• Title, Summary, Keyword: apolipoprotein

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Inhibitory Activity of Edible Mushrooms on the Tissue Thromboplastin (Tissue Factor) (조직 혈액응고인자에 대한 식용버섯류의 저해활성)

  • Hwang, Keum-Hee;Kim, Hyun-Ku;Han, Yong-Nam
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.161-166
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    • 1997
  • Tissue thromboplastin (tissue factor), a membrane bound glycoprotein is an important initiating factor in blood coagulation cascade, which leads to the formation of thrombin by activating both factor X and IX. Activation of blood coagulation by TF is essential for blood injury, and stimulates the blood coagulation in myocardial infarction, cancer and blood coagulatory diseases. High density lipoprotein, apolipoprotein A-II were known to be biological TF inhibitors. Recently, studies on search for TF inhibitors from natural products have been active in Korea. Among the edible mushrooms screened for inhibitory activities on the TF, Lentinus edodes showed the most strong activity, followd by Agaricus bisporus and Ganoderma lucidium. And the fractionation of the above mushrooms with the chloroform ($CHCl_3$) and ethylacetate (EtOAc) was done and evaluated for the inhibitory activities on TF. In Ganoderma lucidium, $CHCl_3$ fraction and $H_2O$ layer were not active, but EtOAc fraction exhibited a strong inhibitory activity on TF and the $IC_{50}$ value was $1.07{\times}10^{-4}\;g$. In the case of Agaricus bisporus, there were no inhibitory activities on the TF in all of the fractions. $CHCl_3$ fraction and $H_2O$ layer of Lentinus edodes did not show inhibition on the TF but EtOAc fraction showed strong inhibition on the TF, and the $IC_{50}$ value was $7.70{\times}10^{-4}\;g$.

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Intranasal Insulin for Alzheimer's Disease and Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis (알츠하이머병 및 건망증 경도 인지장애의 인슐린 비강투여: 체계적 문헌 고찰 및 메타분석)

  • Alnajjar, Sarah;Jin, Hye Kyung;Kang, Ji Eun;Park, So Hyun;Rhie, Sandy Jeong
    • Korean Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.161-170
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    • 2017
  • Background: There is recent evidence that insulin resistance is responsible for increasing the risk of developing cognitive dysfunction. To systematically review the influence of intranasal insulin treatment on the cognitive function in Alzheimer's disease patients. Methods: Randomized controlled trials comparing the cognitive effects of intranasal insulin therapy in Alzheimer's disease patients with controlled interventions were retrieved from Pubmed, Medline, Embase and Cochrane library. Meta-analysis was conducted on the cognitive measurements with a subgroup analysis by dose, gender and apolipoprotein E allele 4 (ApoE ${\varepsilon}4$) status. Results: Seven randomized controlled trials were eligible for inclusion. Intranasal insulin had a positive influence on the cognitive function as compared to placebo without a statistical significance (standardized mean difference; SMD = 0.109; 95% confidence interval; CI -0.04 to 0.26; P=0.14). In subgroup analysis, a 20 IU dose of intranasal insulin induced a significant improvement in cognitive function (SMD = 0.14; 95% CI 0.05 to 0.24; P=0.004), but 40 IU did not show this effect (SMD = -0.01; 95% CI -0.11 to 0.09; P=0.82). ApoE ${\varepsilon}4$ positive patients showed a significant decline in cognitive function as compared to ApoE ${\varepsilon}4$ positive patients in the control group (SMD = -0.213; 95% CI -0.38 to -0.04; P=0.015). Such an effect was not apparent in ApoE ${\varepsilon}4$ negative patients. Gender had no influence on the cognitive outcomes. Conclusion: The results indicate that intranasal insulin may have beneficial effect in improving the cognitive function in Alzheimer's disease patients.

Cholesterol Improvement Effects of Fermented Defatted Soybean Grits Added to Corchorus olitorius (몰로키아 첨가 탈지대두grit(defatted soybean grit) 발효물의 콜레스테롤 개선 효과)

  • Kim, Hyun-Jeong;Lee, Sung-Gyu;Lee, Sam-Pin;Lee, In-Seon
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.43 no.3
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    • pp.375-380
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    • 2011
  • This study was performed to investigate cholesterol improvement effects of adding fermented defatted soybean grit (FD) and FD added to 5 or 10% Corchorus olitorius (FDC). Cholesterol adsorption in the FD and FDC group was more than 70%. Apolipoprotein AI and CIII improved in HepG2 cells, and a greater improvement effect was shown in FDC than that in FD. We also investigated the effect of FDC on body lipid metabolism and a high-fat diet for 4 weeks. Rats were divided into control (Con), high-fat (HF), HF treated with 20% FD (HF-FD), and HF treated with 20% FDC (HF-FDC) groups. Plasma total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentrations, hepatic total cholesterol, and triglyceride contents were significantly lower in the HF-FDC group than those in the HF group. Additionally, fecal total cholesterol and triglyceride contents increased in rats treated with FDC. Hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase activities were significantly lower in the HF-FDC group than those in the HF group.

Association of Clusterin Polymorphisms (-4453T<G, 5608T<C) with Coronary Heart Disease in Korean Population (한국인에서의 Clusterin의 유전자다형성(-4453T<G, 5608T<C)과 관상동맥질환과의 연관성)

  • Kim, Su-Won;Yoo, Min
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.584-588
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    • 2010
  • Clusterin is an 80 kDa heterodimetric glycosylated protein which plays diverse biological roles in various tissues and organs. Clusterin is reported to be associated with the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease and atherosclerosis. Therefore, we investigated the genotype for the T

Antioxidant Effect of Rosa davurica Pall Extract on Oxidation of Human Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) (사람의 저밀도 지방단백질의 산화에 대한 생열귀나무 추출물의 항산화 효과)

  • Sa, Jae-Hoon;Lee, Woan;Shin, In-Cheol;Jeong, Kyung-Jin;Shim, Tae-Heum;Oh, Heung-Seok;Kim, Yong-Jin;Cheung, Eui-Ho;Kim, Gwang-Gee;Choi, Dae-Sung
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.36 no.2
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    • pp.311-316
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    • 2004
  • Antioxidant effects of Rosa davurica Pall extract on copper-mediated LDL oxidative modification were investigated. Oxidation products of LDL were determined based on TBA value, formation of conjugate diene, and apolipoprotein carbonyl value. As revealed through TBA values, ethyl acetate and butanol fractions of R. davurica Pall root showed strong antioxidant effect, with 85.3 and 93.2% inhibitions at $30\;{\mu}g/mL$ each, respectively. Ethyl acetate and butanol fractions at $30\;{\mu}g/mL$ inhibited LDL oxidation up to 8 hr. Conjugate diene formation by lipid oxidation with $Cu^{2+}$ addition in ethyl acetate and butanol fractions decreased 2.2-and 5.6-fold, respectively, compared to control. Carbonyl value decreased in the presence of butanol and ethyl acetate fractions. Methanol and ethyl acetate extracts of R. davurica Pall root showed higher absorbancy at 285 nm. Ethanol extract of R. davurica Pall root and stem contained 10.6 g/100 g total phenolic compounds. Results reveal phenolic compound as major biological component in R. davurica Pall extracts. Ethyl acetate and butanol fraction showed strongest antioxidant effect on LDL oxidation.

Analysis of SNPs in Bovine CSRP3, APOBEC2 and Caveolin Gene Family (소의 CSRP3, APOBEC2, Caveolin 유전자들의 단일염기다형 분석)

  • Bhuiyan, M.S.A.;Yu, S.L.;Kim, K.S.;Yoon, D.;Park, E.W.;Jeon, J.T.;Lee, J.H.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.49 no.6
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    • pp.719-728
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    • 2007
  • The cysteine and glycine rich protein 3 (CSRP3), apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide‐like 2(APOBEC2) and caveolin (CAV) gene family(CAV1, CAV2, CAV3) have been reported to play important roles for carcass and meat quality traits in pig, mouse, human and cattle. As an initial step, we investigated SNPs in these 5 genes among eight different cattle breeds. Eighteen primer pairs were designed from bovine sequence data of NCBI database to amplify the partial gene fragments. Sequencing results revealed 9 SNPs in the coding regions of three caveolin genes, 1 SNP in CSRP3 and 3 SNPs in APOBEC2 gene. All the identified SNPs were confirmed by PCR-RFLP. Also, 9 more intronic SNPs were detected in these genes. However, all identified mutations in the coding region do not change amino acid sequence. Allelic distributions were significantly different for 5 SNPs in CAV2, CAV3, CSRP3 and APOBEC2 genes among the eight different breeds. These results gave some clues about the polymorphisms of these genes among the cattle breeds and will be useful for further searches for identifying association between these SNPs and meat quality traits in cattle.

Development of Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein 5 (LRP5) Gene Targeted Mouse (저밀도 리포단백질 수용체 관련 단백질 5(LRP5) 유전자 적중 생쥐의 개발)

  • Park H. Y.;Kim C. M.;Lee S. M.;Jeoung Y. H.;Moon S. J.;Kang M. J.
    • Reproductive and Developmental Biology
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.19-24
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    • 2005
  • The low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) highly expressed in many tissues, including hepatocytes and pancreatic beta cells, can bind to apolipoprotein E. To evaluate in vivo roles of LRP5, we generated LRP5-deficient mice. LRP5 genomic DNA was isolated from TT2 embryonic stem (ES) cells. Targeting vector was constructed to disrupt an exon 18 of the mouse LRP5 gene and transfected into ES cells. Three homologous recombinants at LRP5 locus were identified from 178 G418-resistant clones. Chimeric males generated by morula aggregation technique were mated to C57BL/6 female mice. After achieving germ-line transmission, LRP5+/- females were crossed with LRP5+/- males to obtain LRP5-deficient mice. One line of mice lacking LRP5 gene was confirmed by Southern blotting. Such knock-out mice may serve as an effective animal model to study in vivo function of LRP5 gene.

Effects of Aerobic Training Plus Diet on Blood Lipids and Apolipoproteins in Obese Children (유산소 트레이닝과 식사조절 병행이 비만아동의 혈중지질과 아포지단백에 미치는 효과)

  • Park, Tae-Gon
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.18 no.10
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    • pp.1384-1389
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    • 2008
  • The purpose of this study was to find out the effects of aerobic training plus diet on blood lipids and apolipoproteins (Apo) in obese children. Sixteen healthy obese boys (ages 10.9; body mass index (BMI) $\geq$95th percentiles for age and sex) participated in this study. The aerobic training program consisted of 40 minutes hiking on a mountain, 60 minute of basketball and football dribbling at an intensity of 60-70% of HRmax, and was performed 5 days a week for 9 weeks. The diet prescription was 2,100 kal/day according to the recommended dietary allowance for 10-12 year old Koreans. All subjects stayed in a training camp for 9 weeks. The results of this study were as follows; Blood lipid profiles including total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG) high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and TC/HDL-C ratio were significantly improved after the 9 week program, but there was no significant change in low density lipoprotein (LDL-C). Apolipoprotein profiles, Apo AI, AII, B, CII and CⅢ were all significantly decreased after the 9 week program, but there were no significant difference in Apo AI/AII ratio and Apo B/AI ratio. These results indicate that aerobic training together with a healthy diet can induce positive changes on blood lipid profiles, Apo AII, B and CII in obese children.

Association between Global Cortical Atrophy, Medial Temporal Atrophy, White Matter Hyperintensities and Cognitive Functions in Korean Alzheimer's Disease Patients (알츠하이머병 환자의 전반적 피질 위축, 내측두엽 위축, 백질 고강도 신호와 인지기능의 연관성)

  • Choi, Leen;Joo, Soo-Hyun;Lee, Chang-Uk;Paik, In-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Biological Psychiatry
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.140-148
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    • 2015
  • Objectives The aim of this study is to investigate the correlation between degenerative changes in brain [i.e., global cortical atrophy (GCA), medial temporal atrophy (MTA), white matter hyperintensities (WMH)] and neurocognitive dysfunction in Korean patients with Alzheimer's disease. Methods A total of 62 elderly subjects diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease were included in this study. The degenerative changes in brain MRI were rated with standardized visual rating scales (GCA or global cortical atrophy, MTA or medial temporal atrophy, and Fazekas scales) and the subjects were divided into two groups according to the degree of degeneration for each scale. Cognitive function was evaluated with Korean version of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD-K) and several clinical features, including apolipoprotein E ${\varepsilon}4$ status, lipid profile and thyroid hormones, were also examined. Chi-square test and Fisher's exact test were performed to analyze the relationship between the degree of cerebral degeneration and neurocognitive functions. Results Demographic and clinical features, except for the age, did not show any significant difference between the two groups divided according to the degree of cerebral degenerative changes. However, higher degree of GCA was shown to be associated with poorer performance in verbal fluency test, word list recall test, and word list recognition test. Higher degree of MTA was shown to be associated with poorer performance in Mini-Mental State Examination in the Korean Version of CERAD Assessment Packet (MMSE-KC), word list recognition test and construction praxis recall test. Higher degree of white matter hyperintensities was shown to be associated with poorer performance in MMSE-KC. Conclusions Our results suggest that severe brain degeneration shown in MRI is associated with significantly poorer performance in neurocognitive tests in patients with Alzheimer's disease. Moreover, the degree of GCA, MTA and white matter hyperintensities, represented by scores from different visual rating scales, seems to affect certain neurocognitive domains each, which would provide useful information in clinical settings.

The Correlation of Levels of Serum Lipid, Homocysteine, and Folate with Volumes of Hippocampus, Amygdala, Corpus Callosum, and Thickness of Entorhinal Cortex in Patients with Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment or Dementia of Alzheimer's Type (기억성 경도인지장애 및 알츠하이머 치매 환자에서 해마, 편도체, 뇌들보, 내후각 피질과 혈중 지질, 호모시스테인, 엽산 농도와의 연관성)

  • Lee, Sang Jun;Kim, Tae Hyung;Huh, Lyang;Choi, Seung Eun;Lee, Bong Ju;Kim, Gyung Mee;Lee, Jung Goo;Kim, Hong Dae;Mun, Chi Woong;Kim, Young Hoon
    • Korean Journal of Biological Psychiatry
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.223-232
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    • 2015
  • Objectives In this study, the authors evaluated the correlation between levels of serum lipid, homocysteine, and folate with volumes of hippocampus, amygdala, corpus callosum, and in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) or Alzheimer's disease (AD) type. Methods The study recruited patients who visited the dementia clinic of Haeundae Paik Hospital in Korea between March 2010 and June 2014. Among those, patients who had taken the neurocognitive test, brain magnetic resonance imaing, tests for serum lipid, homocysteine, folate, and apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotyping and diagnosed with aMCI or AD were included for analysis. Bilateral hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, amygdala and corpus callosum were selected for region of interest (ROI). The cross-sectional relationships between serum lipid, homocysteine, folate and ROI were assessed by partial correlation analysis and multiple linear regression analysis. Results In patients with aMCI, old age (> 80) and APOE ${\varepsilon}4$ carrier were associated with AD [odds ration (OR) : 12.80 ; 95% confidence interval (CI) : 2.25-72.98 and OR : 4.48 ; 95% CI : 1.58-12.67, respectively]. In patients with aMCI or AD, volumes and thickness of ROI were inversely correlated with levels of serum lipid and homocysteine. In multiple linear regression analyses, higher total cholesterol level was related to lower left, right hippocampus volume and left amygdala volume ; higher low-density lipoprotein cholesterol was related to lower right entorhinal cortex thickness ; higher homocysteine level was related to lower corpus callosum volume. Conclusions Higher serum lipid and homocysteine levels are associated with decreased volume of hippocampus, amygdala, corpus callosum and entorhinal cortex thickness in patients with aMCI or AD. These findings suggest that serum lipid and homocysteine levels are associated with AD as a modifiable risk factor.