• Title, Summary, Keyword: aronia leaves

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Bioactive Compound Contents and Antioxidant Activity in Aronia (Aronia melanocarpa ) Leaves Collected at Different Growth Stages

  • Thi, Nhuan Do;Hwang, Eun-Sun
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.204-212
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    • 2014
  • The bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of aronia leaves at different stages of maturity were identified and evaluated. Young and old leaves were approximately 2 months of age and 4 months of age, respectively. The young leaves contained more polyphenols and flavonoids than the old leaves. Three phenolic compounds (i.e., chlorogenic acid, p-coumaric acid, and rutin) were detected by HPLC. Antioxidant activity was measured using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical, and superoxide anion radical scavenging assays. The reducing power of aronia leaf extracts increased in a concentration-dependent manner ($0{\sim}100{\mu}g/mL$). The antioxidant activity of the 80% ethanol extract was greater than that of distilled water extract. The high phenolic compound content indicated that these compounds contribute to antioxidant activity. The overall results indicate that aronia leaves contain bioactive compounds, and that younger aronia leaves may be more favorable for extracting antioxidative ingredients because they contain more polyphenols.

Optimization of polyphenol extraction from non-edible parts of Aronia melanocarpa for the development of functional bioconvergence materials (아로니아 비가식 부위로부터 기능성 바이오융복합 소재 개발을 위한 폴리페놀의 추출 공정 최적화)

  • Kim, Hye Rim;Kim, Yeona;In, Man-Jin;Chae, Hee Jeong
    • Journal of the Korea Convergence Society
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.85-91
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    • 2020
  • Polyphenols extraction conditions including extraction solvent, temperature, pH and time were optimized for the development of functional bio-convergence materials using non-edible parts of Aronia melanocarpa including its berry. Water, ethanol, and methanol were used for the extraction of polyphenol from aronia leaves, stem and twigs. Water was selected as an extraction solvent because water gave the highest extraction yields. Among the non-edible parts, aronia leaves had the highest total polyphenol content. The polyphenol extraction conditions from aronia leaves were statistically optimized using a experimental design method: reaction time of 4.5 h, extraction temperature of 79.3℃, and pH 7.2. These optimized extraction conditions could be used for the production of functional bio-material.

First Report of Leaf Spot Caused by Alternaria tenuissima on Black Chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa) in Korea

  • Wee, Jung-In;Park, Jong-Han;Back, Chang-Gi;You, Young-Hyun;Chang, Taehyun
    • Mycobiology
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    • v.44 no.3
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    • pp.187-190
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    • 2016
  • In July 2015, diseased leaves of black chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa) were observed in Danyang and Gochang, Korea. The symptoms appeared as circular or irregular brown leaf spots, from which Alternaria tenuissima was isolated. The isolates were cultured on potato dextrose agar, and their morphological characteristics were observed under a light microscope. The colonies were whitish to ash colored. The pathogenicity test on healthy black chokeberry leaves produced circular brown spots, in line with the original symptoms. Molecular analyses of the ITS, GPD, RPB2, and TEF genes were conducted to confirm the identity of the pathogen. The phylogeny of the multi-gene sequences indicated that the causal agent was A. tenuissima. This study is the first report of A. tenuissima leaf spot on black chokeberry (A. melanocarpa).

Micropropagation of Aronia (Aronia melaocarpa Elliot, black chokeberry) and its 5 varieties (아로니아(Aronia melanocarpa Elliot) 5개 품종의 기내번식)

  • Kwak, Myoung-Chul;Choi, Chung-Ho;Choi, Yong-Eui;Moon, Heung-Kyu
    • Journal of Plant Biotechnology
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    • v.42 no.4
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    • pp.380-387
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    • 2015
  • Aronia (Aronia melanocarpa, Black chokeberry) is an important cash crop in domestic agriculture. We investigated the effects of plant growth regulators on shoot proliferation and rooting using in vitro tissue culture. The most effective shoot multiplication was observed on WPM (woody plant medium) supplemented with 1.0 mg/L zeatin ($8.3{\pm}1.0$ shoots/explant), while the highest rooting rate was obtained from half-strength WPM with 3.0 mg/L IBA (8.8 roots/explant). The rooted plantlets all survived in the artificial soil mixture (with a mixture of peat moss : perlite : vermiculite, 1:1:1, v/v/v) and grew up relatively uniform, ranging from 14 to 16 leaves, 8 to 10 cm in stem height, and 2.3 to 2.8 mm in stem diameter. While experimenting with 5 different varieties of Aronia, we found out that each variety had different characteristics of shoot proliferation and rooting. The total numbers of proliferated shoots per variety is as follows: $17.4{\pm}0.8$ for Nero, 14 to 15 for Purple and Mackenzie, and 10 for both Viking and Odamamachiko. Rooting rates were also various depending on the variety: 88% of Odamamachiko, 80% of Viking and Purple, and 76% of Nero and 60% of Mackenzie shoots rooted. The survival rate of the rooted plantlets was from 92% to 100%, varying by type. Further growth appeared to be better in auxin-treated plantlets, compared to untreated ones. Our results showed the possibility of establishing an effective in vitro micropropagation system for Aronia melanocarpa.

Identification and Characterization of Pseudocercospora pyricola Causing Leaf Spots on Aronia melanocarpa

  • Park, Sung-Hee;Choi, In-Young;Seo, Kyoung-Won;Kim, Jin-Ho;Galea, Victor;Shin, Hyeon-Dong
    • Mycobiology
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    • v.45 no.1
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    • pp.39-43
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    • 2017
  • Leaf spot disease on black chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa) was observed at several locations in Korea during 2014-2015. Leaf spots were distinct, scattered over the leaf surface and along the leaf border, subcircular to irregular and brown surrounded by a distinct dark color, and were expanded and coalesced into irregularly shaped lesions. Severely infected leaves became dry and fell off eventually. The causative agent was identified as Pseudocercospora pyricola. Morphological observations and phylogenetic analyses of multiple genes, including internal transcribed spacer, translation elongation factor 1-alpha, actin, and the large subunit ribosomal DNA were conducted. The pathogenicity test was conducted twice yielding similar results, fulfilling Koch's postulates. To our knowledge, this is the first report on P. pyricola infection of A. melanocarpa globally.

Five Previously Unreported Endophytic Fungi Isolated from the Leaves of Woody Plants in Korea (목본식물의 잎에서 분리된 5종의 미기록 내생균)

  • Park, Hyeok;Shim, Jae-Sung;Kim, Ji-Su;Choi, Hang-Seok;Eom, Ahn-Heum
    • The Korean Journal of Mycology
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    • v.45 no.4
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    • pp.345-354
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    • 2017
  • The leaves of two woody plant species, Pinus densiflora and Aronia melanocarpa, were collected in Korea, and endophytic fungi were isolated from these surface-sterilized leaves. The fungal isolates were identified based on their morphological characteristics and the results of the phylogenetic analysis involving nucleotide sequences of the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS), including 5.8S rDNA, D1/D2 regions of 28S rDNA, and ${\beta}-tubulin$ genes. Pestalotia lawsoniae and Zasmidium fructicola were isolated from Pinus densiflora, and three species, Pestalotiopsis chamaeropis, Pestalotiopsis jesteri, and Stagonosporopsis cucurbitacearum were isolated from Aronia melanocarpa. To the best of our knowledge, these species have not been previously reported in Korea.

Alternaria Leaf Spot Caused by Alternaria mali on Black Chokeberry in Korea (Alternaria mali에 의한 아로니아 점무늬낙엽병)

  • Hahm, Soo-Sang;Kwon, Mi-Kyung;Kim, Byung-Ryun;Han, Kwang-Seop;Nam, Yun-Gyu
    • Research in Plant Disease
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.50-54
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    • 2016
  • In early June 2014, leaf spot symptoms were observed on black chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa) in Yesan-gun and Geumsan-gun, Chungcheongnam-do in Korea. The initial symptoms on leave surfaces were brown small-circular spots with a yellow halo lesion, and gradually the small spots were fused, all of infected leaves dropped eventually. A fungus were isolated from the initial lesion, and cultured on potato dextrose agar. Colony color on upper surface of plate varied from olive gray to charcoal gray. Size of conidia mostly extend to $19-50{\times}5-9{\mu}m$ in nature and $20-59{\times}8-13{\mu}m$ in culture, with 3-8 transverse septa and usually no longitudinal septum or only 1 longitudinal septum in 1-3 of the transverse compartments, and also have a short or long beak. Pathogenicity was investigated using wounded or unwounded black chokeberry and apple leaves. After 7 days of inoculation, leaf spots were similar to the symptoms naturally occurred in the field. On the basis of mycological characteristics, pathogenicity, and ITS rDNA sequence analysis, this fungus was identified as Alternaria mali. This is the first report of Alternaria leaf spot on black chokeberry caused by A. mali in Korea.

Effect of Amount of Oil Cake Applications on Mineral Nutrient Partitioning of Black Chokeberry (유박시용량에 따른 유기 블랙초크베리의 수체 내 무기성분 분배에 미치는 영향)

  • Choi, Hyun-Sug;Jung, Seok-Kyu
    • Journal of the Korea Organic Resources Recycling Association
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.5-14
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    • 2020
  • The study was initiated to reduce production cost and environmental pollution with the evaluation of nutrient requirement of 'Nero' black chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa) and optimum amount of oil cake application. 100% of a recommended amount (RA) of oil cake was designated as a 100-RA, with 0-RA, 25-RA, 50-RA, and 75-RA for 0%, 25%, 50%, and 75% RA, respectively. The oil cake was scattered around the black chokeberry at every year for two years from 2018 to 2019, with investigation conducted for the second year. Soil mineral nutrient concentrations were not significantly different among the treatments. Dry weight (DW) of root and leaves was low for 0-RA-treated black chokeberry, with no significant difference observed for the all treatments for the DW of stems. 75-RA increased the fruit DW of 615 g and yield efficiency of 45.3%. Top:root ratio was the highest of 4.7 for 75-RA. Increased amount of oil cake application expanded the tree volume. Tree volume had a strong positive relationship with the root DW (r2=0.977). Mineral nutrient uptake in the root was the highest on the 25-RA-treated black chokeberry, except for Fe uptake. Mineral nutrient uptake in the leaves were similar to all the black chokeberries, except for T-N and Fe uptake. 75-RA increased mineral nutrient uptake in the fruit, except for Cu, in particular, 7.45 g in fruit N, which was the highest level compared to those of the other organs. T-N and P uptake were evenly distributed in the leaves, stems, and fruit, with high K uptake for leaves and fruit. 75-RA maximized to 17.2 g of the total nutrient uptake in a black chokeberry, with 4.9 g for the 0-RA. All mineral nutrient uptake were overall higher on the black chokeberry treated with 50-RA, 75-RA, and 100-RA compared to those of 0-RA and 25-RA.

Main constituents and bioactivities of different parts of aronia (Aronia melanocarpa) (아로니아 부위별 주요 성분 정량 및 생리활성 평가)

  • Gim, Sung Woong;Chae, Kyu Seo;Lee, Su Jung;Kim, Ki Deok;Moon, Jae-Hak;Kwon, Ji Wung
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.52 no.3
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    • pp.226-236
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    • 2020
  • This study was designed to evaluate the biological activities and main constituents of different parts (fruit, leaf, and stem) of aronia (Aronia melanocarpa). The total phenolic and flavonoidcontents, DPPH and ABTS+ radical-scavenging activity, reducing power, and ferric reducing/antioxidant power were observed to follow the order of: leaves > stems > fruits, regardless of extraction solvents. The inhibitory activity against lipopolysaccharide-induced NO production in Raw 264.7 cells was significantly higher in the aronialeaf extract-treated group than in the groups treated with stem and fruit extracts. The ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) analysis was mainly composed of routine. In addition, the highest content level was measured in the case of the catechinmemberepigallocatechin witha higher value than that found in green tea. Theresults of this studyprovide useful information for understanding the chemical constituents and biological activities of aroniafruits and byproducts.

Growth of One-Year-Old Pot-Cultivated 'Fuji'/M.9 Apple Trees under Different Concentrations of Nitrogen Fertilization (질소시비농도에 따른 1년생 사과 'Fuji'/M.9 포트묘목의 수체 생장)

  • Ha, Woongyong;Shin, Hyunsuk;Lim, Heon-Kyu;Oh, Youngjae;Han, Hyeondae;Kim, Keumsun;Oh, Sewon;Kwon, Yeuseok;Kim, Daeil
    • Korean Journal of Plant Resources
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    • v.32 no.5
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    • pp.499-508
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    • 2019
  • The study was carried out to investigate growth of 48.6-L pot-cultivated 1-year-old 'Fuji'/M.9 apple trees depending on different levels of nitrogen concentration. While rise in tree growth was paralleled with increase of nitrogen concentration, more than 32 mM of nitrogen rather restrained tree growth. In particular, growth of 16 mM of nitrogen treated trees was satisfied with criteria for production of high-quality pot-cultivated nursery stocks. Although mineral contents of leaves were higher in 8 and 16 mM nitrogen treatments than commonly recommended mineral contents in apple orchards, such somewhat surplus minerals could be helpful for tree growth after transplanting to apple orchards. In addition, our result indicated that soils of 8 and 16 mM of nitrogen treated pots met appropriate criteria for soil chemical property of apple orchards. Thus, in the light of tree growth, mineral contents of leaves, and soil chemical property in the pots, 16 mM of nitrogen treatment is considered to be suitable for production of 1-year-old 'Fuji'/M.9 apple potted trees.