• Title, Summary, Keyword: apolipoprotein

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Expression of genes related to lipid transport in meat-type ducks divergent for low or high residual feed intake

  • Jin, Sihua;Xu, Yuan;Zang, He;Yang, Lei;Lin, Zhiqiang;Li, Yongsheng;Geng, Zhaoyu
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.416-423
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    • 2020
  • Objective: This study examined the effects of divergence in residual feed intake (RFI) on expression profiles of key genes related to lipid transport in the liver and duodenal epithelium and their associations with feed efficiency traits in meat-type ducks. Methods: A total of 1,000 male ducks with similar body weight (1,042.1±87.2 g) were used in this study, and their individual RFI was calculated from 21 to 42 d of age. Finally, the 10 highest RFI (HRFI) and 10 lowest RFI (LRFI) ducks were chosen for examining the expression of key genes related to lipid transport in the liver and duodenal epithelium using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Results: In the liver, expression levels of albumin (ALB), CD36 molecule (CD36), fatty acid hydroxylase domain containing 2 (FAXDC2), and choline kinase alpha (CHKA) were significantly higher in LRFI ducks than in HRFI ducks (p<0.01); negative correlations (p<0.05) between expression levels of ALB, CD36, FAXDC2, and CHKA and RFI were detected in the liver. Additionally, ALB expression was strongly positively correlated (p<0.05) with CD36, FAXDC2, CHKA, and apolipoprotein H (APOH) expression in the liver. In duodenal epithelium, we found that mRNA levels of ALB, CD36, FAXDC2, and APOH were significantly higher in LRFI ducks than in HRFI ducks (p<0.01); RFI was strongly negatively correlated (p<0.05) with ALB, FAXDC2, and APOH expression, while ALB expression was strongly positively correlated with APOH expression (p<0.01) in duodenal epithelium. Furthermore, expression levels of both ALB and FAXDC2 genes were significantly associated with feed conversion ratio and RFI in both liver and duodenal epithelium (p<0.05). Conclusion: Our findings therefore suggest that ALB and FAXDC2 genes might be used as potential gene markers designed to improve feed efficiency in future meat-type duck breeding programs.

Work Hours and Cognitive Function: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

  • Charles, Luenda E.;Fekedulegn, Desta;Burchfiel, Cecil M.;Fujishiro, Kaori;Hazzouri, Adina Zeki Al;Fitzpatrick, Annette L.;Rapp, Stephen R.
    • Safety and Health at Work
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.178-186
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    • 2020
  • Background: Cognitive impairment is a public health burden. Our objective was to investigate associations between work hours and cognitive function. Methods: Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) participants (n = 2,497; 50.7% men; age range 44-84 years) reported hours per week worked in all jobs in Exams 1 (2000-2002), 2 (2002-2004), 3 (2004-2005), and 5 (2010-2011). Cognitive function was assessed (Exam 5) using the Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument (version 2), a measure of global cognitive functioning; the Digit Symbol Coding, a measure of processing speed; and the Digit Span test, a measure of attention and working memory. We used a prospective approach and linear regression to assess associations for every 10 hours of work. Results: Among all participants, associations of hours worked with cognitive function of any type were not statistically significant. In occupation-stratified analyses (interaction p = 0.051), longer work hours were associated with poorer global cognitive function among Sales/Office and blue-collar workers, after adjustment for age, sex, physical activity, body mass index, race/ethnicity, educational level, annual income, history of heart attack, diabetes, apolipoprotein E-epsilon 4 allele (ApoE4) status, birth-place, number of years in the United States, language spoken at MESA Exam 1, and work hours at Exam 5 (β = -0.55, 95% CI = -0.99, -0.09) and (β = -0.80, -1.51, -0.09), respectively. In occupation-stratified analyses (interaction p = 0.040), we also observed an inverse association with processing speed among blue-collar workers (adjusted β = -0.80, -1.52, -0.07). Sex, race/ethnicity, and ApoE4 did not significantly modify associations between work hours and cognitive function. Conclusion: Weak inverse associations were observed between work hours and cognitive function among Sales/Office and blue-collar workers.

Atheroprotective nasal immunization with a heat shock protein 60 peptide from Porphyromonas gingivalis

  • Joo, Ji-Young;Cha, Gil-Sun;Kim, Hyun-Joo;Lee, Ju-Youn;Choi, Jeomil
    • Journal of Periodontal and Implant Science
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    • v.50 no.3
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    • pp.159-170
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    • 2020
  • Purpose: Immunization with Porphyromonas gingivalis heat shock protein 60 (PgHSP60) may have an immunoregulatory effect on atherogenesis. The aim of this study was to determine whether nasal immunization with a PgHSP60 peptide could reduce atherosclerotic plaque formation in apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE KO) mice. Methods: Seven-week-old male ApoE KO mice were assigned to receive a normal diet, a Western diet, a Western diet and challenge with PgHSP60-derived peptide 14 (Pep14) or peptide 19 (Pep19), or a Western diet and immunization with Pep14 or Pep19 before challenge with Pep14 or Pep19. Results: Atherosclerotic plaques were significantly smaller in mice that received a Western diet with Pep14 nasal immunization than in mice that received a Western diet and no Pep14 immunization with or without Pep14 challenge. An immunoblot profile failed to detect serum reactivity to Pep14 in any of the study groups. Stimulation by either Pep14 or Pep19 strongly promoted the induction of CD4+CD25+ forkhead box P3 (FoxP3)+ human regulatory T cells (Tregs) in vitro. However, the expression of mouse splenic CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ Tregs was lower in the Pep14-immunized mice than in the Pep14-challenged or Pep19-immunized mice. Levels of serum interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and transforming growth factor beta were higher and levels of interleukin (IL) 10 were lower in the Pep14-immunized mice than in the other groups. Induction of CD25- IL-17+ T helper 17 (Th17) cells was attenuated in the Pep14-immunized mice. Conclusions: Nasal immunization with Pep14 may be a mechanism for attenuating atherogenesis by promoting the secretion of IFN-γ and/or suppressing Th17-mediated immunity.

Parameters of Glucose and Lipid Metabolism Affect the Occurrence of Colorectal Adenomas Detected by Surveillance Colonoscopies

  • Kim, Nam Hee;Suh, Jung Yul;Park, Jung Ho;Park, Dong Il;Cho, Yong Kyun;Sohn, Chong Il;Choi, Kyuyong;Jung, Yoon Suk
    • Yonsei Medical Journal
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    • v.58 no.2
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    • pp.347-354
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    • 2017
  • Purpose: Limited data are available regarding the associations between parameters of glucose and lipid metabolism and the occurrence of metachronous adenomas. We investigated whether these parameters affect the occurrence of adenomas detected on surveillance colonoscopy. Materials and Methods: This longitudinal study was performed on 5289 subjects who underwent follow-up colonoscopy between 2012 and 2013 among 62171 asymptomatic subjects who underwent an initial colonoscopy for a health check-up between 2010 and 2011. The risk of adenoma occurrence was assessed using Cox proportional hazards modeling. Results: The mean interval between the initial and follow-up colonoscopy was $2.2{\pm}0.6years$. The occurrence of adenomas detected by the follow-up colonoscopy increased linearly with the increasing quartiles of fasting glucose, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and triglycerides measured at the initial colonoscopy. These associations persisted after adjusting for confounding factors. The adjusted hazard ratios for adenoma occurrence comparing the fourth with the first quartiles of fasting glucose, HbA1c, insulin, HOMA-IR, and triglycerides were 1.50 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.26-1.77; $p_{trend}<0.001$], 1.22 (95% CI, 1.04-1.43; $p_{trend}=0.024$), 1.22 (95% CI, 1.02-1.46; $p_{trend}=0.046$), 1.36 (95% CI, 1.14-1.63; $p_{trend}=0.004$), and 1.19 (95% CI, 0.99-1.42; $p_{trend}=0.041$), respectively. In addition, increasing quartiles of low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and apolipoprotein B were associated with an increasing occurrence of adenomas. Conclusion: The levels of parameters of glucose and lipid metabolism were significantly associated with the occurrence of adenomas detected on surveillance colonoscopy. Improving the parameters of glucose and lipid metabolism through lifestyle changes or medications may be helpful in preventing metachronous adenomas.

Root bark extract of Cudrania tricuspidata reduces LPS-induced inflammation in macrophages of atherogenic mice

  • Lee, Mi-Ran
    • Journal of the Korea Society of Computer and Information
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    • v.25 no.10
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    • pp.115-123
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    • 2020
  • In this paper, we propose to evaluate the potential anti-inflammatory properties of root bark extract of Cudrania (C.) tricuspidata on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in macrophages of apolipoprotein E (ApoE) knockout (ApoE-/-) mice, murine model of atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is a chronic vascular inflammatory disease. C. tricuspidata is a small tree of the Moraceae family and its extract has anti-inflammatory activities. However, its role in the progress of atherosclerosis is not yet clear. To determine anti-inflammatory effects of C. tricuspidata in atherogenesis, we applied LPS in peritoneal macrophages of ApoE-/- mice and measured cell viability by CCK-8 and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines by qRT-PCR following treatment with root bark extract of C. tricuspidata. Research data was expressed as differences between the cells treated with LPS and root bark extract and the cells treated with LPS alone (control) by a two-tailed non-parametric Mann-Whitney U-test using GraphPad Instat program. No cytotoxic effect was observed when the cells were treated with the extract at concentrations ≤ 100 ㎍/mL. The expression of inflammatory cytokines, including MCP-1, IL-1β, IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-6 were inhibited by the extract. These results indicated that the extract has an anti-inflammatory effect and therefore a possible role in the treatment of atherosclerosis.

Apolipoprotein E2 & E4 Alleles Influence on the Distribution of the Human Plasma Lipid Profiles in Mormolipidemic Korean Women (아포리포 단백질 E 유전자의 E2와 E4 변이형이 정상 한국여성의 혈중 지질 수준 분포에 미치는 영향)

  • 이명숙
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.29 no.6
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    • pp.642-650
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    • 1996
  • Apo E polymorphism (e2, e3, e4) was among the first reported genetic polymorphism that explained part of the normal variation in plasma cholesterol concentrations. Both alleles E2 and E4 are significantly more frequent in patients with mixed forms of hyperlipidemia and contribute on the observed differences in CHD risk among different populations. Effects of apo E polymorphism on the distribution of plasma lipid profiles were studied in 105 normolipidemic healthy women. The relative frequencies of common alleles for gene locus of apo E in this study were that E3 allele was 0.848, E4 allels was 0.087, and E2 allele was 0.067. SBP and DBP were slightly more elevated in E2 allele than those in E3 and E4. The pulsation was also significantly (p<0.016) increased by E2 allele with excess body fat % in E2 allele. There were no differences in total-, total HDL-, VLDL+LDL-, VLDL- and LDL cholesterol among the apo E alleles. However, apo E2 allele subject had lower level of total HDL and HDL2 cholesterol (P<0.047) and significantly higher lev디 of HDL3 cholesterol (P<0.05) than those in apo E3 and E4 allele subject. The conclusion is that first, it seems that apo E4-mediated alteration through LDL B/E receptors or E receptors in cholesterol metabolism results in lower plasma TG or remanate particles and in higher levels of VLDL+LDL or LDL. Second, apo E2 allele shows reciprocal effects of E4 on the plasma lipid metabolism, respecitvely. Third, apo E2 allele was more atherogenic than apo E4 because the higher levels of HDL3/HDL2 ratio and atherogenic index[(TC-HDL)/HDL]were criticized.

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Lipoprotein and Lipid Abnormalities in Uremic Children with Maintenance Dialysis (투석 치료중인 만성 신부전 소아에서의 지질 및 지질단백 이상)

  • Kim Jung-Sue;Song Jung-Han;Park Hye-Won;Cheong Hae-Il;Kim Jin-Q;Choi Yong;Ko Kwang-Wook
    • Childhood Kidney Diseases
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    • v.1 no.2
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    • pp.109-116
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    • 1997
  • Purpose : Chronic renal failure is often accompanied by severe dyslipidemia, a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] has recently been characterized as a risk factor for atherosclerosis and thrombosis. Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in adult patients on dialysis. However, there are only limited data available concerning risk factors for atherosclerosis in uremic children. We have measured serum levels of lipids, lipoproteins, apolipoproteins and Lp(a) in uremic children with maintenance dialysis. Methods : Ten uremic children with hemodialysis (HD) and 14 with peritoneal dialysis (PD) in our dialysis unit were included in this study. The mean age of HD patients was $162{\pm}59$ months and the male to female ratio was 7:3. The mean age and sex ratio of PD patients were $123{\pm}63$ months and 6:8, respectively. The levels of cholesterol, triglyceride, lipoproteins, apolipoproteins and Lp(a) were measured from serum sampled after 14 hours of fasting. The normal control levels were cited from 2 articles presenting the normal blood lipid and lipoprotein levels of primary school and middle school children in Korea. Results : There was no difference in age, sex ratio, body mass index and duration of dialysis between the HD and the PD group. The serum concentration of the cholesterol, triglyceride and apolipoprotein B were significantly elevated in dialysis patients compared with normal subjects. The serum level of Lp(a) was significantly elevated in only PD group. The serum Lp(a) level was below 30 mg/dl in 13 and above 30 mg/dl in 11 patients. The serum albumin level was significantly decreased in high Lp(a) group than in low Lp(a) group. Conclusion : The uremic children receiving dialysis reveal abnormal serum lipid and lipoprotein profiles. These results suggest that they have a higher risk for coronary heart disease, although there has been no clinical evidence of coronary heart disease at present. A long-term follow-up study of these children to clarify the suggestion should be started now.

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Effects of Apo E Polymorphisms and Dietary Counseling on the Levels of Plasma Lipids in Hyperlipidemic Patients (고지혈증 환자에서 Apo E 유전자 다형성과 영양상담에 의한 식사조절이 혈청지질 농도에 미치는 영향)

  • 김수정;조여원;임정은;김영설
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.31 no.9
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    • pp.1411-1421
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    • 1998
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of apo E polymorphisms and dietary counseling on the levels of plasma lipids in hyperlipidemic patients. The changes of serum lipids were assessed f3r 34 hyperlipidemic out-patients who changed their basal diet containing 20.1% fat(236.0mg cholesterol/day), 15.7% protein, and 64.2% carbohydrate to a diet containing 18.3% fat(109.8mg cholesterol/day), 15.7% protein, and 66.0% carbohydrate for 12 weeks. At the beginning of this study, the levels of plasma LDL-cholesterol were high according to apo E genotypes in the following order : E2/3

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Inhibitory effects of persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thumb.) against diet-induced hypertriglyceridemia/hypercholesterolemia in rats (떫은감 (Diospyros kaki Thumb.)이 흰쥐의 식이성 이상지질혈증에 미치는 영향)

  • Ahn, Youngsook;Regu, Geberea manuel Meron;Oh, Eun Kyoung;Kwon, Oran
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.50 no.3
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    • pp.225-235
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    • 2017
  • Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the potential of freeze-dried persimmon powder (Diospyros kaki Thumb.) to protect against dyslipidemia induced by a high-fat/cholesterol diet (HFD) in a rat model. Methods: Fifty Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups: normal control (NC), high-fat/cholesterol control (HC), tannin in HFD (HT, 1% of diet), immature persimmon in HFD (HI, 7% of diet), and mature persimmon in HFD (HM, 7% of diet). Tannin was used as a positive control. Biochemical, molecular, and histopathological changes were observed in the blood and liver. Results: We confirmed that a high fat/cholesterol diet successfully induced dyslipidemia, which was characterized by significantly altered lipid profiles in the plasma and liver. However, oxidized low-density lipoprotein levels, histopathological damage in the liver, and hepatic triglyceride levels were significantly reduced in all HT, HI, and HM groups compared to those in the HF group. In contrast, plasma apolipoprotein B level was significantly reduced only in the HT and HM groups, whereas reduction of the LDL-C level was detected only in the HI group. Although HF-induced sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) gene expression was significantly reduced in all treated groups, downstream gene expression levels varied among the different groups; significant reduction of fatty acid synthase (FAS) and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMGCR) gene expression was detected only in the HI group, whereas cholesterol $7{\alpha}$-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) gene expression was significantly elevated only in the HM group. Conclusion: Taken together, the data suggest that protection of LDL oxidation and hepatic lipogenesis might be, at least partly, attributed to tannin in persimmons. However, the identified mechanisms varied up to the maturation stage of persimmon. In the case of immature persimmon, modulation of FAS and HMGCR gene expression was prominent, whereas in the case of mature persimmon, modulation of CYP7A1 gene expression was prominent.

Alteration of Lipid Metabolism Related Proteins in Liver of High-Fat Fed Obese Mice (고지방식이 비만쥐의 지방관련 단백질의 변화)

  • Seo, Eun-Hui;Han, Ying;Park, So-Young;Koh, Hyong-Jong;Lee, Hye-Jeong
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.20 no.7
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    • pp.1019-1026
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    • 2010
  • Obesity and being overweight are strongly associated with the development of metabolic disease such as diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia. High-fat diet (HFD) is one of the most important factors which cause obesity. In this study, C57BL/6 mice were treated with a HFD for 22 weeks in order to induce obesity and hyperglycemia. Twenty-two weeks later, body weight and plasma glucose level of the HFD group were significantly increased, compared with the normal diet (ND) group. Intra-peritoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) showed glucose intolerance in the HFD group compared with the ND group. These results confirmed that a HFD induced obesity and hyperglycemia in C57BL/6 mice. Plasma levels of triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) were increased in the HFD group compared with the ND group. Hepatic levels of TG and TC were also increased by a HFD. To investigate the alteration of lipid metabolism in liver, proteins which are related to lipid metabolism were observed. Among lipid synthesis related enzymes, fatty acid synthase (FAS) and glycerol phosphate acyl transferase (GPAT) were significantly increased in the HFD group. Apolipoprotein B (apoB) and microsomal triglyceride transport protein (MTP), which are related to lipid transport, were significantly increased in the HFD group. Interestingly, protein level and phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which is known as a metabolic regulator, were significantly increased in the HFD group compared with the ND group. In the present study we suggest that HFD may physiologically increase the proteins which are related with lipid synthesis and lipid transport, but that HFD may paradoxically induce the activation of AMPK.