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Chemical Characteristics of Normal and Inferior Parts in Korean Red Ginseng (정상홍삼과 불량홍삼의 화학적 특성)

  • 김천석;이종원;도재호
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.89-93
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    • 2001
  • This study was carried out to investigate a point of difference in chemical characteristics between normal and inferior Korean red ginseng (Naeback red ginseng=red ginseng with white part of clear boundary in phloem and/or xylem of ginseng body, saengnaeback red ginseng=red ginseng with white part of indistinct boundary). content of total sugar as chemical components of naeback and saengnaeback part from Korean red ginseng were less than that of normal part, and content of reducing sugar in normal and saengnaebakc part showed higher than that of naeback part. But differences in content of total phenolic compounds was not found. The content of crude saponin in normal part was highest, amounts of ginsneoside were about same. The content of constituent amino acid in normal part was about 2 times as compared with those in naeback and saengnaeback part in red ginseng. Among the various amino acids, the contents of arginine, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, leucine and alanine of normal and naeback part were higher than others, but in saengnaeback proline, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, threonin and glycine etc. were higher. In the total amount of free amino acids, those in normal, naeback and saengnaeback part were about the same one another, and arginine, glutamic acid and aspartic acid were major free amino acids.

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Comparative Study on Amino Acid Profiles of Wild and Cultured Carp, and Israeli Carp (천연 및 양식산 잉어와 이스라엘 잉어의 구성아미노산에 대한 비교연구)

  • CHOI Jin-Ho;RHIM Chae-Hwan;CHOI Yeung-Joon;PARK Kil-Dong;OH Sung-Ki
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.18 no.6
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    • pp.545-549
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    • 1985
  • The muscles of wild and cultured carp (Cyprinus carpio), and Israeli carp (Cyprinus carpio nudus) were analyzed for the amino acid profiles, in vitro digestibility, predicted digestibility, C-PER and DC-PER. The distribution patterns of the total amino acid profiles in wild and cultured carp were found to be very similar, although there were relatively large differences in lysine, aspartic acid and glutamic acid contents which were higher in the cultured carp. Israeli carp was 2 times as much as wild carp in lysine. The quality of muscle proteins in wild and cultured carp, and Israeli carp was predicted by the in vitro method. The protein quality of Israeli carp was higher than that of wild and cultured carp, whereas there showed a similar tend to protein quality between wild and cultured carp. The contents of hitidine, tyrosine, aspartic acid, alanine and glutamic acid in diet showed stronger positive corelation with the levels of protein deposition than those of protein intake, and those amino acids would greatly influence on amino acid composition of muscle protein in fishes.

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Studies on the Components Korean Sake (Part 2) -Detection of the Free Amino Acids in Takju by Paper Partition Chromatography- (한국(韓國) 주류성분(酒類成分)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究) (제2보(第2報)) -Paper Chromatography에 의(依)한 탁주중(濁酒中)의 유리(遊離) Amino 산(酸)의 검색(檢索)-)

  • Kim, Chan-Jo
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.9
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    • pp.59-64
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    • 1968
  • Takju (Korean native Sake) was mashed with two different materials. One of the material was polished rice and Nuruk(mold wheat), the other one was corn and Nuruk. The amino acids in those fermenting mashes were identified by paper partition chromatography at regular intervals. The results were summarized as follows; a) Following 14 kinds of amino acids were identified in the mash of rice material; lysine, valine, proline, leucine, serine, glycine, aspartic acid, alanine, cystine, tyrosine, histidine, glutamic acid, tryptophan and phenylalanine b) Following 12 kinds of amino acids were identified in the mash of corn material; lysine, valine, proline, leucine, serine, glycine, aspartic acid, alanine, cystine, histidine, argrinine and tryptophan. c) The main amino acids in the Takju mash according to the color density of the each amino acid spot on the paper chromatograms were checked as lysine, valine, leucine, serine, proline and glycine.

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Levels of Viral Glycoprotein Provide a Measure of Modulated Chemotherapeutic Effect

  • Shin, Jaeyong;Yoon, Yeon-Sook;Pyo, Suhkneung
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.7 no.3
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    • pp.216-220
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    • 1999
  • A chemosensitivity assay with small replicate Mm5mt/cl C3H mammary tumor cell cultures was developed to determine whether changes in viral antigen expression and release into culture fluids could be utilized as an in vitro measure of modulating drug effect. The 52,000 MW viral envelope glycoprotein (gp52) of the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) was measured in culture fluids of control and drug-treated cultures while cell density was simultaneously determined by cell staining and OD 664 nm determination. While extra-cellular gp52 levels and cell density progressively increased over 72 hours for control cultures, declines in both parameters provided dual measures of effect for combination [N(phophonacetyl-L-aspartic acid)+5-fluorouracil], combination 〔N(phophonacetyl-L-aspartic acid )+5-fluoro-5'-deoxyuridine〕and single component treatment of this combination. At each treated time point, thesecombinations begin to produce a greater decline in both cell density and gp52 levels as compared to single drug treatments. These results indicate that N(phopho-nacetyl-L-aspartic acid) in combination can enhance the effectiveness of single drug.

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Comparison of the Antioxidant Activity of Melanoidin with Commercial Antioxidants and Their Synergistic Effects (Melanoidin과 시판 항산화제의 항산화작용 비교 및 그 상승효과)

  • Lee, Moon-Jo;Kim, Hyun-Dae;Park, Jin-Woo;Kim, Dong-Soo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.21 no.6
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    • pp.686-692
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    • 1992
  • The present study was carried out to examine the antioxidative actions between the products of amino-carbonyl reaction and commercial antioxidants, and investigate their synergistic effects. Nondialyzable melanoidins exhibited more significantly in the antioxidative action than unfractionated meanoidins did. Also, in the case of unfractionated melanoidins, both glycine and histidine were more effective than aspartic acid for the antioxidative action. There was no significant difference among amino acids in the action of nondialyzable melanoidins. The unfractionated melanoidin was not as good as antioxidative action of the synthetic antioxidants, butylated hydroxytoluene, tert-butyl hydroquinone and ascorbic acid ; however, the one was superior to that of natural antioxidants, ${\alpha}$-tocopherol and lecithin. Otherwise, the action of nondialyzable melanoidin was similar to that of synthetic antioxidant. The synergistic effects were increased in using melanoidin with ${\alpha}$-tocopherol and lecithin except for the systems of fructose-aspartic acid and fructose-glycine in unfractionated melanoidins.

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Changes in Components of Salted Eggplants (Chukyang) during Storage (축양품종 염절임 가지의 저장중의 성분 변화)

  • Nam, Hak-Sik;Kim, Nam-Woo;Shin, Seung-Ryeul
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.120-125
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    • 2005
  • This study was carried out to investigate the changes in components of salted eggplant (chukyang) during storage. The contents of total and reducing sugar were decreased during storage, and the tendency was lower in the salted eggplants of vacuum packing storage than in the salted eggplants of rice bran immersion storage. The organic acids of salted eggplants were acetic acid, citric acid, lactic acid, and malic acid. And acetic and malic acid contents were much higher than the others. The content of acetic acid was increased during storage, but malic acid was decreased. Major amino acids of eggplants were valine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, glycine, and alanine. The content of total amino acid was 1,488.18 mg/100 g in eggplant packed vacuum film at 20 days of storage, and higher than those in fresh eggplant. The content of total amino acid in eggplant immersed in wet rice bran was 745.42 mg/100 g at 20 days of storage, and decreased during storage. The contents of aspartic acid, alanine, cystine, and proline in free amino acids of salted eggplants were higher than other amino acids. The contents of phosphoserine, taurine, ${\gamma}$ -aminoisobutyric acid and hydroxyproline were higher than others. Posphoserine content was decreased during storage, but ${\gamma}$ -aminoisobutyric acid content was increased during storage.

Changes in the Levels of $\gamma$-Aminobutyric Acid and Some Amino Acids by Application of a Glutamic Acid Solution for the Germination of Brown Rices (글루탐산 용액 처리에 따른 발아현미 중의 감마-아미노낙산 및 일부 아미노산 함량변화)

  • 오석흥;김수화;문연정;최원규
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.49-53
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    • 2002
  • The changes in the levels of $\gamma$ -aminobutyric acid (GABA) and some free amino acids were investigated in germinating brown rices. Ungerminated brown rices were germinated for 72 hrs by application of the following solutions: 1) distilled water, 2) 50 ppm lactic acid, 3) 5 mM glutamic acid. The GABA levels were enhanced in all germinated states of brown rices compared with ungerminated ones, highest in the germinated brown rices by 5 mM glutamic acid solution. Alanine levels were also enhanced significantly in the germinated brown rices. The levels of aspartic acid and glutamic acid were decreased significantly in all the germinated states. The levels of serine decreased during germination in the solutions of water and lactic acid were increased by the germination in the glutamic acid solution. The data show that germination of brown rices by the application of the glutamic acid solution can significantly increase the levels of GABA and can restore the serine level.

Food Components of Different Parts of Cheonnyuncho (Opuntia humifusa) Harvested from Yeosu, Jeonnam in Korea (전남 여수 돌산지역에서 재배되는 천년초의 부위별 식품성분 분석)

  • Jung, Bok-Mi;Han, Kyung-Ah;Shin, Tai-Sun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.40 no.9
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    • pp.1271-1278
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    • 2011
  • This study was carried out to investigate the food components of the fruit, cladodes, and flowers of freezedried Cheonnyuncho harvested from Yeosu, Jeonnam in Korea. The major components of freeze-dried Cheonnyuncho in proximate composition were carbohydrates and crude ash. Ca, K, and Mg were the predominant minerals in Cheonnyuncho. Calcium content was higher in the fruit and cladodes than in the flowers. Two major amino acids, glutamic acid and aspartic acid, made up over 25% of the total amino acids in Cheonnyuncho. Palmitic acid and stearic acid were most abundant out of all the saturated fatty acids in Cheonnyuncho. The saturated fatty acid content of the fruit was higher than that of the flowers and cladodes. The major unsaturated fatty acid of Cheonnyuncho was oleic acid. The cladodes contained unusually high amounts of linoleic acid compared to the fruit and flowers. The major free sugar in the fruit was sucrose, whereas that of the cladodes and flowers was fructose. The total free sugar content was the highest in fruit, followed by cladodes. The most abundant organic acid in the fruits and cladodes was malic acid, while that of the flowers was citric acid. Vitamin A concentration was highest in the flowers whereas vitamin C concentration was highest in the fruit.

Protein and Amino Acid Compositions in Echiurid and Sea Hare Muscles (개불과 군소육의 단백질 및 아미노산 조성)

  • CHOI Yeung-Joon;HAN Young-Sil
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.18 no.6
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    • pp.550-556
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    • 1985
  • In order to evaluate the marine mollusc muscle as foodstuff not only from the biochemical aspect but also from the view point of food science, we have analyzed the protein and amino acid compositions of the echiurid (Urechis unicinctus) and sea hare (Aplysia kurodai) muscle. The protein quality of the muscles was also investigated using in vitro methods based on in vitro digestibility, predicted digestibility, computed PER (C-PER) and discriminant computed PER(DC-PER). The remarkable feature of the protein compositions of the both muscles was that water soluble protein occupied a large amount of the muscle protein with fairly lower contents of the salt soluble protein. From the analysis of SDS-PAG electrophoresis, the sarcoplasmic proteins in the echiurid and the sea hare muscles were composed of 15 and 10 subunits, respectively. The free amino acid compositions of the total amino acids in the echiurid and sea hare muscle were characterized with $75\%$ of glycine and alanine, and with $78\%$ of taurine, respectively. The amino acid anaylsis of both muscle proteins showed that the echiurid muscle was rich in glycine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, arginine and lysine, but was poor in cysteine, while the sea hare muscle was rich in glycine, glutamic acid, aspartic acid and arginine, but was negligible in cysteine and tryptophan. In the total amino acid profiles of the freeze dried muscles in echiurid and sea hare, there was not found a significant difference compared to the amino acid compositions of the muscle proteins. Predicting the protein quality of the echiurid and sea hare muscles using the in vitro method, it was apparently low compared to the muscle protein of fishes.

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Studies on the Amino Acid and Fatty Acid Compositions in the Seed and Pulpy Substance of Feral Peach (Prunus persica Batsch var. davidiana Max.) (야생 돌복숭아 씨와 과육의 아미노산 및 지방산 조성에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Han-Soo
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.125-131
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    • 2007
  • Amino acid and fatty acid compositions of the physiological activity substance in the seed and pulpy substance of feral peach (Prunus persica Batsch var. davidiana Max.) were analyzed for the use as an biohealth functional processed products. The proximate compositions in the vacuum freeze dried seed and pulpy substance of feral peach were carbohydrate 63.92% and 75.11%, crude protein 27.85% and 12.77%, moisture 3.61% and 4.69%, crude fat 1.21% and 4.80%, crude ash 3.41% and 2.63%, respectively. Total amino acid contents in the protein of feral peach seed were 3,444.35 mg%, and the major amino acids were aspartic acid(681.10 mg%), glutamic acid(495.48 mg%), alanine(283.66 mg%), serine(251.36 mg%), proline(229.80 mg%), lysine(192.31 mg%) and leucine(191.34 mg%), respectively. Total amino acid contents in the protein of feral peach pulpy substance were 1,064.02 mg%, and the major amino acids followed aspartic acid(250.15 mg%), glutamic acid(129. 63 mg%), lysine, proline, leucine, alanine and serine, in a decreasing order. The richest total amino acid content contained in feral peach seed and pulpy substance was aspartic acid, followed by glutamic acid. The amount of free amino acids of feral peach seed were 6,215.34 ms%, and the major free amino acids were glutamic acid(827.25 mg%), threonine, valine and $\beta-aminobutyric$ acid, respectively. Free amino acid contents of pulpy substance were 683.82 mg%, and the major free amino acids were glutamic acid(339.49 mg%), serine proline, alanine and $\gamma-amino-n-butyric$ acid. Especially, in the case of glutamic acid, it was highest. The compositions of major total fatty acid in the lipid feral peach (Prunus persica Batsch var. davidiana Max.) seed and pulpy sabstance were linoleic acid($C_{18:2}$, n-6) and linolenic acid($C_{18:3}$, n-3), particularly.