• Title, Summary, Keyword: aspartic acid

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D99 Type I Signal Peptidase Implicated Stabilizing the Protein Structure (Type I 신호펩디드 가수분해효소에 존재하는 D99 아미노산 잔기의 구조적 역할 가능성)

  • Sung, Meesook;Eunyoung Han;Lee, Hoyoung
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.140-144
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    • 2003
  • Type Ⅰ signal peptidase is an integral membrane protein that functions to cleave signal peptides from secreted and membrane proteins. The enzyme serves as a potential target for the development of novel antibacterial agents due to its unique physiological properties. Despite being one of the best characterized enzymes, the catalysis of Type Ⅰ signal peptidase still remains controversy over the catalytic serine/lysine dyad mechanism. It appears that the dyad proteases are generally less efficient than the prototypical serine/histidine/aspartic acid triad found in most enzymes, although Type Ⅰ signal peptidase is an exception to this rule. In this paper, we have proposed that Type Ⅰ signal peptidase may act as the serine/lysine/aspartic acid triad cataltytic mechanism. Therefore, the aspartic acid 99 residue in the E. coli signal peptidase was chosen and mutated to an alanine to see if there is any possible role of the aspartic acid in the catalytic function. Type Ⅰ signal peptidase D99A protein was inactive in vitro assay using the procoat synthesized by in vitro transcription translation. However, the mutant was active using a highly sensitive in vivo assay. Pulse-chase experiments show that the replacement of aspartic acid 99 with alanine results in a very unstable signal peptidase molecule. Therefore, we conclude that it is unlikely that the residue is directly involved in catalysis, but rather plays an important role in stabilizing the protein structure.

Amino Acid Composition Changes in Soybean Sprouts during Cultivation (재배기간에 따른 콩나물의 아미노산 조성 변화)

  • Song, Beom-Seok;Kim, Min-Jung;Kim, Gang-Sung
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.17 no.5
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    • pp.681-687
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    • 2010
  • We examined changes in the amino acid composition of soybean sprouts of four different Korean soybean cultivars (Yutae, Jinunee, Subaktae, and Baktae). Total amino acids levels in all samples 1 day after cultivation were lower than those in soybeans but increased at cultivation times greater then 3 days. Glutamic and aspartic acids, the most abundant amino acids in all soybean cultivars studied at day 0 of sprouting, constituted more than 30% of all amino acids. Aspartic acid content of hypocotyls markedly increased, but glutamic acid levels decreased 5-day-old sprouts of Jinunee and 3-day-old sprouts of the other cultivars. Moreover, compositions of aspartic acid decreased in the order hypocotyl > root > cotyledon and Yutae > Baktae > Jinunee > Subaktae.

Varietal Difference in Amino Acid Composition of Polished Barley (피맥품종별(皮麥品種別) 정맥중(精麥中) 아미노산(酸) 조성(組成))

  • Park, Hoon;Yang, Cha-Bum
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.8 no.3
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    • pp.129-135
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    • 1976
  • The amino acid compositions of polished barley grain were investigated for 16 varieties by using amino acid autoanalyzer and simple correlation analysis between them and between protein and amino acid per protein was done. 1) Limiting amino acid is lysine, leucine and phenylalanine are high but threonine and tyrosine are low. Total essential amino acids is high. 2) Protein is significantly correlated negatively with lysine arginine, total basic amino acids (at p=0.01) and threonine, alanine, aspartic acid (at p=0.05) and positively with phenylalanine (at p=0.01) proline and cystine (at p=0.05). 3) Lysine is positively and significantly correlated with arginine and aspartic acid indicating that aspartic acid is probable precursor of lysine and that high yielding varieties or fertilization for high yielding decrease aspartic acid pool resulting low lysine. 4) Lysine content is positively correlated with dye binding capacity (at p=0.01). 5) Tryptophan is positively (at p=0.01) and significantly correlated with histidine, total basic amino acids and arginine. 6) In essential amino acids lysine, tryptophan, threonine and valine simultaneously increase or decrease while aromatic amino acids, sulfur contained amino acids, isoleucine and leucine do so together.

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Synthesis and Characterization of Novel Amino Acid-conjugated Poly(aspartic acid) Derivatives

  • Kim, Seung-Il;Min, Seok-Kee;Kim, Ji-Heung
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.29 no.10
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    • pp.1887-1892
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    • 2008
  • Novel poly(aspartic acid) derivatives conjugated with L-lysine moieties and their amphiphilic analogs were synthesized and characterized. The chemical structures of these polymers were confirmed using FT-IR and $^1HNMR$ spectroscopy. The physicochemical properties of amphiphilic copolymers were characterized using an electrophonetic light scattering spectrophotometer (ELS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). These results indicated a stable nanoparticle formation within aqueous media. These polymers have potential applications in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic fields as delivery vehicles for bioactive molecules.

Study on the tasty constituents and minerals in Clavariaceae botrytis (싸리버섯의 정미성분(呈味成分)과 Mineral에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Seoh, Jeong-Hi;Cho, Soo-Yeul;Lee, Sung-Woo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.17-21
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    • 1974
  • Tasty constituents such as free amino acids. free organic acids and free sugars and minerals in clavariaceae botrytis were surveyed through the course of this study. The results were as, follows: 1. Isoleucine valine threonine alanine methionine cysteine glutamine histidine glutamic acid and aspartic acid were presented in clavariaceae botrytis, and aspartic acid showed the highest amount. 2. Succinic acid was the major organic acid in clavariaceae botrytis, and also citric acid malic acid and fumaric acid were presented. 3. Clavariaceae botrytis contained fructose, maltose glucose and sucrose ; glucose and sucrose were more than 80% of total sugars. 4. Na K Mg Ca Zn Mn Cu am Fe by atomic absorption spectrometer were detected and assayed. and Al Si Ni Sn Ti Cr Ag Pb B and Sr detected by emission spectrograph. K of these minerals showed the highest amount but very small amount of Ca was presented.

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The Effect of Carbon Monoxide Intoxication on the Changes in Contents of Amino Acid Neurotransmitter of Rat Brain (일산화탄소 중독이 뇌내 아미노산 신경전달물질 함량변화에 미치는 영향)

  • Jung, Min-Jung;Park, Son-Ja;Lee, Sun-Hee;Yun, Jae-Soon
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.34 no.5
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    • pp.323-333
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    • 1990
  • To study influence of carbonmonoxide (CO) poisoning on the content of amino acid neurotransmitter in brain, male rat was exposed to CO 5000 ppm for 30 minutes (60-75% HbCO). Aspartic acid and glutamic acid level in the cerebral cortex and aspartic acid level in the striatum were significantly decreased. GABA level in the cerebral cortex was significantly increased after the 30 and 60 minutes of CO intoxication. Taurine level in both the cerebral cortex and the striatum was increased although nonsignificant. Consequently, the CO-induced hypoxia brain showed lower level of excitatory neurotransmitter, aspartic acid and glutamic acid and higher level of inhibitory neurotransmitter, GABA and taurine. These results suggest that the change in content of amino acid neurotransmitter in the rat brain may be concerned with several CO poisoning symptoms.

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Effect of Aspartic Acid and Lysine on Polymorphism of Calcium Carbonate Crystal Formed by Gas-Liquid Reaction (기액반응에서 형성된 탄산칼슘 결정의 다형성에 미치는 Aspartic acid와 Lysine의 영향)

  • Song, Seong-Moon;Seong, Back-In;Koo, Ji-Hoi;Kim, In-Ho
    • Korean Chemical Engineering Research
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    • v.49 no.1
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    • pp.109-113
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    • 2011
  • Crystallization of calcium carbonate were performed by adding aspartic acid and lysine into $CaCl_2$ solution for understanding biomineralization in gas-liquid reaction of $NH_4HCO_3$ and $CaCl_2$. Proportion between calcite and vaterite of calcium carbonate crystals was identified by changing conditions such as reaction time, addition amount of aspartic acid, lysine, $CaCl_2$, and $NH_4HCO_3$. FT-IR(Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy) instrument was used to perform analysis of vaterite ratio. Under the condition of $NH_4HCO_3$ 10 g and no additive, an increase of vaterite crystal changed to a decrease around 0.15 M $CaCl_2$. Then it largely increased at 0.25 M $CaCl_2$, after vaterite proportion was rising again at 0.20 M $CaCl_2$. In contrast to that, vaterite crystal continuously decreased to 0.2 M $CaCl_2$, and increased from 0.25 M $CaCl_2$ with 20 g $NH_4HCO_3$. Vaterite crystals were observed to be a maximum after 2days with lysine addition, but $CaCO_3$ vaterite crystals showed minimum with aspartic acid.

Combination Effect of ʟ-Arginine and ʟ-Aspartic acid on Saltiness Enhancement of NaCl Solution (ʟ-아르기닌과 ʟ-아스파라긴산 혼합이 NaCl 짠맛 향상에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Yong-Duk;Park, Jung-Ha;Park, Bok-Jun;In, Man-Jin;Park, Dong-Chel;Oh, Nam-Soon
    • Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.57 no.3
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    • pp.251-254
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    • 2014
  • In order to investigate the combination effect of $\small{L}$-arginine and $\small{L}$-aspartic acid on salt enhancement, the saltiness and bitterness of various mixtures of $\small{L}$-arginine and $\small{L}$-aspartic acid were evaluated using the electronic tongue and sensory tests. Increasing the molar ration of $\small{L}$-arginine against $\small{L}$-aspartic acid enhanced the salty taste of NaCl, whereas increasing the molar ration of $\small{L}$-aspartic acid against $\small{L}$-arginine significantly suppressed the bitter taste of $\small{L}$-arginine. Therefore, combination of $\small{L}$-arginine and $\small{L}$-aspartic acid can be utilized as a saltiness enhancer and its suitable combination ratio was showed as $\small{L}$-arginine : $\small{L}$-aspartic acid = 1.00:0.98-1.00 on basis of molar concentration.

Effects of 2,4-D and NAA on Nicotine Production during Callus Culture of Nicotiana gluauca Graham (담배(Nicotiana glauca Graham) Callus 배양시 Nicotine 생성에 미치는 2,4-D 및 NAA의 영향)

  • 여읍동
    • Journal of Plant Biology
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.101-106
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    • 1991
  • Effects of two auxins, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and a-napthaleneacetic acid (NAA) on nicotine production during callus culture of a wild tobacco (Nicotiana glauca) were investigated using a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The high concentration ($11.5\;\mu\textrm{M}$)of 2,4-D and NAA had peaks of nicotine contents at 4th and 2nd week, respectively. Thereafter, the concents decreased and the nicotine was metabolized to other alkaloids. The low concentration ($1.5\;\mu\textrm{M}$) of 2,4-D on the medium supplemented with 0.1 mM of L-aspartic acid or L-arginine inhibited nicotine production. However, the low NAA promoted it only when the medium was supplemented with L-aspartic acid. From these results, it could be concluded that both auxins exhibit different action mechanisms on nicotine production pathway and the low NAA promotes the activities for the pathway with L-aspartic acid as a precursor.cursor.

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Studies on Contents of Amino Acids in Citrus Junos Sieb (유자중(柚子中) Amino Acids에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Chung, J.H.
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.175-180
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    • 1972
  • The chemical composition of amino acids in the rind and fresh of Citrus Junos Sieb was studied and compared with that of Citrus natsudaidai Hayate. The results were summarized as follows. 1. Beth of them contained twenty kinds of amino acids, including three kinds of unknown amino acids. 2. Proline in the rind of Citrus Junos and aspartic acid in the rind of Citrus natsudaidai were the richest of all amino acids but on the contrary. Histidine was the poorest of all amino acids in the rind of them. The content of proline amounted to 16.48 mg/100mg in the rind of Citrus Junos and the content of aspartic acid amounted to 32.18 mg/100mg in the rind of Citrus natsudaidai. 3. Aspartic acid was the richest of all amino acids in the flesh of Citrus Junos and the content of it amounted to 32.68mg/100mg. On the other hand, Proline was the richest of all amino acids in the flesh of Citrus natsudaidai and the content of it amounted to 20.93mg/100mg. But the content of histidine as 1.32 mg/100 mg in the flesh of former and tyrosine as 1.18 mg/100 mg in the flesh of latter were relatively small. 4. In the fruits of Citrus Junos and Citrus natsudaidai, aspartic acid and Proline were rich and histidine was poor in quantity. Generally, Flesh contained more amounts of all kinds of amino acids than those rind and especially glutamic acid was richer, compared with other amino acids in flesh.

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