• Title, Summary, Keyword: antitumor

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The Anti-angiogenic Potential of a Phellodendron amurense Hot Water Extract in Vitro and ex Vivo (in Vitro와 ex vivo에서 황백 온수추출물의 신생혈관 억제효과)

  • Kim, Eok-Cheon;Kim, Seo Ho;Bae, Kiho;Kim, Han Sung;Gelinsky, Michael;Kim, Tack-Joong
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.25 no.6
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    • pp.693-702
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    • 2015
  • Blocking new blood-vessel formation (angiogenesis) is now recognized as a useful approach to the therapeutic treatment of many solid tumors. The best validated approach to date is to target the vascular endothelial growth-factor (VEGF) pathway, a key regulator of angiogenesis. Many natural products and extracts that contain a variety of chemopreventive compounds have been shown to suppress the development of malignancies through their anti-angiogenic properties. Phellodendron amurense, which is widely used in Korean traditional medicine, has been shown to possess antitumor, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory properties, among others. The present study investigated the effects of P. amurense hot-water extract (PAHWE) on angiogenesis, a key process in tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. To investigate PAHWE’s anti-angiogenic properties, this study’s authors performed an analysis of angiogenesis and endothelial-cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and tube formation, as well as zymogram assays and the rat aortic ring-sprouting assay. PAHWE inhibited cell growth, mobility, and vessel formation in response to VEGF in vitro and ex vivo. Furthermore, it reduced VEGF-induced intracellular signaling events, such as the activation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) -2 and -9. These results indicate that PAHWE’s anti-angiogenic properties might lead to the development of potential drugs for treating angiogenesis-associated diseases such as cancer.

The Effect of Two Terpenoids, Ursolic Acid and Oleanolic Acid on Epidermal Permeability Barrier and Simultaneously on Dermal Functions (우솔릭산과 올레아놀산이 피부장벽과 진피에 미치는 영향에 대한 연구)

  • Suk Won, Lim;Sung Won, Jung;Sung Ku, Ahn;Bora, Kim;In Young, Kim;Hee Chang , Ryoo;Seung Hun, Lee
    • Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Scientists of Korea
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.263-278
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    • 2004
  • Ursolic acid (UA) and Oleanolic acid (ONA), known as urson, micromerol and malol, are pentacyclic triterpenoid compounds which naturally occur in a large number of vegetarian foods, medicinal herbs, and plants. They may occur in their free acid form or as aglycones for triterpenoid saponins, which are comprised of a triterpenoid aglycone, linked to one or more sugar moieties. Therefore UA and ONA are similar in pharmacological activity. Lately scientific research, which led to the identification of UA and ONA, revealed that several pharmacological effects, such as antitumor, hepato-protective, anti-inflammatory, anticarcinogenic, antimicrobial, and anti-hyperlipidemic could be attributed to UA and ONA. Here, we introduced the effect of UA and ONA on acutely barrier disrupted and normal hairless mouse skin. To evaluate the effects of UA and ONA on epidermal permeability barrier recovery, both flanks of 8-12 week-old hairless mice were topically treated with either 0.01-0.1mg/mL UA or 0.1-1mg/mL ONA after tape stripping, and TEWL (transepidermal water loss) was measured. The recovery rate increased in those UA or ONA treated groups (0.1mg/mL UA and 0.5mg/mL ONA) at 6h more than 20% compared to vehicle treated group (p < 0.05). Here, we introduced the effects of UA and ONA on acute barrier disruption and normal epidermal permeability barrier function. For verifying the effects of UA and ONA on normal epidermal barrier, hydration and TEWL were measured for 1 and 3 weeks after UA and ONA applications (2mg/mL per day). We also investigated the features of epidermis and dermis using electron microscopy (EM) and light microscopy (LM). Both samples increased hydration compared to vehicle group from 1 week without TEWL alteration (p < 0.005). EM examination using RuO4 and OsO4 fixation revealed that secretion and numbers of lamellar bodies and complete formation of lipid bilayers were most prominent (ONA=UA > vehicle). LM finding showed that thickness of stratum corneum (SC) was slightly increased and especially epidermal thickening and flattening was observed (UA > ONA > vehicle). We also observed that UA and ONA stimulate epidermal keratinocyte differentiation via PPAR Protein expression of involucrin, loricrin, and filaggrin increased at least 2 and 3 fold in HaCaT cells treated with either ONA (10${\mu}$M) or UA (10${\mu}$M) for 24 h respectively. This result suggested that the UA and ONA can improve epidermal permeability barrier function and induce the epidermal keratinocyte differentiation via PPAR Using Masson-trichrome and elastic fiber staining, we observed collagen thickening and elastic fiber elongation by UA and ONA treatments. In vitro results of collagen and elastin synthesis and elastase inhibitory activity measurements were also confirmed in vivo findings. These data suggested that the effects of UA and ONA related to not only epidermal permeability barrier functions but also dermal collagen and elastic fiber synthesis. Taken together, UA and ONA can be relevant candidates to improve epidermal and dermal functions and pertinent agents for cosmeseutical applications.

Effect of Solvent Fractions from Doenjang on Antimutagenicity, Growth of Tumor Cells and Production of Interleukin-2 (된장 분획물의 항돌연변이 및 암세포 증식 억제효과와 interleukin-2 생성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Kwang-Hyuk;Park, Kun-Young;Lee, Sook-Hee;Lim, Sun-Young
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.17 no.6
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    • pp.791-797
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    • 2007
  • We studied the inhibitory effect of solvent fractions from doenjang on mutagenicity using Salmonella typhimurium TA100 in Ames test. We also investigated the effect of solvent fractions from doenjang on the growth of tumor cells and the production of interleukin-2 (IL-2). The treatment of dichlorormethane and ethylacetate fractions (2.5 mg/assay) from doenjang to Ames test system inhibited aflatoxin B$_1$ (AFB$_1$) induced mutagenicity by 96% and 97%, respectively, and showed a higher antimutagenic effect than other solvent fractions. In case of N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguamidine (MNNG) induced mutagenicity, the ethylacetate fraction showed the highest inhibitory effect (by 75%) among the other sol-vent fractions, although the inhibitory effect was not stronger compared to AFB$_1$ induced mutagenicity. The treatment of dichloromethane and ethylacetate fractions markedly inhibited the growth of Yac-1 (by 80% and 94%, respectively) and sacroma-180 cancer cells (by 60% and 96%, respectively) after 4 days of incubation at 37${\circ}$C. To elucidate the immunological mechanism of antitumor activity of doenjang, spleen cells of Balb/c mouse were exposed to the dichloromethane and ethyl-acetate fractions for 24 hours at 37${\circ}$C . The culture supernatants following the treatment of djchloromethane and ethylacetate factions to spleen cells increased the production of IL-2. These results indicated that the anticarcinogenic effect of doenjang was mediated by the production of IL-2.

A Natural L-Arginine Analog, L-Canavanine-Induced Apoptosis is Suppressed by Protein Tyrosine Kinase p56lck in Human Acute Leukemia Jurkat T Cells (인체 급성백혈병 Jurkat T 세포에 있어서 L-canavanine에 의해 유도되는 세포자살기전에 미치는 단백질 티로신 키나아제 p56lck의 저해 효과)

  • Park, Hae-Sun;Jun, Do-Youn;Woo, Hyun-Ju;Rue, Seok-Woo;Kim, Sang-Kook;Kim, Kyung-Min;Park, Wan;Moon, Byung-Jo;Kim, Young-Ho
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.19 no.11
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    • pp.1529-1537
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    • 2009
  • To elucidate further the antitumor effects of a natural L-arginine analogue, L-canavanine, the mechanism underlying apoptogenic activity of L-canavanine and its modulation by protein tyrosine kinase $p56^{lck}$ was investigated in human Jurkat T cells. When the cells were treated with 1.25 to 2.5 mM L-canavanine for 36 h, several apoptotic events including mitochondrial membrane potential (${\Delta\Psi}m$) loss, activation of caspase-9, -3, -8, and -7, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) degradation, and DNA fragmentation were induced without alteration in the levels of Fas or FasL. These apoptotic changes were more significant in $p56^{lck}$-deficient Jurkat clone JCaM1.6 than in $p56^{lck}$-positive Jurkat clone E6.1. The L-canavanine-induced apoptosis observed in $p56^{lck}$-deficient JCaM1.6 cells was significantly reduced by introducing $p56^{lck}$ gene into JCaM1.6 cells by stable transfection. Treatment of JCaM1.6/lck cells with L-canavanine caused a transient 1.6-fold increase in the kinase activity of $p56^{lck}$. Both FADD-positive wild-type Jurkat T cell clone A3 and FADD-deficient Jurkat T cell clone I2.1 exhibited a similar susceptibility to the cytotoxicity of L-canavanine, excluding involvement of Fas/FasL system in triggering L-canavanine-induced apoptosis. The L-canavanine-induced apoptotic sub-$G_1$ peak and activation of caspase-3, -8, and -7 were abrogated by pan-caspase inhibitor (z-VAD-fmk), whereas L-canavanine-induced activation of caspase-9 was not affected. These results demonstrated that L-canavanine caused apoptosis of Jurkat T cells via the loss of ${\Delta\Psi}m$, and the activation of caspase-9, -3, -8, and -7, leading to PARP degradation, and that the $p56^{lck}$ kinase attenuated the ${\Delta\Psi}m$ loss and activation of caspases, and thus contributed as a negative regulator to L-canavanine-induced apoptosis.