• Title/Summary/Keyword: arginyl-fructosyl-glucose

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In vitro and Cellular Antioxidant Activity of Arginyl-fructose and Arginyl-fructosyl-glucose

  • Lee, Jung-Sook;Kim, Gyo-Nam;Lee, Sang-Hyun;Kim, Eui-Su;Ha, Kyoung-Soo;Kwon, Young-In;Jeong, Heon-Sang;Jang, Hae-Dong
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.18 no.6
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    • pp.1505-1510
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    • 2009
  • Arginyl-fructose (AF) and arginyl-fructosyl-glucose (AFG) were chemically synthesized and purified. Their in vitro and cellular antioxidant activity was investigated using oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and cellular antioxidant activity assay, respectively. The peroxyl radical scavenging activity of AF was much higher than that of AFG, which was in good agreement with their reduction capacity to donate electrons or hydrogen atoms. On the other hand, the hydroxyl radical scavenging activity of AF was weaker than that of AFG, which was consistent with their metal chelating activity, suggesting that AFG-$Cu^{2+}$ complex may be less redox-active than AF-$Cu^{2+}$ complex due to 1 glucose molecule attached. The cellular antioxidant activity of AF and AFG appeared to depend on both their permeability into cell membrane and the scavenging activity on peroxyl or hydroxyl radicals. These results indicate that AF and AFG, Maillard reaction products, may have a high potential as a material for the development of nutraceutical food with antioxidant activity.

Arginyl-fructosyl-glucose and Arginyl-fructose, Compounds Related to Browning Reaction in the Model System of Steaming and Heat-drying Processes for the Preparation of Red Ginseng

  • Suzuki, Yukio;Choi, Kang-Ju;Uchida, Kei;Ko, Sung-Ryong;Sohn, Hyun-Joo;Park, Jong-Dae
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.143-148
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    • 2004
  • Brown color intensity has been a major factor to estimate the quality of red ginseng and its products. This study deals with the relationship between the browning reaction of ginseng root and two compounds, arginyl-fructosyl-glucose(Arg-fru-glc) and arginyl-fructose (Arg-fru), in the model system of steaming and heat-drying processes for the preparation of red ginseng. During the steaming process, a marked decrease of starch and a considerable formation of maltose occurred in main roots of raw ginseng, but the formation of glucose was scarcely observed. After the heat-drying process, the brown color intensity of the powdered preparation of steamed main roots was 3 to 4 times higher than that of the powdered preparation of raw main roots. Also, when the heat- drying process was done with the addition of L-arginine, brown color intensity of the powdered preparation of steamed main roots was 12 to 13 times higher than that of the powdered preparation of raw main roots. The amount ratios of browning reaction products formed from sugar compounds and amino acids in the model system of steaming and heat-drying treatments in vitro were in order of xylose > glucose > fructose > maltose > dextrin (DE 9) > sucrose > dextrin (DE 8) and soluble starch. Each solution of Arg-fru-glc and Arg-fru that were synthesized chemically from maltose plus L-arginine and glucose plus L-arginine, respectively, changed from colorless to brown color during the heat-drying treatment. Amino acids or sugars were effective on the acceleration of each browning reaction of Arg-fru-gIc and Arg-fru during the heat-drying treatment.

STUDIES ON BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE SUBSTANCES IN NON-SAPONIN FRACTION OF KOREAN RED GINSENG

  • Okuda Hiromichi;Zheng Yinan;Matsuura Yukinaga;Takaku Takeshi;Kameda Kenji
    • Proceedings of the Ginseng society Conference
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    • pp.110-112
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    • 1993
  • Acidic polysaccharide from Korean red ginseng was found to inhibit pancreatic lipase activity and cause reduction of plasma triglyceride level after oral administration of corn oil emulsion to rats. Thus acidic polysaccharide may reduce plasma triglyceride through its inhibitory action on pancreatic lipase and successive inhibition of intestinal absorption of fat due to reduction of lipolysis. In the course of this experiment, we found an unknown ninhydrin positive substance in Korean red ginseng. The unknown substance was identified to be arginyl-fructosyl glucose(Arg - Fru - Glc). Coment of this new compound was $5.37\%$ in Korean red ginseng powder. Sucrase and maltase activities in mucous layer of rat jejunum were found to be inhibited by Arg-Fru-Glc. Physiological significance of the new compound was discussed based on these experimental results.

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Effects of the Preheating Treatments of Raw Ginseng in the Model System on the Synthesis of the Maillard Type-Browning Reaction Products of Red Ginseng

  • Suzuki, Yukio;Choi, Kang-Ju;Uchida, Kei;Ko, Sung-Ryong
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.136-142
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    • 2004
  • During our investigations on the relationship between the browning reaction of ginseng root and two compounds (arginyl-fructosyl-glucose and arginyl-fructose) in the model system of steaming and heat-drying processes for the preparation of red ginseng, the preheating treatment of main roots of raw ginseng at 60∼70$^{\circ}C$ prior to the steaming and heat-drying processes was found to bring about the gelatinization of starch granules. The enzymatic hydrolysis of gelatinized starch to maltose, a marked formation of maltose, and the increase of both free arginine and total amino acids, resulting the acceleration of the Maillard type-browning reaction of ginseng root during the steaming and heat-drying processes, and the rise of brown color intensity of red ginseng. These results show that the preheating treatment may be effective for the decrease of inside white of red ginseng.

Characteristics of Korean ginseng varieties of Gumpoong, Sunun, Sunpoong, Sunone, Cheongsun, and Sunhyang

  • Lee, Jang-Ho;Lee, Joon-Soo;Kwon, Woo-Saeng;Kang, Je-Yong;Lee, Dong-Yun;In, Jun-Gyo;Kim, Yun-Soo;Seo, Jiho;Baeg, In-Ho;Chang, Il-Moo;Grainger, Keith
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.39 no.2
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    • pp.94-104
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    • 2015
  • Background: Ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) is an important medicinal herbs in Asia. However, ginseng varieties are less developed. Method: To developed ginseng varieties, a pure line selection method was applied in this study. Results: Gumpoong was testing of 4-yr-old specimens in 2002, the proportions of the below-ground roots that were rusty colored for Gumpoong was 1.29 in Daejeon and 1.45 in Eumseong, whereas the proportions for its yellow berry variant were 2.60 and 2.45 in the two regions, respectively. Thus the Gumpoong was resistant to root rust. Sunpoong has a high yielding property. Its average root weight is 70.6 g for 6-yr-old roots. Its yield is 2.9 kg/$1.62m^2$ and the rate of heaven- and earth-grade product is 20.9%, which is very high compared to 9.4% for Yunpoong. Sunone is resistance to root rot and the survival rate of 4-yr-old roots was 44.4% in 1997, whereas that of the violet-stem variant landrace was 21.7%. Sunhyang has content of arginyl-fructosyl-glucose (AFG), which produces the unique scent of red ginseng, is $95.1{\mu}mol/g$ and greater than the $30.8{\mu}mol/g$ of Chunpoong in 6-yr-old plants. Sunun and Cheongsun are being nurtured to protect genetic resources. Conclusion: Developed ginsneg varieties will be used as the basis for the protection of genetic resources and breeding.

The Changes of Physicochemical Characteristics and Quality Stability of Korean Red Ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) Stored over 20 Years (20년 이상 장기저장된 홍삼의 이화학적 특성변화 및 품질안정성)

  • Kwak, Yi-Seong;Han, Min Woo;Bae, Bong-Seok;Ahn, Nam-Geun;Yu, Hye Young;Park, Chol-Soo;Baeg, In-Ho;Cho, Byung-Gu
    • Korean Journal of Pharmacognosy
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    • v.48 no.4
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    • pp.329-338
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    • 2017
  • This study was investigated the changes of quality stability and physicochemical characteristics of the Korean red ginsengs stored for a long times over 20 years. The Korean red ginsengs were stored for 4 to 22 years in canned packaging with polypropylene film and wooden box at room temperatures. The unusal phenomena such as discoloration and pin hole in packaging were not observed. General bacteria showed the vlaues of below 100 CFU/g, coliform groups and molds were not found in any samples stored for 22 year. Any samples also were not detected in mycotoxins. The contents of moisture, ash and crude saponin were the levels of 10.6~11.1%, 3.8~4.2% and 4.1~4.7% during the whole storage periods, respectively. The contents of maltol, which has been known as characteristic flavour and antioxidant of Korean red ginseng, showed remarkably increasing tendency from 0.10 mg/g for 4 years to 2.53 mg/g for 22 years during the storage. The contents of AFG (arginyl-fructosyl-glucose), arginine and free sugar were slightly decreased. Acidic polysaccharide and ginsenoside were not changed significantly during the storage periods. The contents of acidic polysaccharide and total ginsenosides were the 75.1~76.3 mg/g and 15.1~16.6 mg/g, respectively. The sums of ginsenoside-Rg1,-Rb1 and -Rg3s were the ranges of 9.3~9.9 mg/g and PD (ginsenoside-Rb1, -Rb2,-Rc,-Rd,-Rg3s,-Rg3r)/PT (ginsenoside-Rg1,-Rg2,-Re,-Rf,-Rh1) saponin ratios were the levels of 1.4~1.5. These results suggest that Korean red ginsengs stored for long periods show relatively stable quaility stabilities and not significantly changed the contents of ginsenoside and polysaccharide during the storage up to 22 years.

The Comparative Understanding between Red Ginseng and White Ginsengs, Processed Ginsengs (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer) (홍삼과 백삼의 비교 고찰)

  • Nam, Ki-Yeul
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.1-18
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    • 2005
  • Ginseng Radix, the root of Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer has been used in Eastern Asia for 2000 years as a tonic and restorative, promoting health and longevity. Two varieties are commercially available: white ginseng(Ginseng Radix Alba) is produced by air-drying the root, while red ginseng(Ginseng Radix Rubra) is produced by steaming the root followed by drying. These two varieties of different processing have somewhat differences by heat processing between them. During the heat processing for preparing red ginseng, it has been found to exhibit inactivation of catabolic enzymes, thereby preventing deterioration of ginseng quality and the increased antioxidant-like substances which inhibit lipid peroxide formation, and also good gastro-intestinal absorption by gelatinization of starch. Moreover, studies of changes in ginsenosides composition due to different processing of ginseng roots have been undertaken. The results obtained showed that red ginseng differ from white ginseng due to the lack of acidic malonyl-ginsenosides. The heating procedure in red ginseng was proved to degrade the thermally unstable malonyl-ginsenoside into corresponding netural ginsenosides. Also the steaming process of red ginseng causes degradation or transformation of neutral ginsenosides. Ginsenosides $Rh_2,\;Rh_4,\;Rs_3,\;Rs_4\;and\;Rg_5$, found only in red ginseng, have been known to be hydrolyzed products derived from original saponin by heat processing, responsible for inhibitory effects on the growth of cancer cells through the induction of apoptosis. 20(S)-ginsenoside $Rg_3$ was also formed in red ginseng and was shown to exhibit vasorelaxation properties, antimetastatic activities, and anti-platelet aggregation activity. Recently, steamed red ginseng at high temperature was shown to provide enhance the yield of ginsenosides $Rg_3\;and\;Rg_5$ characteristic of red ginseng Additionally, one of non-saponin constituents, panaxytriol, was found to be structually transformed from polyacetylenic alcohol(panaxydol) showing cytotoxicity during the preparation of red ginseng and also maltol, antioxidant maillard product, from maltose and arginyl-fructosyl-glucose, amino acid derivative, from arginine and maltose. In regard to the in vitro and in vivo comparative biological activities, red ginseng was reported to show more potent activities on the antioxidant effect, anticarcinogenic effect and ameliorative effect on blood circulation than those of white ginseng. In oriental medicine, the ability of red ginseng to supplement the vacancy(허) was known to be relatively stronger than that of white ginseng, but very few are known on its comparative clinical studies. Further investigation on the preclinical and clinical experiments are needed to show the differences of indications and efficacies between red and white ginsengs on the basis of oriental medicines.