• Title, Summary, Keyword: apolipoprotein

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Serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein levels in obese middle school boys (남자 중학생에서 비만과 high sensitiviy C-reactive protein의 관계)

  • Jeong, Jae-Ho;Lim, Jae-Woo;Cheon, Eun-Jeong;Ko, Kyong-Og;Lee, Young-Hyuk
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.49 no.6
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    • pp.617-622
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    • 2006
  • Purpose : High-Sensitivity C-reactive protein(hs-CRP) has been recognized as a very useful and sensitive predictor of the future risk of myocardial infarction. But the clinical significance of hs-CRP in children remains uncertain. To confirm the existence of obesity-induced vascular inflammation and the association between metabolic syndromes and elevation of CRP in children, we investigated the relationship among CRP, obesity, blood pressure(BP), and serum lipids in schoolboys. Methods : Twenty-eight obese(BMI $29.61{\pm}3.29kg/m^2$) and 93 non-obese(BMI $18.99{\pm}2.21kg/m^2$) boys aged 14 years were examined. Serum CRP levels was measured by the high sensitive latex turbidimetric immunoassay and subjects with CRP levels below 0.3 mg/dL were adopted to avoid the influence of acute infection. Results : Obese children had significantly higher hs-CRP levels than their non-obese group($0.104{\pm}0.075$ vs. $0.054{\pm}0.005mg/dL$). In the obese group, BMI, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, apolipoprotein B, atherogenic index, and triglyceride were significantly higher than in nonobese. The BMI, diastolic blood pressure, apolipoprotein E, atherognic index, and triglyceride showed positive correlation with log CRP by simple regression. Multiple regression analysis indicated that BMI and apolipoprotein E were strongly related to CRP. Conclusion : This study revealed that obese children tended to have higher levels of serum hsCRP, BP elevation and dyslipidemia than the control group and that BMI and apolipoprotein E were strongly related to CRP. These results indicate that obesity related metabolic syndrome can be developed in children.

Study on the Relationship between Polymorphism in Apolipoprotein E Gene and Korean Ischemic Cerebrovascular Disease Patients

  • Kim, Do-Hwan;Park, Sae-Wook;Lee, Min-Goo;Lee, Jeong-Mi;Lee, In;Cho, Kwang-Ho;Moon, Byung-Soon
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.113-119
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    • 2003
  • The association between apolipoprotein E (apo E) gene polymorphism and ischemic cerebrovascular disease (ICVD) has been controversial. These controversies may be due to inaccurate classification of patients and ethnic differences. We investigated the association between apo E genotypes and ICVD patients by case-control study in a Korean population. The association between apo E polymorphism and ICVD was examined in 121 patients with ICVD and 132 controls without ICVD. The E3/E4 phenotype was more frequent in control subjects (23.8%) than in patients (13.0%) (p<0.05). The E2/E3 phenotype was more frequent in patients (14.8%) than in control subjects (10.8%), but the difference was not statistically significant (p>0.05). These results suggest that the E4 allele may be a protective factor against early vascular morbidity, and the E2 allele may be a risk factor for cerebrovascular morbidity.

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ApoE4-Induced Cholesterol Dysregulation and Its Brain Cell Type-Specific Implications in the Pathogenesis of Alzheimer's Disease

  • Jeong, Woojin;Lee, Hyein;Cho, Sukhee;Seo, Jinsoo
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.42 no.11
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    • pp.739-746
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    • 2019
  • Significant knowledge about the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been gained in the last century; however, the understanding of its causes of onset remains limited. Late-onset AD is observed in about 95% of patients, and APOE4-encoding apolipoprotein E4 (ApoE4) is strongly associated with these cases. As an apolipoprotein, the function of ApoE in brain cholesterol transport has been extensively studied and widely appreciated. Development of new technologies such as human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) and CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing tools have enabled us to develop human brain model systems in vitro and readily manipulate genomic information. In the context of these advances, recent studies provide strong evidence that abnormal cholesterol metabolism by ApoE4 could be linked to AD-associated pathology. In this review, we discuss novel discoveries in brain cholesterol dysregulation by ApoE4. We further elaborate cell type-specific roles in cholesterol regulation of four major brain cell types, neurons, astrocytes, microglia, and oligodendrocytes, and how its dysregulation can be linked to AD pathology.

Water Extract of Kudzu Root (Pueraria radix) Decreases Apolipoprotein B100 and B48 Production in Vitro

  • Lee, Jeong-Sook
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.7 no.4
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    • pp.353-357
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    • 2002
  • We have previously demonstrated that kudzu root extracts have a hypocholesterolemic effect on rats fed diets high in fat and cholesterol. To further elucidate the mechanism involved, in this study we investigated the effect of water extracts of kudzu root, Pueraria radix, on the production of apolipoprotein B$_{100}$ (APo B$_{100}$) in HepG$_2$ liver cells and secretion of apolipoprotein B$_{48}$ (Apo B$_{48}$) in Caco$_2$ cells. Human cell lines, HepG$_2$ liver cells and Caco$_2$ intestinal epithelial cells, were grown with various concentrations (0%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%, 2.0%) of water extracts of kudzu root in the media. The kudzu root extract decreased Apo B$_{100}$ production and secretion. Treatment of HeP G$_2$ cells with the kudzu root extract also significantly decreased the intracellular total and free cholesterol concentration, and also decreased esterified cholesterol but was only significant at the highest dose of 2%. Apo B$_{48}$ production, but not secretion, from enterocytes was lowered by the kudzu root extracts. This research provided evidence that the hypocholesterolemic properties of kudzu root may be a consequence of decreased production and secretion of Apo B$_{100}$ in the liver and Apo B$_{48}$ in the intestine.

Msp I RFLP of the Human Apolipoprotein AI Gene in Korean Elite Athletes

  • Kang, Byung-Yong;Lee, Kang-Oh;Oh, Sang-Duk;Bae, Joon-Seol;Yoon, Tae-Joong;Jeong, Han-Min;Kim, Ki-Tae
    • Environmental Mutagens and Carcinogens
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.243-247
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    • 2002
  • Prolonged exercise is known to increase steady-state serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-cholesterol) and apolipoprotein AI(apo AI) concentrations. We investigated the effect of adaptation to endurance exercise on the association of the genetic polymorphism in the apo AI gene with these biochemical parameters. 108 male subjects were randomly selected from a group of elite athletes, and 65 male samples used as sedentary control group from Korean general population. The genetic polymorphism in the apo AI gene locus was detected by polymerase chain reaction(PCR) and DNA digestion with Msp I restriction endonuclease. The genotype frequency for the Msp I RFLP was significantly different between the elite athletes and sedentary controls(P<0.05). There were, however, no significant associations between the Msp I RFLP of the apo AI gene and the biochemical parameters in elite athletic group. Therefore, our findings indicate that the Msp I RFLP of the apo AI gene was not associated with the serum apo AI and HDL-cholesterol concentrations in Korean male elite athletes.

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Apolipoprotein E Polymorphism in the Korean Population

  • Eom Yong-Bin;Jo Yoon-Kyung;Lee Duk-Chul;Im Jee-Aee
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.11 no.4
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    • pp.429-434
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    • 2005
  • Apolipoprotein E (apoE) restriction isotyping used oligonucleotides to amplify apoE gene sequences containing amino acid positions 112 and 158. The amplification products were digested with HhaI and subjected to electrophoresis on $4\%$ agarose gel. Each of the isoforms was distinguished by a unique combination of HhaI fragment sizes that enabled unambiguous typing of all homozygotic and heterozygotic combinations. HhaI cleaves at GCGC encoding 112arg (E4) and 158arg (E3, E4), but does not cut at GTGC encoding 112cys (E2, E3) and] 58cys (E2). DNA was isolated from 72 study participants and apoE genotypes were determined utilizing the polymerase chain reaction and restriction isotyping. In the entire group of subjects, $38 (52.8\%)$ had apo E4/4 or E3/4 (Group E4), $28(38.9\%)$ had the apo E3/3 genotype (Group E3) and $6(8.3\%)$ had apo E2/2 or E2/3 (Group E2). This genotypic information may help to identify individuals at increased risk for several diseases.

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Ginsenoside-Rp1-induced apolipoprotein A-1 expression in the LoVo human colon cancer cell line

  • Kim, Mi-Yeon;Yoo, Byong Chul;Cho, Jae Youl
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.38 no.4
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    • pp.251-255
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    • 2014
  • Background: Ginsenoside Rp1 (G-Rp1) is a novel ginsenoside derived from ginsenoside Rk1. This compound was reported to have anticancer, anti-platelet, and anti-inflammatory activities. In this study, we examined the molecular target of the antiproliferative and proapoptotic activities of G-Rp1. Methods: To examine the effects of G-Rp1, cell proliferation assays, propidium iodine staining, proteomic analysis by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, immunoblotting analysis, and a knockdown strategy were used. Results: G-Rp1 dose-dependently suppressed the proliferation of colorectal cancer LoVo cells and increased their apoptosis. G-Rp1 markedly upregulated the protein level of apolipoprotein (Apo)-A1 in LoVo, SNU-407, DLD-1, SNU-638, AGS, KPL-4, and SK-BR-3 cells. The knockdown of Apo-A1 by its small-interfering RNA increased the levels of cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and p53 and diminished the proliferation of LoVo cells. Conclusion: These results suggest that G-Rp1 may act as an anticancer agent by strongly inhibiting cell proliferation and enhancing apoptosis through upregulation of Apo-A1.

A Study on the Statistical Evaluation of Apolipoprotein E Genotype and Alzheimer's Disease (Apolipoprotein E 유전자형과 알츠하이머형 치매의 통계적인 고찰)

  • Jung, An Na;Lee, Yoen Ju;Choi, Sam Kyu;Park, Jung Oh;Woo, Myoung Soo;Yu, Kyong Nae
    • Korean Journal of Clinical Laboratory Science
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    • v.36 no.2
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    • pp.110-114
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    • 2004
  • Apolipoprotein E is the major lipid-carrier protein in the brain, and several studies provided evidence that apolipoprotein E(ApoE) epsilon4 allele can be considered a genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease(AD). Inheritance of the APOE gene has three alleles: ${\varepsilon}2$, ${\varepsilon}3$ and ${\varepsilon}4$. There are six possible genotypes: ${\varepsilon}2/{\varepsilon}2$, ${\varepsilon}3/{\varepsilon}3$, ${\varepsilon}4/{\varepsilon}4$, ${\varepsilon}2/{\varepsilon}3$, ${\varepsilon}2/{\varepsilon}4$, ${\varepsilon}3/{\varepsilon}4$. AD is characterized by a progressive loss of function and death of nerve cells in several areas of the brain. The ${\varepsilon}4$ allele is associated with a risk for developing AD. People with the ${\varepsilon}4/{\varepsilon}4$ genotype have the highest risk, but people with the ${\varepsilon}2/{\varepsilon}4$ or ${\varepsilon}3/{\varepsilon}4$ genotypes are also likely to develop the disease. 64.3% of people carry the is ${\varepsilon}3/{\varepsilon}3$ genotype, 22.1% carry the second ${\varepsilon}3/{\varepsilon}4$ genotype but, ${\varepsilon}2/{\varepsilon}2$ genotype is not usually found of people carry the 3.6% is ${\varepsilon}4/{\varepsilon}4$ genotype in a total of a test group of 140 people. The ratio of ${\varepsilon}4/{\varepsilon}4$ genotype related directly with AD is less than the ${\varepsilon}3/{\varepsilon}3$ genotype, but the ${\varepsilon}2/{\varepsilon}4$ and ${\varepsilon}3/{\varepsilon}4$ genotype ratio of indirect AD risk is 25.7% in the group of people, regardless. Thus, we have referred to the benefit from the treatment of AD through apoE genotype diagnosis.

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The Significance of Hyperlipidemia as a Predictive Factor of Relapse in Corticosensitive Nephrotic Syndrome (스테로이드에 반응을 보인 신증후군 환아에서 재발 예측인자로서 고지혈증의 중요성)

  • Jung, Soon-Pil;Hong, Soon-Cheul;Lim, Seong-Joon;Lim, In-Seok;Choi, Eung-Sang
    • Childhood Kidney Diseases
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.136-146
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    • 2001
  • Purpose : One of the most difficult problems in the care of children with nephrotic syndrome remains the occurrence of relapses, despite initial response to steroids. Constantinescu reported that rapidity of initial response to steroid therapy could predict fewer relapses in the first year. So we evaluated the changes in serum lipid abnormalities in children with corticosensitive nephrotic syndrome before steroid treatment and the correlation between serum lipid levels and renal function, days to remission. Methods . We analyzed the Medical records of children who were managed by us between October 1994 and August 2000. In 33 patients with corticosensitive nephrotic syndrome, we evaluated the correlation between serum lipid levels and renal function [Creatinine clearance(Ccr)] and proteinuria before steroid treatment, and days to remission defined as the third day when the patient's urine becomes protein free. Results : There were 21 males and 12 females. Median age at presentation was 6.4 years (range: 1.8-17.3 years). Median days to remission were 15.4 days (range 4-42 days) on Prednisolone $60mg/m^2$ daily. The increased levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol, Lipoprotein(a) were observed. But the level of HDL cholesterol was not increased. Serum albumin was decreased a]id proteinuria was increased before steroid treatment. But Ccr was not decreased. There were negative correlation between serum albumin and total cholesterol (r = -0.5157, P<0.005), LDL cholesterol (r = -0.5543, P<0.005), total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol (r = -0.4506, P<0.01), lipoprotein(a) (r = -0.4570, P<0.025), apolipoprotein B (r = -0.5297, P<0.025), apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein Al (r = -0.5851, P<0.01), apolipoprotein B/HDL cholesterol (r = -0.4961, P<0.05) before steroid treatment. There was no correlation between proteinuria and serum lipid profiles. Also Ccr and serum lipid profiles were not correlated. There was positive correlation between days to remission and HDL cholesterol (r = +0.4511, P<0.05), apolipoprotein B (r = +0.5190, P<0.05), apolipoprotein B/HDL cholesterol (r = +0.7169, P<0.005). Conclusions : This results reveal that HDL cholesterol, apolipoprotein B and apolipoprotein B/HDL cholesterol can be used as a predictive factor in corticosensitive nephrotic syndrome. We could not determine the significant level of these lipids for insufficient patients number, but these level may predict future relapses of corticosensitive nephrotic syndrome patients and thus may allow to better management and treatment protocols. More data and long term follow up studies should be needed. (J Korean Soc Pediatr Nephrol 2001;5 : 136-46)

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Association of apolipoprotein E polymorphisms with serum lipid profiles in obese adolescent (비만아에서 고지혈증과 Apolipoprotein E 다형성의 관계)

  • Yoon, Jung Min;Lim, Jae Woo;Cheon, Eun Jung;Ko, Kyoung Og
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.51 no.1
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    • pp.42-46
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    • 2008
  • Purpose : Apolipoprotein E (Apo E) plays a major role in lipoprotein metabolism and lipid transport. Many investigators have described that Apo E polymorphisms is one of the most important genetic determinants for cardiovascular disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between Apo E polymorphisms and serum lipid profiles in obese adolescent. Methods : We measured the serum concentrations of glucose, apolipoprotein (Apo) A1, Apo B, total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), HDL and LDL-cholesterol after overnight fasting in obese adolescent. Apo E polymorphisms were determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Results : 86 obese adolescents participated in this study. The body mass index (BMI) of participants were excess of 95 percentile by age and sex. Male to female ratio was 1.7 and mean age of study group was $16.2{\pm}1.8\;years$. Mean BMI was $27.4{\pm}2.5kg/m^2$. The frequency of ${\varepsilon}2$, ${\varepsilon}3$ and ${\varepsilon}4$ allele were 8.1%, 87.2% and 4.7% respectively. Study populations were classified into the following three genotypes 1) Apo E2 group (n=13, 15.1%) carrying either the ${\varepsilon}2/{\varepsilon}2$ or ${\varepsilon}2/{\varepsilon}3$ 2) Apo E3 group (n=65, 75.6%) carrying the most frequent ${\varepsilon}3/{\varepsilon}3$ 3) Apo E4 group (n=8, 9.3%) carrying either the ${\varepsilon}3/{\varepsilon}4$ or ${\varepsilon}4/{\varepsilon}4$. No differences were found among Apo E genotypes concerning age, sex, weight, height and BMI. Apo B and LDL-cholesterol concentrations were significantly higher in the Apo E4 group (P<0.05). No association were found between Apo E genotypes and glucose, Apo A1, TC, TG and HDL. Conclusions : We confirmed that serum concentrations Apo B and LDL-cholesterol were influenced by Apo E genotypes. Apo E polymorphisms seems to influence some alteration of lipid metabolism associated with obesity in adolescent.