal of Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.125-136
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    • 2016
  • In this study, the effects of the mesh barrier on the free dispersion of ammonia were numerically investigated under different atmospheric conditions. This study presents the detail and flow feature of the dispersion of ammonia through the mesh barrier on various free stream conditions to decline and limit the toxic danger of the ammonia. It is assumed that the dispersion of the ammonia occurred through the leakage in the pipeline. Parametric studies were conducted on the performance of the mesh barrier by using the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations with realizable k-${\varepsilon}$ turbulence model. Numerical simulations of ammonia dispersion in the presence of mesh barrier revealed significant results in a fully turbulent free stream condition. The results clearly show that the flow behavior was found to be a direct result of mesh size and ammonia dispersion is highly influenced by these changes in flow patterns in downstream. In fact, the flow regime becomes laminar as flow passes through mesh barrier. According to the results, the mesh barrier decreased the maximum concentration of the ammonia gas and limited the risk zone (more than 500 ppm) lower than 2 m height. Furthermore, a significant reduction occurs in the slope of the upper boundary of $NH_3$ risk zone distribution at downstream when a mesh barrier is presented. Thus, this device highly restricts the leak distribution of ammonia in the industrial plan.

Characteristics of regional scale atmospheric dispersion around Ki-Jang research reactor using the Lagrangian Gaussian puff dispersion model

  • Choi, Geun-Sik;Lim, Jong-Myoung;Lim, Kyo-Sun Sunny;Kim, Ki-Hyun;Lee, Jin-Hong
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.50 no.1
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    • pp.68-79
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    • 2018
  • The Ki-Jang research reactor (KJRR), a new research reactor in Korea, is being planned to fulfill multiple purposes. In this study, as an assessment of the environmental radiological impact, we characterized the atmospheric dispersion and deposition of radioactive materials released by an unexpected incident at KJRR using the weather research and forecasting-mesoscale model interface program-California Puff (WRF-MMIF-CALPUFF) model system. Based on the reproduced three-dimensional gridded meteorological data obtained during a 1-year period using WRF, the overall meteorological data predicted by WRF were in agreement with the observed data, while the predicted wind speed data were slightly overestimated at all stations. Based on the CALPUFF simulation of atmospheric dispersion (${\chi}/Q$) and deposition (D/Q) factors, relatively heavier contamination in the vicinity of KJRR was observed, and the prevailing land breeze wind in the study area resulted in relatively higher concentration and deposition in the off-shore area sectors. We also compared the dispersion characteristics between the PAVAN (atmospheric dispersion of radioactive release from nuclear power plants) and CALPUFF models. Finally, the meteorological conditions and possibility of high doses of radiation for relatively higher hourly ${\chi}/Q$ cases were examined at specific discrete receptors.

The Annual Averaged Atmospheric Dispersion Factor and Deposition Factor According to Methods of Atmospheric Stability Classification

  • Jeong, Hae Sun;Jeong, Hyo Joon;Kim, Eun Han;Han, Moon Hee;Hwang, Won Tae
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.41 no.3
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    • pp.260-267
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    • 2016
  • Background: This study analyzes the differences in the annual averaged atmospheric dispersion factor and ground deposition factor produced using two classification methods of atmospheric stability, which are based on a vertical temperature difference and the standard deviation of horizontal wind direction fluctuation. Materials and Methods: Daedeok and Wolsong nuclear sites were chosen for an assessment, and the meteorological data at 10 m were applied to the evaluation of atmospheric stability. The XOQDOQ software program was used to calculate atmospheric dispersion factors and ground deposition factors. The calculated distances were chosen at 400 m, 800 m, 1,200 m, 1,600 m, 2,400 m, and 3,200 m away from the radioactive material release points. Results and Discussion: All of the atmospheric dispersion factors generated using the atmospheric stability based on the vertical temperature difference were shown to be higher than those from the standard deviation of horizontal wind direction fluctuation. On the other hand, the ground deposition factors were shown to be same regardless of the classification method, as they were based on the graph obtained from empirical data presented in the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Regulatory Guide 1.111, which is unrelated to the atmospheric stability for the ground level release. Conclusion: These results are based on the meteorological data collected over the course of one year at the specified sites; however, the classification method of atmospheric stability using the vertical temperature difference is expected to be more conservative.