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Story-based Information Retrieval (스토리 기반의 정보 검색 연구)

  • You, Eun-Soon;Park, Seung-Bo
    • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.81-96
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    • 2013
  • Video information retrieval has become a very important issue because of the explosive increase in video data from Web content development. Meanwhile, content-based video analysis using visual features has been the main source for video information retrieval and browsing. Content in video can be represented with content-based analysis techniques, which can extract various features from audio-visual data such as frames, shots, colors, texture, or shape. Moreover, similarity between videos can be measured through content-based analysis. However, a movie that is one of typical types of video data is organized by story as well as audio-visual data. This causes a semantic gap between significant information recognized by people and information resulting from content-based analysis, when content-based video analysis using only audio-visual data of low level is applied to information retrieval of movie. The reason for this semantic gap is that the story line for a movie is high level information, with relationships in the content that changes as the movie progresses. Information retrieval related to the story line of a movie cannot be executed by only content-based analysis techniques. A formal model is needed, which can determine relationships among movie contents, or track meaning changes, in order to accurately retrieve the story information. Recently, story-based video analysis techniques have emerged using a social network concept for story information retrieval. These approaches represent a story by using the relationships between characters in a movie, but these approaches have problems. First, they do not express dynamic changes in relationships between characters according to story development. Second, they miss profound information, such as emotions indicating the identities and psychological states of the characters. Emotion is essential to understanding a character's motivation, conflict, and resolution. Third, they do not take account of events and background that contribute to the story. As a result, this paper reviews the importance and weaknesses of previous video analysis methods ranging from content-based approaches to story analysis based on social network. Also, we suggest necessary elements, such as character, background, and events, based on narrative structures introduced in the literature. We extract characters' emotional words from the script of the movie Pretty Woman by using the hierarchical attribute of WordNet, which is an extensive English thesaurus. WordNet offers relationships between words (e.g., synonyms, hypernyms, hyponyms, antonyms). We present a method to visualize the emotional pattern of a character over time. Second, a character's inner nature must be predetermined in order to model a character arc that can depict the character's growth and development. To this end, we analyze the amount of the character's dialogue in the script and track the character's inner nature using social network concepts, such as in-degree (incoming links) and out-degree (outgoing links). Additionally, we propose a method that can track a character's inner nature by tracing indices such as degree, in-degree, and out-degree of the character network in a movie through its progression. Finally, the spatial background where characters meet and where events take place is an important element in the story. We take advantage of the movie script to extracting significant spatial background and suggest a scene map describing spatial arrangements and distances in the movie. Important places where main characters first meet or where they stay during long periods of time can be extracted through this scene map. In view of the aforementioned three elements (character, event, background), we extract a variety of information related to the story and evaluate the performance of the proposed method. We can track story information extracted over time and detect a change in the character's emotion or inner nature, spatial movement, and conflicts and resolutions in the story.

A Study on Optimal Site Selection for Automatic Mountain Meteorology Observation System (AMOS): the Case of Honam and Jeju Areas (최적의 산악기상관측망 적정위치 선정 연구 - 호남·제주 권역을 대상으로)

  • Yoon, Sukhee;Won, Myoungsoo;Jang, Keunchang
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.208-220
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    • 2016
  • Automatic Mountain Meteorology Observation System (AMOS) is an important ingredient for several climatological and forest disaster prediction studies. In this study, we select the optimal sites for AMOS in the mountain areas of Honam and Jeju in order to prevent forest disasters such as forest fires and landslides. So, this study used spatial dataset such as national forest map, forest roads, hiking trails and 30m DEM(Digital Elevation Model) as well as forest risk map(forest fire and landslide), national AWS information to extract optimal site selection of AMOS. Technical methods for optimal site selection of the AMOS was the firstly used multifractal model, IDW interpolation, spatial redundancy for 2.5km AWS buffering analysis, and 200m buffering analysis by using ArcGIS. Secondly, optimal sites selected by spatial analysis were estimated site accessibility, observatory environment of solar power and wireless communication through field survey. The threshold score for the final selection of the sites have to be higher than 70 points in the field assessment. In the result, a total of 159 polygons in national forest map were extracted by the spatial analysis and a total of 64 secondary candidate sites were selected for the ridge and the top of the area using Google Earth. Finally, a total of 26 optimal sites were selected by quantitative assessment based on field survey. Our selection criteria will serve for the establishment of the AMOS network for the best observations of weather conditions in the national forests. The effective observation network may enhance the mountain weather observations, which leads to accurate prediction of forest disasters.

Quality Assurance of Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy Using the Dynalog Files (다이나로그 파일을 이용한 부피세기조절회전치료의 정도관리)

  • Kang, Dong-Jin;Jung, Jae-Yong;Shin, Young-Joo;Min, Jung-Whan;Kim, Yon-Lae;Yang, Hyung-jin
    • Journal of radiological science and technology
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    • v.39 no.4
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    • pp.577-585
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    • 2016
  • The purpose of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of beam delivery QA software using the MLC dynalog file, about the VMAT plan with AAPM TG-119 protocol. The Clinac iX with a built-in 120 MLC was used to acquire the MLC dynalog file be imported in MobiusFx(MFX). To establish VMAT plan, Oncentra RTP system was used target and organ structures were contoured in Im'RT phantom. For evaluation of dose distribution was evaluated by using gamma index, and the point dose was evaluated by using the CC13 ion chamber in Im'RT phantom. For the evaluation of point dose, the mean of relative error between measured and calculated value was $1.41{\pm}0.92%$(Target) and $0.89{\pm}0.86%$(OAR), the confidence limit were 3.21(96.79%, Target) and 2.58(97.42%, OAR). For the evaluation of dose distribution, in case of $Delta^{4PT}$, the average percentage of passing rate were $99.78{\pm}0.2%$(3%/3 mm), $96.86{\pm}1.76%$(2%/2 mm). In case of MFX, the average percentage of passing rate were $99.90{\pm}0.14%$(3%/3 mm), $97.98{\pm}1.97%$(2%/2 mm), the confidence limits(CL) were in case of $Delta^{4PT}$ 0.62(99.38%, 3%/3 mm), 6.6(93.4%, 2%/2 mm), in case of MFX, 0.38(99.62%, 3%/3 mm), 5.88(94.12%, 2%/2 mm). In this study, we performed VMAT QA method using dynamic MLC log file compare to binary diode array chamber. All analyzed results were satisfied with acceptance criteria based on TG-119 protocol.

Neotectonic Crustal Deformation and Current Stress Field in the Korean Peninsula and Their Tectonic Implications: A Review (한반도 신기 지각변형과 현생 응력장 그리고 지구조적 의미: 논평)

  • Kim, Min-Cheol;Jung, Soohwan;Yoon, Sangwon;Jeong, Rae-Yoon;Song, Cheol Woo;Son, Moon
    • The Journal of the Petrological Society of Korea
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.169-193
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    • 2016
  • In order to characterize the Neotectonic crustal deformation and current stress field in and around the Korean Peninsula and to interpret their tectonic implications, this paper synthetically analyzes the previous Quaternary fault and focal mechanism solution data and recent geotechnical in-situ stress data and examines the characteristics of crustal deformations and tectonic settings in and around East Asia after the Miocene. Most of the Quaternary fault outcrops in SE Korea occur along major inherited fault zones and show a NS-striking top-to-the-west thrust geometry, indicating that the faults were produced by local reactivation of appropriately oriented preexisting weaknesses under EW-trending pure compressional stress field. The focal mechanism solutions in and around the Korean Peninsula disclose that strike-slip faulting containing some reverse-slip component and reverse-slip faulting are significantly dominant on land and in sea area, respectively. The P-axes are horizontally clustered in ENE-WSW direction, whereas the T-axes are girdle-distributed in NNW direction. The geotechnical in-situ stress data in South Korea also indicate the ENE-trending maximum horizontal stress. The current crustal deformation in the Korean Peninsula is thus characterized by crustal contraction under regional ENE-WSW or E-W compression stress field. Based on the regional stress trajectories in and around East Asia, the current stress regime is interpreted to have resulted from the cooperation of westward shallow subduction of the Pacific Plate and collision of Indian and Eurasian continents, whereas the Philippine Sea plate have not a decisive effect on the stress-regime in the Korean Peninsula due to its high-angle subduction that resulted in dominant crust extension of the back-arc region. It is also interpreted that the Neotectonic crustal deformation and present-day tectonic setting of East Asia commenced with the change of the Pacific Plate motion during 5~3.2 Ma.

Occurrence and Geochemical Characteristics of the Haenam Pb-Zn Skarn Deposit (해남 연-아연 스카른광상의 산상과 지화학적 특성)

  • Im, Heonkyung;Shin, Dongbok;Heo, Seonhee
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.47 no.4
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    • pp.363-379
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    • 2014
  • The Haenam Pb-Zn skarn deposit is located at the Hwawon peninsula in the southwestern part of the Ogcheon Metamorphic Belt. The deposit is developed along the contact between limestone of the Ogcheon group and Cretaceous quartz porphyry. Petrography of ore samples, chemical composition of skarn and ore minerals, and geochemistry of the related igneous rocks were investigated to understand the characteristics of the skarn mineralization. Skarn zonation consists of garnet${\pm}$pyroxene${\pm}$calcite${\pm}$quartz zone, pyroxene+garnet+quartz${\pm}$calcite zone, calcite+pyroxene${\pm}$garnet zone, quartz+calcite${\pm}$pyroxene zone, and calcite${\pm}$chlorite zone in succession toward carbonate rock. Garnet commonly shows zonal texture comprised of andradite and grossular. Pyroxene varies from Mn-hedenbergite to diopside as away from the intrusive rock. Chalcopyrite occurs as major ore mineral near the intrusive rock, and sphalerite and galena tend to increase as going away. Electron probe microanalyses revealed that FeS contents of sphalerite become decreased from 5.17 mole % for garnet${\pm}$pyroxene${\pm}$calcite${\pm}$quartz zone to 2.93 mole %, and to 0.40 mole % for calcite+pyroxene${\pm}$garnet zone, gradually. Ag and Bi contents also decreased from 0.72 wt.% and 1.62 wt.% to <0.01 wt.% and 0.11 wt.%, respectively. Thus, the Haenam deposit shows systematic variation of species and chemical compositions of ore minerals with skarn zoned texture. The related intrusive rock, quartz porphyry, expresses more differentiated characteristics than Zn-skarn deposit of Meinert(1995), and has relatively high$SiO_2$ concentration of 72.76~75.38 wt.% and shows geochemical features classified as calc-alkaline, peraluminous igneous rock and volcanic arc tectonic setting.

Inter-fractional Target Displacement in the Prostate Image-Guided Radiotherapy using Cone Beam Computed Tomography (전립선암 영상유도 방사선 치료시 골반내장기의 체적변화에 따른 표적장기의 변화)

  • Dong, Kap Sang;Back, Chang Wook;Jeong, Yun Jeong;Bae, Jae Beom;Choi, Young Eun;Sung, Ki Hoon
    • The Journal of Korean Society for Radiation Therapy
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.161-169
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    • 2016
  • Purpose : To quantify the inter-fractional variation in prostate displacement and their dosimetric effects for prostate cancer treatment. Materials and Methods : A total of 176 daily cone-beam CT (CBCT) sets acquired for 6 prostate cancer patients treated with volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) were retrospectively reviewed. For each patient, the planning CT (pCT) was registered to each daily CBCT by aligning the bony anatomy. The prostate, rectum, and bladder were delineated on daily CBCT, and the contours of these organs in the pCT were copied to the daily CBCT. The concordance of prostate displacement, deformation, and size variation between pCT and daily CBCT was evaluated using the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC). Results : The mean volume of prostate was 37.2 cm3 in the initial pCT, and the variation was around ${\pm}5%$ during the entire course of treatment for all patients. The mean DSC was 89.9%, ranging from 70% to 100% for prostate displacement. Although the volume change of bladder and rectum per treatment fraction did not show any correlation with the value of DSC (r=-0.084, p=0.268 and r=-0.162, p=0.032, respectively), a decrease in the DSC value was observed with increasing volume change of the bladder and rectum (r=-0.230,p=0.049 and r=-0.240,p=0.020, respectively). Conclusion : Consistency of the volume of the bladder and rectum cannot guarantee the accuracy of the treatment. Our results suggest that patient setup with the registration between the pCT and daily CBCT should be considered aligning soft tissue.

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Development of Quality Assurance Software for $PRESAGE^{REU}$ Gel Dosimetry ($PRESAGE^{REU}$ 겔 선량계의 분석 및 정도 관리 도구 개발)

  • Cho, Woong;Lee, Jaegi;Kim, Hyun Suk;Wu, Hong-Gyun
    • Progress in Medical Physics
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.233-241
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    • 2014
  • The aim of this study is to develop a new software tool for 3D dose verification using $PRESAGE^{REU}$ Gel dosimeter. The tool included following functions: importing 3D doses from treatment planning systems (TPS), importing 3D optical density (OD), converting ODs to doses, 3D registration between two volumetric data by translational and rotational transformations, and evaluation with 3D gamma index. To acquire correlation between ODs and doses, CT images of a $PRESAGE^{REU}$ Gel with cylindrical shape was acquired, and a volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plan was designed to give radiation doses from 1 Gy to 6 Gy to six disk-shaped virtual targets along z-axis. After the VMAT plan was delivered to the targets, 3D OD data were reconstructed from 512 projection data from $Vista^{TM}$ optical CT scanner (Modus Medical Devices Inc, Canada) per every 2 hours after irradiation. A curve for converting ODs to doses was derived by comparing TPS dose profile to OD profile along z-axis, and the 3D OD data were converted to the absorbed doses using the curve. Supra-linearity was observed between doses and ODs, and the ODs were decayed about 60% per 24 hours depending on their magnitudes. Measured doses from the $PRESAGE^{REU}$ Gel were well agreed with the TPS doses at central region, but large under-doses were observed at peripheral region at the cylindrical geometry. Gamma passing rate for 3D doses was 70.36% under the gamma criteria of 3% of dose difference and 3 mm of distance to agreement. The low passing rate was resulted from the mismatching of the refractive index between the PRESAGE gel and oil bath in the optical CT scanner. In conclusion, the developed software was useful for 3D dose verification from PRESAGE gel dosimetry, but further improvement of the Gel dosimetry system were required.

Comparison of Anisotropic Analytic Algorithm Plan and Acuros XB Plan for Lung Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy Using Flattening Filter-Free Beams (비편평화여과기 빔을 이용한 폐 정위절제방사선치료를 위한 AAA와 Acuros XB 계산 알고리즘의 치료계획 비교)

  • Chung, Jin-Beom;Eom, Keun-Yong;Kim, In-Ah;Kim, Jae-Sung;Lee, Jeong-Woo;Hong, Semie;Kim, Yon-Lae;Park, Byung-Moon;Kang, Sang-Won;Suh, Tae-Suk
    • Progress in Medical Physics
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.210-217
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    • 2014
  • This study investigated the dosimetric effects of different dose calculation algorithm for lung stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) using flattening filter-free (FFF) beams. A total of 10 patients with lung cancer who were treated with SABR were evaluated. All treatment plans were created using an Acuros XB (AXB) of an Eclipse treatment planning system. An additional plans for comparison of different alagorithm recalcuated with anisotropic analytic algorithm (AAA) algorithm. To address both algorithms, the cumulative dose-volume histogram (DVH) was analyzed for the planning target volume (PTV) and organs at risk (OARs). Technical parameters, such as the computation times and total monitor units (MUs), were also evaluated. A comparison analysis of DVHs from these plans revealed the PTV for AXB estimated a higher maximum dose (5.2%) and lower minimum dose (4.2%) than that of the AAA. The highest dose difference observed 7.06% for the PTV $V_{105%}$. The maximum dose to the lung was also slightly larger in the AXB plans. The percentate volumes of the ipsilateral lung ($V_5$, $V_{10}$, $V_{20}$) receiving 5, 10, and 20 Gy were also larger in AXB plans than for AAA plans. However, these parameters were comparable between both AAA and AXB plans for the contralateral lung. The differences of the maximum dose for the spinal cord and heart were also small. The computation time of AXB plans was 13.7% shorter than that of AAA plans. The average MUs were 3.47% larger for AXB plans than for AAA plans. The results of this study suggest that AXB algorithm can provide advantages such as accurate dose calculations and reduced computation time in lung SABR plan using FFF beams, especially for volumetric modulated arc therapy technique.

Modeling the Effect of a Climate Extreme on Maize Production in the USA and Its Related Effects on Food Security in the Developing World (미국 Corn Belt 폭염이 개발도상국의 식량안보에 미치는 영향 평가)

  • Chung, Uran
    • Proceedings of The Korean Society of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology Conference
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    • pp.1-24
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    • 2014
  • This study uses geo-spatial crop modeling to quantify the biophysical impact of weather extremes. More specifically, the study analyzes the weather extreme which affected maize production in the USA in 2012; it also estimates the effect of a similar weather extreme in 2050, using future climate scenarios. The secondary impact of the weather extreme on food security in the developing world is also assessed using trend analysis. Many studies have reported on the significant reduction in maize production in the USA due to the extreme weather event (combined heat wave and drought) that occurred in 2012. However, most of these studies focused on yield and did not assess the potential effect of weather extremes on food prices and security. The overall goal of this study was to use geo-spatial crop modeling and trend analysis to quantify the impact of weather extremes on both yield and, followed food security in the developing world. We used historical weather data for severe extreme events that have occurred in the USA. The data were obtained from the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). In addition we used five climate scenarios: the baseline climate which is typical of the late 20th century (2000s) and four future climate scenarios which involve a combination of two emission scenarios (A1B and B1) and two global circulation models (CSIRO-Mk3.0 and MIROC 3.2). DSSAT 4.5 was combined with GRASS GIS for geo-spatial crop modeling. Simulated maize grain yield across all affected regions in the USA indicates that average grain yield across the USA Corn Belt would decrease by 29% when the weather extremes occur using the baseline climate. If the weather extreme were to occur under the A1B emission scenario in the 2050s, average grain yields would decrease by 38% and 57%, under the CSIRO-Mk3.0 and MIROC 3.2 global climate models, respectively. The weather extremes that occurred in the USA in 2012 resulted in a sharp increase in the world maize price. In addition, it likely played a role in the reduction in world maize consumption and trade in 2012/13, compared to 2011/12. The most vulnerable countries to the weather extremes are poor countries with high maize import dependency ratios including those countries in the Caribbean, northern Africa and western Asia. Other vulnerable countries include low-income countries with low import dependency ratios but which cannot afford highly-priced maize. The study also highlighted the pathways through which a weather extreme would affect food security, were it to occur in 2050 under climate change. Some of the policies which could help vulnerable countries counter the negative effects of weather extremes consist of social protection and safety net programs. Medium- to long-term adaptation strategies include increasing world food reserves to a level where they can be used to cover the production losses brought by weather extremes.

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The Neoproterozoic and Cretaceous Tectonic Evolution and Important Geoheritages in the Gogunsan Archipelago (고군산군도 지역의 신원생대 및 백악기 지구조 진화과정과 중요 지질유산)

  • Oh, Chang Whan;Kim, Won Jeong;Lee, Seung Hwan;Lee, Bo Young;Kim, Jin Seok;Choi, Seung Hyun
    • The Journal of the Petrological Society of Korea
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.251-277
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    • 2019
  • The Gogunsan Archipelago is composed of two island groups; the first group includes Mal-do, Myeong-do, Gwangdae-do, and Bangchuk-do islands consisting of Neoproterozoic rocks, and the second group includes Yami-do, Sinsi-do, Muneo-do, Jangja-do, and Seonyu-do islands consisting of Cretaceous rocks. The first group mainly consists of the Bangchuk formation which can be divided into two layers; the lower layer was more deformed than the upper layer. The former was intruded by mafic and felsic volcanic rocks formed in the volcanic arc tectonic setting 930-890 Ma and the latter was deposited ca. 825-800 Ma. In these islands, large scale folds with east-west fold axes were beautifully formed; the Maldo island fold was designated as natural monument and large scale beautiful chevron fold was developed on the Gwangdae-do island. In addition, there are unique zebra-shaped outcrop formed by a mixing of basic and acidic magma and Independent Gate shaped outcrop formed by coastal erosion. On the other hand, the Yami-do, Sinsi-do, Muneo-do, Jangja-do and Seonyu-do islands consist of 92-91Ma Cretaceous volcanic rocks and, in Sinsi-do island, the Nanshan formation deposited ca. 92 Ma. These Cretaceous volcanic rocks formed by melting of the continental crust by the heat supplied from the uplifting mantle due to the extension caused by a retreat of subducting ocean slab. Yami-do and Sinsi-do islands are composed of rhyolite. In Yami-do island, bands with vertical joint formed by cooling of the bottom part of the lava, are shown. In Sinsi-do island, large-scale vertical joints formed by cooling of lava flow, were developed. The Jangja-bong of Jangja-do island and Mangju-bong of Seonyu-do island are composed of brecciated rhyolite and formed a ring shaped archipelago contributing to the development of marine culture by providing natural harbor condition. They also provide beautiful views including 'Seonyu 8 views' along with other islands. As mentioned above, the Gogunsan archipelago is rich in geoheritages and associated cultural and historical resources, making it worth as a National Geopark.