• Title, Summary, Keyword: apolipoprotein B

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Effect of Individual Fatty Acids on Synthesis and Secretion of Apolipoprotein and Lipoprotein in hep-G2 Cells

  • Ryowon Choue
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.27 no.9
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    • pp.910-923
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    • 1994
  • The effects of individual fatty acids, differing in their degree of unsaturation(18:0, 18:1, 18:2 and 18:3) on the biosynthesis and secretion and lipids were investigated in Hep-G2 cells. Synthesis of apolipoprotein was measured by the incorporation of 3H-leucine into apolipoprotein(d<1.21g/ml) and synthesis of lipids was measured by the incorporation of 3H-glycerol and 14C-acetate into various lipid classes. Inclusion of 1.0mM of each fatty acids into the culture medium significantly increased the synthesis of total apolipoprotein and Apo B(p<0.05). However, addition of fatty acid did not affect the synthesis of cellular and medium protein. Among different fatty acids tested, oleic acid had the greatest effect on Apo B synthesis. While stearic, linoleic and linolenic acid, all had similar effects. The secretion of triglyceride into the medium markedly increased in all fatty acid groups being 5-6 times over the albumin control. The triglyceride secretion was the highest int he oleic acid group. The secretion of phospholipid and cholesterol also increased with triglyceride output. A positive relationship existed between the output of lipoprotein-triglyceride and Apo B. Since the synthesis of Apo B was significantly increased when various fatty acids were included into the culture medium, part of the apparently stimulated synthesis of the apolipoprotein may be in response to the increased formation and secretion of lipoprotein lipids.

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Solution State Structure of pB1, the Mimotopic Peptide of Apolipoprotein B-100, by NMR

  • Lee, Sung-Ran;Kim, Dae-Sung;Kim, Hyo-Joon;Lee, Yong-Woo;Won, Ho-Shik
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.25 no.12
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    • pp.1845-1849
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    • 2004
  • Apolipoprotein B-100 (Apo-B100) is a major protein component for low density lipoproteins (LDL). A number of mimetic peptides of Apo-B100 were screened from the phase-displayed random peptide library by utilizing monoclonal antibody (B9). Mimetic peptide for B9 epitope against apo B-100 was CRNVPPIFNDVYWIAF (pB1). From the BLAST search, the mimetic peptide pB1 had 40% homology with apo B-100. As a result of the structural determination of this mimotope using homo/hetero nuclear 2D-NMR techniques and NMR-based distance geometry (DG)/molecular dynamic (MD) computations, DG structure had low penalty value of 0.3-0.6 ${\AA}^2$ and the total RMSD was 0.5-1.5 ${\AA}. Moreover, pB1 structure included a weak $3_{10}$-helix from $Ile^7$,/TEX> to $Trp^{13}$.

Association among Serum Lipid, Apolipoprotein Levels and Related Factors in Healthy Adults (중.장년층의 혈청 지질 및 아포지단백질의 농도와 관련된 요인 분석)

  • Lee, Hoe-Seon;Kim, Gyeong-Eup;Park, Mi-Young;Youn, Hee-Shang;Choi, Sun-Young;Kim, Sung-Hee
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.18 no.6
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    • pp.949-958
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    • 2008
  • This study was carried out to examine the association of age, nutrient intake, alcohol drinking and smoking on serum lipid and apolipoprotein levels in 100 healthy adults (54 males and 46 females). The serum total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (p<0.05), apolipoprotein B (Apo B) levels, LDL-C:high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio, Apo B:apolipoprotein(Apo A-I) ratio and atherogenic index (AI) (p<0.001) were significantly higher in males than females, but HDL-cholesterol level was significantly lower (p<0.01) in males than females. The plasma ascorbic acid concentration had no difference in both genders. Most of nutrient intakes except Ca, vitamin A and vitamin $B_2$ were higher than RI (Recommended intake) in both males and females. The meal frequency per day was significantly higher (p<0.01) in males than females, while meal speed, the heaviest meal, meal quantity and meal regularity had no significant differences. The rates of drinking and smoking were significantly higher (p<0.01) in males (59.3%, 37.2%) than females (17.3%, 6.9%). The age was positively correlated with triglyceride level in males (p<0.05), and with total cholesterol (p<0.001), LDL-cholesterol (p<0.001), Apo B (p<0.01), LDL-C:HDL-C ratio (p<0.01), Apo B:Apo A-I ratio (p<0.05) and AI (p<0.01) in females. The levels of serum lipid and apolipoprotein were more correlated with protein intake than other macronutrient intakes in males, while those in females were more correlated energy, carbohydrate and lipid intakes than protein intake. The effect of drinking on serum lipid and apolipoprotein levels was bigger in males than females, while the effect of smoking on those was bigger in females than males. The plasma ascorbic acid concentration was positively correlated with HDL-cholesterol (p<0.05), Apo A-I levels (p<0.001), whereas negatively correlated with Apo B:Apo A-I ratio (p<0.05) in males. And that was positively correlated with HDL-cholesterol (p<0.05) in females. These results suggest that moderate macronutrient intake, less alcohol consumption and non-smoking were necessary to maintain healthy lipid profile with aging in adults.

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Water Extract of Kudzu Root (Pueraria radix) Decreases Apolipoprotein B100 and B48 Production in Vitro

  • Lee, Jeong-Sook
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.7 no.4
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    • pp.353-357
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    • 2002
  • We have previously demonstrated that kudzu root extracts have a hypocholesterolemic effect on rats fed diets high in fat and cholesterol. To further elucidate the mechanism involved, in this study we investigated the effect of water extracts of kudzu root, Pueraria radix, on the production of apolipoprotein B$_{100}$ (APo B$_{100}$) in HepG$_2$ liver cells and secretion of apolipoprotein B$_{48}$ (Apo B$_{48}$) in Caco$_2$ cells. Human cell lines, HepG$_2$ liver cells and Caco$_2$ intestinal epithelial cells, were grown with various concentrations (0%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%, 2.0%) of water extracts of kudzu root in the media. The kudzu root extract decreased Apo B$_{100}$ production and secretion. Treatment of HeP G$_2$ cells with the kudzu root extract also significantly decreased the intracellular total and free cholesterol concentration, and also decreased esterified cholesterol but was only significant at the highest dose of 2%. Apo B$_{48}$ production, but not secretion, from enterocytes was lowered by the kudzu root extracts. This research provided evidence that the hypocholesterolemic properties of kudzu root may be a consequence of decreased production and secretion of Apo B$_{100}$ in the liver and Apo B$_{48}$ in the intestine.

A Study on the Serum Lipid, Apolipoprotein Levels and Their Correlations in Healthy Adults of Gyeongnam Area (경남지역 중${\cdot}$장년층의 혈청지질, 아포지단백질의 농도 및 상호관련성에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Hoe-Seon;Park, Mi-Young;Kim, Gyeong-Eup;Cheong, Hyo-Sook;Kim, Sung-Hee
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.40 no.6
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    • pp.526-530
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    • 2007
  • The purpose of this study was investigating serum lipid, apolipoprotein levels and their correlations in healthy adults of Gyeongnam area. The BMI (body mass index) was significantly higher (p < 0.001) in male (25.2 ${\pm}$ 2.7 $kg/m^2$) than female (23.8 ${\pm}$ 1.5 $kg/m^2$), however PBF (percent body fat) was significantly higher (p < 0.001) in female (29.6 ${\pm}$ 4.3%) than male (22.7 ${\pm}$ 5.0%). The WHR (waist to hip ratio) and blood pressure in the groups showed there was no significant differences. The levels of serum total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and apolipoprotein B were significantly higher (p < 0.01) in male (208.7 ${\pm}$ 27.7 mg/dl, 129.0 ${\pm}$ 26.9 mg/dl, 1.0 ${\pm}$ 0.2 g/L) than female (193.6 ${\pm}$ 29.1 mg/dl, 112.5 ${\pm}$ 29.5 mg/dl, 0.9 ${\pm}$ 0.2 g/L, but HDL-cholesterol level was significantly higher (p < 0.01) in female (54.9 ${\pm}$ 6.6 mg/dl) than male (49.9 ${\pm}$ 7.3 mg/dl). The LDL-C/HDL-C, Apo B/Apo A-I and AI (atherogenic index) were significantly higher (p < 0.001) in male (2.6 ${\pm}$ 0.6, 0.8 ${\pm}$ 0.2, 3.3 ${\pm}$ 0.7) than female (2.1 ${\pm}$ 0.5, 0.6 ${\pm}$ 0.2, 2.6 ${\pm}$ 0.5). The triglyceride level was positively correlated with apolipoprotein B concentration (p < 0.05) and negatively correlated with HDL-cholesterol concentration (p < 0.05), however no significant correlation was found with apolipoprotein A-I. According to these results, we conclude that male adults are expecting higher incidence of cardiovascular disease than female adults and we suggest the serum triglyceride should be kept normal level for the prevention of these diseases.

Cardiovascular risk factors of early atherosclerosis in school-aged children after Kawasaki disease

  • Cho, Hyun Jeong;Yang, Soo In;Kim, Kyung Hee;Kim, Jee Na;Kil, Hong Ryang
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.57 no.5
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    • pp.217-221
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    • 2014
  • Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine whether school-aged children with Kawasaki disease (KD) have an increased risk for early atherosclerosis. Methods: The study included 98 children. The children were divided into the following groups: group A (n=19), KD with coronary arterial lesions that persisted or regressed; group B (n=49), KD without coronary arterial lesions; and group C (n=30), healthy children. Anthropometric variables and the levels of biochemical markers, including total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), apolipoprotein A, apolipoprotein B, homocysteine, highsensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and brachial artery stiffness using pulse wave velocity were compared among the three groups. Results: There were no significant differences in blood pressure and body index among the three groups. Additionally, there was no sex-specific difference. Moreover, the levels of triglyceride, HDL-C, apolipoprotein A, and hs-CRP did not differ among the three groups. However, the levels of total cholesterol (P =0.018), LDL-C (P =0.0003), and apolipoprotein B (P =0.029) were significantly higher in group A than in group C. Further, the level of homocysteine and the aortic pulse wave velocity were significantly higher in groups A and B than in group C (P=0.0001). Conclusion: School-aged children after KD have high lipid profiles and arterial stiffness indicating an increased risk for early atherosclerosis.

The Significance of Hyperlipidemia as a Predictive Factor of Relapse in Corticosensitive Nephrotic Syndrome (스테로이드에 반응을 보인 신증후군 환아에서 재발 예측인자로서 고지혈증의 중요성)

  • Jung, Soon-Pil;Hong, Soon-Cheul;Lim, Seong-Joon;Lim, In-Seok;Choi, Eung-Sang
    • Childhood Kidney Diseases
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.136-146
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    • 2001
  • Purpose : One of the most difficult problems in the care of children with nephrotic syndrome remains the occurrence of relapses, despite initial response to steroids. Constantinescu reported that rapidity of initial response to steroid therapy could predict fewer relapses in the first year. So we evaluated the changes in serum lipid abnormalities in children with corticosensitive nephrotic syndrome before steroid treatment and the correlation between serum lipid levels and renal function, days to remission. Methods . We analyzed the Medical records of children who were managed by us between October 1994 and August 2000. In 33 patients with corticosensitive nephrotic syndrome, we evaluated the correlation between serum lipid levels and renal function [Creatinine clearance(Ccr)] and proteinuria before steroid treatment, and days to remission defined as the third day when the patient's urine becomes protein free. Results : There were 21 males and 12 females. Median age at presentation was 6.4 years (range: 1.8-17.3 years). Median days to remission were 15.4 days (range 4-42 days) on Prednisolone $60mg/m^2$ daily. The increased levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol, Lipoprotein(a) were observed. But the level of HDL cholesterol was not increased. Serum albumin was decreased a]id proteinuria was increased before steroid treatment. But Ccr was not decreased. There were negative correlation between serum albumin and total cholesterol (r = -0.5157, P<0.005), LDL cholesterol (r = -0.5543, P<0.005), total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol (r = -0.4506, P<0.01), lipoprotein(a) (r = -0.4570, P<0.025), apolipoprotein B (r = -0.5297, P<0.025), apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein Al (r = -0.5851, P<0.01), apolipoprotein B/HDL cholesterol (r = -0.4961, P<0.05) before steroid treatment. There was no correlation between proteinuria and serum lipid profiles. Also Ccr and serum lipid profiles were not correlated. There was positive correlation between days to remission and HDL cholesterol (r = +0.4511, P<0.05), apolipoprotein B (r = +0.5190, P<0.05), apolipoprotein B/HDL cholesterol (r = +0.7169, P<0.005). Conclusions : This results reveal that HDL cholesterol, apolipoprotein B and apolipoprotein B/HDL cholesterol can be used as a predictive factor in corticosensitive nephrotic syndrome. We could not determine the significant level of these lipids for insufficient patients number, but these level may predict future relapses of corticosensitive nephrotic syndrome patients and thus may allow to better management and treatment protocols. More data and long term follow up studies should be needed. (J Korean Soc Pediatr Nephrol 2001;5 : 136-46)

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Validation of a Newly Developed Equation for Estimating Serum Apolipoprotein B: Associations with Cardiovascular Disease Surrogate Markers in Koreans

  • Kim, Jong-Dai;Hwang, You-Cheol;Ahn, Hong-Yup;Park, Cheol-Young
    • Yonsei Medical Journal
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    • v.58 no.5
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    • pp.975-980
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    • 2017
  • Purpose: Many clinical guidelines recommend apolipoprotein B (apoB) measurement, particularly in subjects with metabolic syndrome or type 2 diabetes. Recently, we developed a new equation to estimate serum apoB (apoBE). We validated the clinical relevance of apoBE and compared the performance of the equation with conventional lipid measurements and direct measurement of apoB. Materials and Methods: Study subjects were recruited from patients who visited the Health Screening Center at Kangbuk Samsung Hospital between January and December 2009 for routine medical examinations (n=78125). For analysis of coronary calcium score, we recruited study subjects from the same institution between January 2007 and December 2010 (n=16493). Results: apoBE was significantly correlated with serum high-sensitivity C-reactive level {r=0.18 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.18-0.19]} in partial correlation analysis adjusted for age, sex, and body mass index. apoBE was associated with a Framingham risk score indicating more than moderate risk (10-year risk ${\geq}10%$), the presence of microalbuminuria, and the presence of coronary artery calcium in multivariate logistic regression analysis. These associations were comparable to those of directly-measured serum apoB [odds ratio per 1 SD 3.02 (2.75-3.27) vs. 2.70 (2.42-3.02) for a Framingham risk score indicating more than moderate risk, 1.31 (1.21-1.41) vs. 1.35 (1.25-1.45) for the presence of microalbuminuria, and 1.33 (1.26-1.41) vs. 1.31 (1.23-1.38) for the presence of coronary calcium score respectively]. These findings were also consistently observed in subgroup analysis for subjects with type 2 diabetes. Conclusion: The associations between cardiovascular surrogate markers and apoBE were comparable to those of directly-measured apoB.

NMR Studies of Lipid-Protein Interaction in Apolipoprotein B / Phosphatidylcholine Recombinants

  • Byong-Seok Choi;Cheal O Joe;Ke Won Kang
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.238-240
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    • 1990
  • $^{31}P${$^1H$} nuclear Overhauser effects (NOEs) have been obtained for complexes formed between apolipoprotein B (apo B) and dipalmytoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) vesicles. NOE measurements have been conducted with broad-band irradiation of the entire $^1H$ spectrum in order to identify the proton source of the NOE. In a unilamellar vesicle formed spontaneously upon mixing aqueous suspensions of long-chain phospholipid with small amount of short-chain lecithin, the maximum NOE occurs at the N-methyl proton resonance position of the choline moiety. With addition of cholesterol to vesicles, the position of the NOE maximum shifts further away from the choline methyl frequency. For the ternary apo B-vesicle-cholesterol complex, the position of the maximum NOE lies halfway between those in vesicles with and without cholesterol.

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Daidzein Modulations of Apolipoprotein B and Fatty Acid Synthase mRNA Expression in Chick Liver Vary Depending on Dietary Protein Levels

  • Choi, Jinho;Song, Jungmin;Choi, Yeon-Mi;Jang, Dong-Ju;Kim, Eunmi;Kim, Inho;Chee, Kew-Mahn
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.236-244
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    • 2006
  • This study was designed to determine the effects of daidzein (DE) on hepatic lipid metabolism in chicks fed with low protein (LP) diet based on casein. In experiment 1, the male chicks were fed with one of the three levels of dietary protein containing 10.95%, 21.9% and 43.8% protein content for 2 days. In experiment 2, the chicks were fed one of the three levels of protein with or without DE at 1,000 mg/kg diet for 2 days. Experiment 3 was conducted to compare DE (LP+DE) with estradiol (LP+E2) in chicks fed with LP diet for 7 days. Plasma lipid profiles, hepatic lipid profiles, activities of hepatic malic enzyme and isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH) were measured. Transcriptions of hepatic fatty acid synthase, apolipoprotein-B (APO-B), and fructose bisphosphatase mRNA were measured by RT-PCR. Increasing dietary protein levels markedly decreased the concentrations of plasma triglycerides, hepatic total lipids, hepatic TG, and the mRNA transcriptions while the increased dietary protein levels increased hepatic ICDH activities in experiment 1. In experiment 2, the effects of dietary protein levels on blood and hepatic lipid content were more prominent than those of the additional DE. Interestingly, plasma TG levels were affected by DE supplementation (p<0.05). In experiment 3, DE inhibited APO-B mRNA expressions and stimulated the accumulation of lipid in the liver through mechanisms different from E2. In this study, we demonstrate that DE has beneficial effects on blood lipid profiles, but that it inhibits APO-B mRNA transcription and aggravates the fatty liver induced by LP diet in chicks.