• Title, Summary, Keyword: arsenic tri-oxide

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Assessing Heavy Metals for Estrogenicity Using a Combination of In vitro and In vivo Assays (In vitro 및 In vivo Assay를 통한 중금속의 에스트로겐성 평가)

  • Park, Chul;Kim, So-Jung;Shin, Wan-Chul;Kim, Hae-Gyoung;Choe, Suck-Young
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.33 no.9
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    • pp.1486-1491
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    • 2004
  • The estrogenicities of six heavy metal compounds, which contaminate frequently in foods, were assayed using a combination of in vitro and in vivo assays. The assays were 1) estrogen receptor dependent transcriptional expression assay, 2) E-screen assay and, 3) the uterotropic assay in mice. The chemicals studied were 17$\beta$ -estradiol, diethylstilbestrol (DES), arsenic oxide, bis(tri-n-butyltin), cadmium chloride, chromium chloride, lead acetate, and mercuric chloride. Using the estrogen receptor dependent transcriptional expression assay, the following estrogenicity ranking was measured: bis(tri-n-butyltin) > cadmium chloride > chromium chloride >> mercuric chloride >lead acetate = arsenic oxide. Using E-screen test, the following estrogenicity ranking was measured: bis(tri-n-butyltin) > cadmium chloride > chromium chloride >> mercuric chloride > lead acetate = arsenic oxide. Results from the uterotropic assay showed that bis(tri-n-butyltin), cadmium chloride, chromium chloride caused an increase in uterine wet weight, while lead acetate, mercuric chloride, and arsenic oxide failed to do so. Bis(tri-n-butyltin), cadmium chloride and chromium chloride showed the highest estrogenicity in three assay systems. Recent studies suggesting that bis(tri-n-butyltin), cadmium chloride have estrogenicities are compatible with the present finding. Furthermore, our study is suggesting that chromium chloride may be estrogenic. The results demonstrate that this three level-assay combination (transcriptional activation, cell proliferation, and an in vivo effect in an estrogen-responsive tissue) could serve as a useful method to assess the estrogenicity of heavy metals.

PHA-Induced Peripheral Blood Cytogenetics and Molecular Anslysis : a Valid Diagnostic and Follow-up Modality For Acute Primyelocytic Leukemia Patients Treated With ATRA and/or Arsenic Tri-oxide

  • Baba, Shahid M;Azad, Niyaz A;Shah, Zaffar A;Afroze, Dil;Pandith, Arshad A;Jan, Aleem;Aziz, Sheikh A;Dar, Fayaz A
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.1999-2006
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    • 2016
  • Background: Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APML) is characterized by the reciprocal translocation t(15;17) (p22;p12) resulting in the PML-$RAR{\alpha}$ fusion gene. A dual diagnostic and follow up approach was applied including cytogenetic demonstration of the t(15;17) translocation and detection dg PML-$RAR{\alpha}$ chimeric transcripts by molecular means. Purpose: Conventional cytogenetics involving bone marrow is beset with high probability of poor metaphase index and was substituted with phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-induced peripheral blood culture based cytogenetic analysis as a diagnostic & follow up modality in APML patients of Kashmir (North India). Both qualitative (RT-PCR) and quantitative (Q-PCR) tests were simultaneously carried out to authenticte the modified cytogenetics. Materials and Method: Patient samples were subjected to the said techniques to establish their baseline as well as follow-up status. Results: Initial cytogenetics revealed 30 patients (81%) Positive for t(15;17) whereas 7 (19%) had either cryptic translocation or were negative for t(15;17). Two cases had chromosome 16q deletion and no hallmark translocation t(15;17). Q-PCR status for PML-$RAR{\alpha}$ was found to be positive for all patients. All the APML patients were reassessed at the end of consolidation phase and during maintenance phase of chemotherapy where 6 patients had molecular relapse, wherein 4 also demonstrated cytogenetic relapse. Conclusions: It was found that PHA-induced peripheral blood cytogenetics along with molecular analysis could prove a reliable modality in the diagnosis and assessment of follow up response of APML patients.

p15Ink4b Loss of Expression by Promoter Hypermethylation Adds to Leukemogenesis and Confers a Poor Prognosis in Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia Patients

  • Baba, Shahid M.;Azad, Niyaz A.;Shah, Zafar A.;Dil-Afroze, Dil-Afroze;Pandith, Arshad A.;Jan, Aleem;Aziz, Sheikh A.
    • Cancer Research and Treatment
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    • v.49 no.3
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    • pp.790-797
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    • 2017
  • Purpose The $p15^{Ink4b}$ gene exerts its influence as an inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases and is frequently associated with hematological malignancies. Inactivation of this gene through DNA methylation has been found to be the most prevalent epigenetic alteration reported, with a high frequency in all French-American-British subtypes of acute myeloid leukemias, including acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). In this study, we investigated the prognostic significance of p15 gene promoter hypermethylation and its expression in APL patients of Kashmir(North India). Materials and Methods p15 gene promoter hypermethylation was conducted by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction, while its subsequent expression analysis was carried out by semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results Of the 37 patients, 16 (43.2%) were found to have methylated p15 genes. Of these 16 cases, seven (43.8%) were methylated partially and nine (56.2%) were found to have complete methylation. Moreover, nine of the 37 patients (24.3%) who presented with leukocytosis at their baseline had complete p15 gene methylation as well (p < 0.05). Semiquantitative RT-PCR showed a complete loss of p15 expression in nine patients with complete methylation coupled with leukocytosis (p=0.031), while seven patients with partial methylation showed decreased p15 expression. Six patients relapsed during the maintenance phase of treatment and were found to have a completely methylated p15 gene and no p15 mRNA. Conclusion Complete methylation and loss of p15 gene expression causes susceptibility to relapse and decreased survival in APL patients. Thus, p15 promoter hypermethylation is a prospective prognostic indicator and a reliable clinical aid in assessment of patients with APL.