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Characteristics of the Cenozoic crustal deformation in SE Korea and their tectonic implications (한반도 동남부 신생대 지각변형의 주요 특징과 지구조적 의의)

  • Son, Moon;Kim, Jong-Sun;Chong, Hye-Yoon;Lee, Yung-Hee;Kim, In-Soo
    • The Korean Journal of Petroleum Geology
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.1-16
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    • 2007
  • The southeastern Korean Peninsula has experienced crustal multi-deformations according to changes of global tectonic setting during the Cenozoic. Characteristic features of the crustal deformations in relation to major Cenozoic tectonic events are summarized as follows. (1) Collision of Indian and Eurasian continents and abrupt change of movement direction of the Pacific plate (50${\sim}$43 Ma): The collision of Indian and Eurasian continents caused the eastward extrusion of East Asia block as a trench-rollback, and then the movement direction of the Pacific plate was abruptly changed from NNW to WNW. As a result, the strong suction-force along the plate boundary produced a tensional stress field trending EW or WNW-ESE in southeastern Korea, which resultantly induced the passive intrusion of NS or NNE trending mafic dike swarm. (2) Opening of the East Sea (25${\sim}$16 Ma): The NS or NNW-SSE trending opening of the East Sea generated a dextral shear stress regime trending NNW-SSE along the eastern coast line of the Korean Peninsula. As a result, pull-apart basins were developed in right bending and overstepping parts along major dextral strike slip faults trending NNW-SSE in southeastern Korea. The basins can be divided into two types on the basis of geometry and kinematics: Parallelogram-shaped basin (rhombochasm) and wedged-shaped basin (sphenochasm), respectively. In those times, the basins and adjacent basement blocks experienced clockwise rotation and northwestward tilting contemporaneously, and the basins often experienced a kind of propagating rifting from NE toward SE. At about 17Ma, the Yonil Tectonic Line, which is the westernmost border fault of the Miocene crustal deformation in southeastern Korea, began to move as a major dextral strike slip fault. (3) Clockwise rotation of southeastern Japan Island (about 15 Ma): The collision of the Izu-Bonin Arc and southeastern Japan Island, as a result of northward movement of the Philippine sea-plate, induced the clockwise rotation of southeastern Japan Island. The event caused the NW-SE compression in the Korea Strait as a tectonic inversion, which resultantly tenninated the basin extension and caused local counterclockwise rotation of blocks in southeastern Korea. (4) E-W compression in the East Asia (after about 5 Ma): Decreasing subduction angle of the Pacific plate and eastward movement of the Amurian plate have constructed the-top-to-west thrusts and become a major cause for earthquakes in southeastern Korea until the present time.

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Interpretation of Soil Catena for Agricultural Soils derived from Sedimentary Rocks (퇴적암 유래 농경지 토양에 대한 카테나 해석)

  • SONN, Yeon-Kyu;LEE, Dong-Sung;KIM, Keun-Tae;HYUN, Byung-Keun;JUN, Hye-Weon;JEON, Sang-Ho
    • Journal of the Korean Association of Geographic Information Studies
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.1-14
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    • 2017
  • In Korea, the soil series derived from sedimentary rocks are classified into seven soil series of coarse loamy soil such as Dain, Danbug, Dongam, Imdong, Jeomgog, Maryeong, and Yonggog; seventeen soil series of fine loamy soil such as Angye, Anmi, Banho, Bigog, Deoggog, Dogye, Dojeon, Gamgog, Gugog, Jincheon, Maji, Mungyeong, Oggye, Samam, Yanggog, Yeongwol, and Yulgog; six soil series of fine silty soil such as Goryeong, Bonggog, Juggog, Gyeongsan, Yuga, and Yugog; and four soil series of clayey soil such as Mitan, Pyeongan, Pyeongjeon, and Uji. All thirty-four soil series have different drainage rates and topography. However, the soil texture depends on the parent rock. The buffer functions in GIS (Geographic Information System) techniques were used to calculate adjacent soil series from a soil series. The length of the adjacent soil series was adjusted because a side of the buffer area was one meter long. The cluster analysis was conducted using the CCC (Cubic Clustering Criterion) method, in which the number of clusters is calculated based on the individual soil series ratio. Soil survey has been carried out since 1964 as "The reconnaissance soil survey", and 1:5,000 detailed soil survey was completed in 1999 with a five-years plan in Korea. Today, all the soil survey information has been computerized. GIS techniques were used to establish a digital soil map; however, there have not been any studies to interpret pedogenesis using the GIS technique. In this study, the area of the adjacent soil series were obtained using the GIS technique. The area of the adjacent soil series can be calculated based on the information area. The similarities of soil originated from sedimentary rocks were estimated using the length. As a result, the distribution of grain size was different based on the types of sedimentary rocks and the location. The clusters were distinguished into limestone, sandstone, and shale. In addition, the soil derived from shale was divided into red shale and gray shale. This means that quantitative interpretation of the catena and this established method can be used to interpret the relationship between soil series.

Analysis of Landscape Structure Change for Riparian Buffer Zone KyangAn Watershed (경안천 유역 수변구역 경관구조 변화 분석)

  • Kim, Kyung-Tak;Kim, Joo-Hun
    • Journal of the Korean Association of Geographic Information Studies
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    • v.8 no.3
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    • pp.74-83
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    • 2005
  • The Riparian Buffer Zone has many potential values including the preservation of water quality as well as being ecologically friendly. This study aims to quantitatively analyze the landscape structure index of the Riparian Buffer Zone in the Kyoung-an stream and to produce base information necessary for proper management. The study used aerial images that were applied to geometric corrections for a time series from 1966 to 2000 for land data and also used FRAGSTATS, which is a type of ARCVIEW extension module, as an analysis tool. An analysis of land use change and the Landscape Index revealed that the area of farm land has decreased and that the area of residential property has increased. In addition, there was a slight change for land used for purposes other than farming or for residence. The results of analyzing the Landscape Structure Index, revealed that the NP has increased from 437 in 1966 to 695 in 2000. This data reveals that the change of land use is influenced by various artificial factors. The NPS, which represents the declining degree of patch, decreased from 9.441 to 5.934, revealing that the change of land use has been progressing considerably. In regard to forest areas, land use reduced somewhat but did not indicate a significant change. Therefore, an analysis of the total index reveals that the edge of patch has become more complicated and that the variation index of patch has increased significantly. However, this study reveals that barriers to block pollution have weakened as a result and that there is a need to concentrate on the implementation and the management of the Riparian Buffer Zone. Consequently, this study reveals that substantial research is necessary in order to carry out the proper management of the Riparian Buffer Zone, especially in light of the distribution type of each patch and the change in conditions regarding them.

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EFFECT OF SOFT-START LIGHT CURING ON THE POLYMERIZATION AND THE CONTRACTION STRESS OF COMPOSITE RESIN (완속기시(Soft-start) 광조사 방식이 복합레진의 중합 및 수축응력에 미치는 효과)

  • Wee, You-Min;Oh, You-Hyang;Lee, Nan-Young;Lee, Chang-Seop;Lee, Sang-Ho
    • THE JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.332-343
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    • 2005
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of soft-start light curing on contraction stress and hardness of composite resin. Composite resin mold was cured using the one-step continuous curing method with three difference light sources; conventional halogen light curing for 40 seconds at $400\;mw/cm^2$, plasma arc light curing for 6 seconds at $1300\;mW/cm^2$ and LED light curing for 10 seconds at $7The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of soft-start light curing on contraction stress and hardness of composite resin. Composite resin mold was cured using the one-step continuous curing method with three difference light sources; conventional halogen light curing for 40 seconds at . For the soft-start curing method ; 2 seconds light exposure at $650\;mW/cm^2$ followed by 3 seconds at $1300\;mW/cm^2$ and exponential increase with 5 seconds followed by 10 seconds at $700\;mW/cm^2$ were used. Contraction stress was measured using strain gauge method and Vickers hardness was measured 24 hours after polymerization at the top and bottom of specimens. Resin-acrylic interfaces were observed using a scanning electron microscope(SEM). The results of present study can be summarized as follows: 1. Contraction stresses at 10 min after polymerization were significantly reduced with the soft-start curing both in plasma and LED light sources(P<0.05). 2. Plasma light curing with soft-start resulted in not only the lowest contraction stress, but also the lowest hardness(P<0.05) 3. LED light curing with soft-start showed lower contraction stress than the one-step continuous halogen and LED light curing(P<0.05). 4. Microhardness of specimens cured by LED light with soft-start was equivalent to that of cured by the one-step continuous halogen and LED light(P>0.05). 5. Curing by LED light with soft-start and conventional halogen light resulted in better marginal sealing than plasma light and one-step LED light curing.

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Flexural characteristic changes of fiber reinforced composite $(Fibrekor^{(R)})$ according to water absorption (물 흡수에 따른 fiber reinforced composite $(Fibrekor^{(R)})$의 굽힘 특성 변화)

  • Kim, Sueck-Bum;Kim, Min-Jeong;Kim, Kyung-Ho;Choy, Kwangchul
    • The korean journal of orthodontics
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    • v.35 no.5
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    • pp.361-370
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    • 2005
  • Fiber reinforced composite (FRC) has been widely used in operative and prosthetic fields of dentistry and its use is expanding into the orthodontic field. The purpose of this study was to examine the changes of flexural properties of FRC reinforced with silica glass fiber (FibreKor, Jeneric/Pentron Inc.. Wallingford. U.S.A.) according to the duration of water absorption. Specimens were grouped according to their shape as round and rectangular cross sections, and were immersed in distilled water at room temperature $(23^{\circ}C)$ for 0 hour 1 hour 1 week. 15 days, 1 mouth and 3 mouths. The number of specimens was 5 for each duration and bending test was done using a torque tester The flexural stiffness after 24 hour water immersion was reduced to 59% for round specimens and 25% for rectangular specimens and after 3 mouths of water immersion it was reduced to 29% and 19% stiffness of the 0 hour-specimen respectively Yield flexural moment after 24 hour water immersion was reduced to 45%for round specimens and 76% for rectangular specimens and after 3 months of water immersion it was reduced to 29% and 60% stiffness of the 0 hour-specimen respectively Ultimate flexural moment after 24 hour water immersion was reduced to 35% for round specimens and 76% for rectangular specimens and after 3 mouths of water immersion it was reduced to 25% and 37% stiffness of 0 hour-specimen respectively. Those results suggested that the flexural stiffness of FibreKor decreased greatly after initial water immersion. Consequently, further research for the maintenance of strength against water will be necessary

Latarjet Operation for Anterior Shoulder Instability with Glenoid Bone Defect (관절와 골 결손을 동반한 견관절 전방 불안정증에 대한 Latarjet 술식)

  • Cho, Seung-Hyun;Cho, Nam-Su;Yi, Jin-Woong;Choi, Il-Hun;Kwack, Yoon-Ho;Rhee, Yong-Girl
    • Clinics in Shoulder and Elbow
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.189-198
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    • 2009
  • Purpose: We wanted to evaluate the clinical results of the Latarjet procedure for treating anterior shoulder instability combined with a glenoid bone defect. Materials and Methods: Between Oct. 2006 and May. 2007, fourteen patients underwent a Latarjet operation to treat their anterior shoulder instability combined with a glenoid bone defect. The mean follow-up period was 15 months (range: 12 to 19 months), and the average age at the time of surgery was 29.9-years-old (range: 19 to 44 years). There were 13 males and 1 female. Eight patients exhibited involvement of the right shoulder. The dominant arm was involved in 8 patients. Six patients had undergone a previous arthroscopic Bankart repair before their Latarjet operation and 2 patients had a history of seizure. Results: The average Rowe score improved from 51.8 to 80.2 with 9 excellent, 4 good, and 1 fair results. The average Korean shoulder score for instability improved from 61.6 to 82.1 postoperatively. The active forward flexion and external rotation at the side of the involved shoulder was an average of $8^{\circ}$ and $16^{\circ}$ less than that of the uninvolved shoulder. The muscle strength of the involved shoulder measured 78.7% in forward flexion and 82.5% in external rotation, as compared with that of the uninvolved shoulder. There was 1 case of dislocation, 1 transient subluxation, 2 fibrotic unions, 1 resorption of the transferred coracoid process, 1 intraoperative broken bone, 1 transient musculocutaneous nerve injury and 1 case of stiffness. Conclusion: The Latarjet procedure for treating anterior shoulder instability combined with a significant glenoid defect effectively restores function and stability through extending the articular arc at the expense of external rotation. We should be cautious to avoid or detect complications when performing coracoid transfer.

Petrological Study on the Cretaceous Volcanic Rocks in the southwest Ryeongnam Massif: (1) the Mt. Moonyu volcanic mass, Seungju-gun (영남육괴 남서부에 분포하는 백악기 화산암류에 대한 암석학적 연구: (1) 승주군 문유산 화산암복합체)

  • Kim, Young-La;Koh, Jeong-Seon;Lee, Jeong-Hyun;Yun, Sung-Hyo
    • The Journal of the Petrological Society of Korea
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.57-82
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    • 2008
  • The volcanic sequence of the late Cretaceous Moonyu volcanic mass which distributed in the southwestern part of Ryeongnam massif, can be divided into felsic pyroclastic rocks, andesite and andesitic pyroclastic rocks, rhyolite in ascending order. The earliest volcanic activity might commence with intermittent eruptions of felsic magma during deposition of volcaniclastic sediments. Explosive eruptions of felsic pyroclastic rocks began with ash-falls, to progressed through pumice-falls and transmitted with dacitic to rhyolitic ash-flows. Subsequent andesite and andesitic pyroclastic rocks were erupted and finally rhyolite was intruded as lava domes along the fractures near the center of volcanic mass. Petrochemical data show that these rocks are calc-alkaline series and have close petrotectonic affinities with subduction-related continental margin arc volcanic province. Major element compositions range from medium-K to high-K. Petrochemical variation within the volcanic sequence can be largely accounted for tractional crystallization processes with subordinate mixing. The most mafic rocks are basaltic andesite, but low MgO and Ni contents indicate they are fractionated by fractional crystallization from earlier primary mafic magma, which derived from less than 20% partial melting of ultramafic rocks in upper mantle wedge. Based on the stratigraphy, the early volcanic rocks are zoned from lower felsic to upper andesitic in composition. The compositional zonation of magma chamber from upper felsic to lower andesitic, is interpreted to have resulted from fractionation within the chamber and replenishment by an influx of new mafic magma from depth. Replenishment and mixing is based on observations of disequilibrium phenocrysts in volcanic rocks. REE patterns show slight enrichment of LREE with differentiation from andesite to rhyolite. Rhyolite in the final stage can be derived from calc-alkaline andesite magma by fractional crystallization, but it might have underwent crustal contamination during the fractional crystallization.

Origin and Evolution of Leucogranite of NE Yeongnam Massif from Samcheok Area, Korea (삼척지역 북동 영남 육괴에 분포하는 우백질 화강암의 기원 및 진화)

  • Cheong, Won-Seok;Na, Ki-Chang
    • The Journal of the Petrological Society of Korea
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.16-35
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    • 2008
  • We study metamorphism of metasedimetary rocks and origin and evolution of leucogranite form Samcheok area, northeastern Yeongnam massif, South Korea. Metamorphic rocks in this area are composed of metasedimentary migmatite, biotite granitic gneiss and leucogranite. Metasedimentary rocks, which refer to major element feature of siliclastic sediment, are divided into two metamorphic zones based on mineral assemblages, garnet and sillimanite zones. According to petrogenetic grid of mineral assemblages, metamorhpic P-T conditions are $740{\sim}800^{\circ}C$ at $4.8{\sim}5.8\;kbar$ in the garnet zone and $640-760^{\circ}C$ at 2.5-4.5kbar in sillimanite zone. The leucogranite (Imwon leucogranite) is peraluminous granite which has high alumina index (A/CNK=1.31-1.93) and positive discriminant factor value (DF > 0). Thus, leucogranite is S-type granite generated from metasedimentary rocks. Major and trace element diagram ($R_1-R_2$ diagram and Rb vs. Y+Nb etc.) show collisional environment such as syn-collisional or volcanic arc granite. Because Rb/sr ratio (1.8-22.9) of leucogranites is higher than Sr/Ba ratio (0.21-0.79), leucogranite would be derived from muscovite dehydrate melting in metasedimentary rocks. Leucogranites have lower concentration of LREE and Eu and similar that of HREE relative to metasedimentary rocks. To examine difference of REEs between leucogranites and metasedimentary rocks, we perform modeling using volume percentage of a leucogranite and a metasedimenatry rock from study area and REE data of minerals from rhyolite (Nash and Crecraft, 1985) and melanosome of migmatite (Bea et al., 1994). Resultants of modeling indicate that LREE and HREE are controlled by monazites and garnet, respectively, although zircon is estimated HREE dominant in some leucogranite without garnet. Because there are many inclusions of accessary phases such as monazite and zircon in biotites from metasedimentary rocks. leucogranitic magma was mainly derived from muscovite-breakdown in metasedimenary rocks. Leucogranites can be subdivided into two types in compliance with Eu anomaly of chondrite nomalized REE pattern; the one of negative Eu anomaly is type I and the other is type II. Leucogranites have lower Eu concetnrations than that of metasedimenary rocks and similar that of both type. REE modeling suggest that this difference of Eu value is due to that of components of feldspars in both leucogranite and metasedimentary rock. The tendency of major ($K_2O$ and $Na_2O$) and face elements (Eu, Rb, Sr and Ba) of leucogranites also indicate that source magma of these two types was developed by anatexis experienced strong fractionation of alkali-feldspar. Conclusionally, leucogranites in this area are products of melts which was generated by muscovite-breakdown of metasedimenary rock in environment of continetal collision during high temperature/pressure metamorphism and then was fractionated and crystallized after extraction from source rock.

Geochemical Characteristics of the Uljin Granitoids in Northeastern Part of the Yeongnam Massif, Korea (영남육괴 북동부 울진지역 화강암류의 지화학적 특성)

  • Wee, SooMeen;Kim, Ji-Young;Lim, Sung-Man
    • Journal of the Korean earth science society
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    • v.34 no.4
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    • pp.313-328
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    • 2013
  • Jurassic granitoids in the northeastern part of the Yeongnam Massif are possibly the result of intensive magmatic activities that occurred in response to subduction of the proto-Pacific plate beneath the northeast portion of the Eurasian plate. Geochemical studies on the granitic rocks are carried out in order to constrain the petrogenesis of the granitic magma and to establish the paleotectonic environment of the area. Whole rock chemical data of the Uljin granitoids in the northeastern part of the Yeongnam Massif indicate that all of the rocks have the characteristics of calcalkaline series in subalkaline field. The overall major element trends show systematic variations in each granitic body, but the source materials of each granitoids seem to have different chemical composition. The Uljin granitoids are different from other granitic rocks, which distributed vicinity of the study area, in the contents of $Al_2O_3$ and trace elements such as Cr, Co, Ni, Sr, Y and Nb. The Uljin granitoids have geochemical features similar to slab-derived adakites such as high $Al_2O_3$, Sr contents and high Sr/Y, La/Yb ratios, but they have low Y and Yb contents. The major ($SiO_2$, $Al_2O_3$, MgO) and trace element (Sr, Y, La, Yb) contents of the Uljin granitoids fall well within the adakitic field. The Uljin granitoids have similar geochemical characteristics, paleotectonic environments and intrusion ages to those of the Yatsuo plutonic rocks of Hida belt located on northwestern part of Japan. Chondrite normalized REE patterns show generally enriched LREEs ($(La/Yb)_{CN}=10.6-103.4$) and are slight negative to flat Eu anomalies. On the ANK vs. A/CNK and tectonic discrimination diagrams, parental magma type of the granites corresponds to I-type and volcanic arc granite (VAG). Interpretations of the chemical characteristics of the granitic rocks favor their emplacement in a compressional tectonic regime at the continental margin during the subduction of Izanagi plate in Jurassic period.

Effect of Overcorrection (-)Lens on Stereo-acuity and Angle of Deviation in Intermittent Exotropia (간헐외사시에서 과교정 (-)렌즈가 입체시 및 사시각에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Young Cheong;Park, Sang Woo
    • Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.305-311
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    • 2013
  • Purpose: This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of prescription of overcorrection (-) lens, which is the one of the non-surgical treatments, on stereo-acuity and angle of deviation in intermittent exotropia. Methods: Twenty four children with intermittent exotropia were enrolled from October 2011 to December 2011. The angle of deviation(${\Delta}$), stereo-acuity (arcsec), monocular and binocular visual acuity (BVA, LogMAR), control of exodeviation and fusional ability using Worth 4 dot test were evaluated at near (33 cm) and far (6 m), under the overcorrecting (-)lens of -1.00, -.00, and -.00 D. Results: As a baseline finding, the angle of exodeviation was $20.9{\pm}9.7$ at near and $23.0{\pm}7.5$ at far. The angle of exodeviation at near decreased to $18.5{\pm}10.0$ (p<0.01), $15.8{\pm}9.0$ (p<0.01), $14.0{\pm}9.1$ (p<0.01) compared with baseline angle of exodeviation at near, as increasing diopters of (-) lens from -.00 D, -2.00 D and -.00 D, respectively. The angle of exodeviation at far also decreased to $21.4{\pm}5.2$ (p=0.01), $19.6{\pm}6.3$ (p<0.01) compared with baseline, as increasing minus lens from -2.00 D and -3.00 D, respectively. However, BVA, control of exodeviation, fusional ability and stereo-acuity showed no significant decrease despite of increasing diopters of (-)lens. Conclusions: The prescription of overcorrection (-)lens is an effective therapeutic method in intermittent exotropia which can reduce the near and far angle of exodeviation, and binocular visual acuity and stereo-acuity maintained without significant decrease despite of application of overcorrection (-)lens.