• Title, Summary, Keyword: antioxidant capacity

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Optimization of the Extraction Parameters of Gardenia (Gardenia jasminoides Ellis) Fruits for the Maximum Antioxidant Capacity

  • Yang, Bin;Liu, Xuan;Teng, Dike;Gao, Yanxiang
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.867-871
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    • 2009
  • Response surface methodology (RSM) was used for the optimization of antioxidant capacity in gardenia extracts. The antioxidant capacities of gardenia fruit extracts were investigated by ferric reducing ability (FRA) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity (RSA) assays. The optimum extraction parameters for the strongest antioxidant capacity were the ethanol concentration (EtOH) of 48.9%, extraction temperature of $72.9^{\circ}C$, and extraction time of 29.9 min. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that the quadratics of EtOH and extraction temperature had highly significant effect on the antioxidant capacity (p<0.001). The antioxidant capacity was correlated with contents of bioactive components [crocin, geniposide, and total phenolic (TP) compounds] in gardenia extracts and mainly attributed to the content of the TP compounds.

Effects of Heat Processing Time on Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Capacity of Ginseng Jung Kwa

  • Oh, Chang-Ho;Kim, Gyo-Nam;Lee, Sang-Hyun;Lee, Jung-Sook;Jang, Hae-Dong
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.34 no.3
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    • pp.198-204
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    • 2010
  • Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) preserved in syrup, known as ginseng Jung Kwa (GJK), is a popular traditional snack in Korea. We investigated the effects of heat processing time on total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of GJK. Water extract was prepared from GJK with different heat processing times, 3 hours (GJK-3), 6 hours (GJK-6), or 12 hours (GJK-12), with sonication for 2 hours. The GJK extract contained total phenolic content in the following order: GJK-12 (2.28%)>GJK-6 (1.57%)>GJK-3 (1.29%). Both the peroxy and hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity and cellular antioxidant capacity of GJK extract was significantly enhanced with increasing heat processing time. The hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity of GJK-12 extract was greater than that of the GJK-3 and GJK-6 extracts, consistent with metal chelating capacity and reducing capacity. In a cellular model, the GJK extract effectively reduced 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride, $Cu^{2+}$-, and $H_2O_2$-induced oxidative stress, with GJK-12 and GJK-6 extracts demonstrating greater cellular antioxidant capacity than the GJK-3 extract. These results suggest that heat processing time can contribute to the antioxidant capacity of GJK and that GJK extract may have the potential to be used as an effective dietary antioxidant to prevent oxidative stress-related diseases.

Total antioxidant capacity of the Korean diet

  • Han, Jeong-Hwa;Lee, Hye-Jin;Cho, Mi Ran;Chang, Namsoo;Kim, Yuri;Oh, Se-Young;Kang, Myung-Hee
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.183-191
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    • 2014
  • BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to measure and/or estimate the total antioxidant capacity of the Korean diet. MATERIALS/METHODS: Eighty-one plant foods that were expected to exhibit rather high antioxidant activities were selected from the Korean diet using the Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Survey (KNHANES V). These foods were categorized into 11 food groups: cereals, potatoes, legumes, nuts, vegetables, kimchies, mushrooms, fruits, fruit juices, sea weeds, and oils. The foods were mixed in the proportions specified in traditional Korean recipes and analyzed. The measured indicators for antioxidant capacities were total phenolics, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC). RESULTS: Total phenolics were high in the fruit juices, nuts, vegetables, and fruits; and the average DPPH, ORAC, and TEAC values were high in the vegetables, fruits, fruit juices, and nuts. The correlation coefficient between the content of total phenolics of each food and the in vitro antioxidant capacity was relatively high at 0.851. The intake of total phenolics per capita per day in the Republic of Korea was estimated to be 127 mg. The total dietary antioxidant capacity (TDAC) values, which were obtained from the total antioxidant capacity of each food, taking into account the intake of each food, were 20,763, 54,335, and $876.4{\mu}mol$ of Trolox equivalents using the DPPH, ORAC, and TEAC methods, respectively. The food group that contributed the most to the Korean TDAC was cereals at 39.7%, followed by fruits and vegetables at 27.8% and 13.9%, respectively. The contribution of legumes, nuts, fruit juices, and mushrooms was quite minimal at less than 2% each. CONCLUSIONS: The content of total phenolics and the antioxidant capacity of the Korean diet are significantly correlated and the high contributing food groups are cereals, fruits, and vegetables.

Comparison of lymphocyte DNA damage levels and total antioxidant capacity in Korean and American diet

  • Lee, Min Young;Kim, Hyun A;Kang, Myung Hee
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.33-42
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    • 2017
  • BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: This study aims to measure the in vitro antioxidant capacity of Korean diet (KD) with American diet (AD) as a control group and to examine the ex vivo DNA damage reduction effect on human lymphocytes. MATERIALS/METHODS: The KD applied in this study is the standard one-week meals for Koreans (2,000 kcal/day) suggested by 2010 Dietary Reference Intakes for Koreans. The AD, which is the control group, is a one-week menu (2,000 kcal/day) that consists of foods that Americans would commonly take in according to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The antioxidant capacity of each menu was measured by means of the total phenolic assay and 3 in vitro antioxidant activity assays (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), Oxygen radical absorbance capacity ($ORAC_{ROO{\cdot}}$)), while the extent of ex vivo lymphocyte DNA damage was measured by means of the comet assay. RESULTS: When measured by means of TEAC assay, the in vitro antioxidant capacity of the KD of the day was higher than that of the AD (P < 0.05) while there was no significant difference in total phenolic contents and DPPH and ORAC assays. The ex vivo lymphocyte DNA damage protective effect of the KD was significantly higher than that of the AD (P < 0.01). As for the one-week menu combining the menus for 7 days, the total phenolic assay (P < 0.05) and in vitro antioxidant capacity (P < 0.001, DPPH; P < 0.01, TEAC) of the KD menu were significantly higher than those of the AD menu. Likewise, the ex vivo DNA damage reduction rate of the Korean seven-day menu was significantly higher than that of the American menu (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that the high antioxidant capacity and DNA damage protective effect of KD, which consists generally of various plant foods, are higher than those of typical AD.

Antioxidant capacity of crude extract and fractions from Woodfordia fruticosa flower

  • Bhatt, Lok Ranjan;Baek, Seung-Hwa
    • Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.162-170
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    • 2007
  • Woodfordia fruticosa Kurz. (Lythraceae), commonly known as Dhayero, is used in the treatment of various ailments in Nepal. In this study, the antioxidant capacity of crude extract and different polarity fractions of Woodfordia fruticosa flowers were assayed for their scavenging abilities against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and nitric oxide radicals, competitive ${\beta}$-carotene bleaching, reducing power, metal chelating ability and total phenolic content. Crude extract and polar fractions showed stronger antioxidant capacity and contained very high level of total phenolics. They exhibited strong DPPH radical scavenging, nitric oxide scavenging and reducing power, medium ${\beta}$-carotene bleaching and poor metal chelating capacity. Positive correlation obtained between total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity assays, indicated the contribution of phenolics toards antioxidant capacity.

Antioxidant Characteristics in the Leaves of 14 Coniferous Trees under Field Conditions

  • Han, Sim-Hee;Lee, Jae-Cheon;Lee, Wi Young;Park, YoungKi;Oh, Chang-Young
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.95 no.2
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    • pp.209-215
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    • 2006
  • We investigated antioxidant capacity in leaves of 14 coniferous trees under field conditions. We focused on understanding the species characteristics on antioxidant systems and screening the coniferous tree species with the best antioxidant systems using their characteristics. The antioxidant capacity of 14 coniferous trees was divided into three groups. First group was Thuja orientalis and Chamaecyparis obtusa and those species had the highest content of ${\beta}$-carotene and xanthophyll. Second group, C. obtusa and Juniperus chinensis, used antioxidant enzymes to mitigate stress. C. obtusa represented high activity at superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR), and peroxidase (POD), and J. chinensis exhibited high activity at SOD, POD, catalase (CAT). Third group employed antioxidant such as ascorbic acid and ${\alpha}$-tocopherol. The antioxidant content of T. orientalis was the highest while that of Pinus parviflora and C. obtusa were the lowest. Few species belonged in three groups simultaneously, and most species belonged in at least one or two groups. In summary, we proposed that C. obtusa and T. orientalis had the highest antioxidant capacity while P. parviflora and P. desiflora for. multicalus had the lowest antioxidant capacity.

Anti-oxidative capacity of mulberry genetic resources (뽕나무 유전자원의 항산화능 비교)

  • Kim, Hyun-bok;Seok, Young-Seek;Seo, Sang-Deok;Sung, Gyoo Byung;Kim, Sung-Kuk;Jo, You-Young;Kweon, HaeYong;Lee, Kwang-Gill
    • Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science
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    • v.53 no.2
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    • pp.71-77
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    • 2015
  • Much attention has been focused on the activity of the natural antioxidants present in fruits and vegetables, because potentially these components may reduce the level of oxidative stress. Especially, mulberry leaves containing many natural components are considerable resource for natural antioxidants. The antioxidant capacity of mulberry leaves was investigated with minilum L-100 device and ARAW-KIT (anti-radical ability of water-soluble substance), in comparison to the ascorbic acid. The antioxidant capacity of 16 varieties was 3303.4 nmol at opening stage of five leaves in spring. The highest stage of antioxidant capacity (3708.0 nmol) and yield rate was just before the coloration stage with anthocyanin in fruits, whereas the lowest stage was middle of June (2231.6 nmol) and about two months growing stage after summer pruning (2064.6 nmol). But after summer pruning, the antioxidant capacity of mulberry leaves increased gradually until just before fallen leaves stage. Even if samples were same variety, antioxidant effect of those showed different results according to collected regions. Also, antioxidant effect of mulberry leaves were higher than that of branches. The antioxidant capacity of yield-type mulberry leaves and fruits (Morus alba L., M. bombycis Koidz, and M. Lhou (Ser.) Koidz) collected from In-je, Won-ju and Yang-yang regions, Kang-won province, Korea, was investigated. The results indicated that total antioxidant capacity of yield-type mulberry leaves was 2711.2 nmol. In the antioxidant capacity analysis of Jeollabuk-Do genetic resources, autumn's mulberry leaves showed higher antioxidant capacity than that of spring's it. To investigate the effect of tea on antioxidative capacity, five kinds of tea(coffee mix, green tea added brown rice, mulberry leaf tea, Polygonatum odoratum tea and black tea added lemon) were selected and analyzed. Their's anti-oxidative capacity were 2,531.01 nmol, 1,867.42 nmol, 1,053.72 nmol, 292.71 nmol and 188.91 nmol, respectively. The antioxidative capacity of drinking water soaked with mulberry leaf showed 891.96 nmol.

Comparison of Relative Antioxidant Capacity and Antiperoxidation Activity of Traditional Medicines in Vitro

  • Yeom Gee Bok;Lee Hyung Cheol;Ju Sung Min;Kim Kun Jung;Kim Won Sin;Lee Chae Ho;Jang Ho Yeon;Kang Jeong Ho;Park Shin Ki;Lee Key Sang;Jeon Byung Hun
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.17 no.6
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    • pp.1528-1532
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    • 2003
  • To investigate the antioxidant capacity of traditional Korean medicines, water extracts from 57 species were tested on their antioxidant activity using radical scavenging effects against ABTSㆍ+. Of which, Rhus javanica, Caesalpinia sappan, Rosa rugosa, Spatholobus suberectus, and Magnolia obovata showed strong antioxidant capacities at 10㎍ concentration. Therefore, antioxidant capacities of 5 traditional medicine extracts in the different concentration (1㎍, 5㎍, and 10㎍) were determined. The 5 traditional medicine extracts was detected in antioxidant capacity dose dependently. R. javanica was showed the highest antioxidant capacity, the antioxidant activity at 1 ㎍ of herbal extract being 0.85 mM TE. At the same time, the antiperoxidation effects of these 5 medicines were determined. Lipid peroxidation in brain homogenates induced by NADPH and ADP-Fe/sup 2+/ was strong inhibited by S, suberectus, R. rugosa, and M. obovata. Extract of C. sappan was showed the highest inhibition against lipid peroxidation compared with 4 herbal extracts in vitro. These traditional medicines are a potent antioxidant capacity and antiperoxidation activity, further investigation into the in vivo antioxidant therapeutic potential for treatment of human disorders such as Alzheimer's disease.

An Antioxidant Capacity Assay Using a Polyvinyl Alcohol-Based DPPH Pellet

  • Ahn, Yeong-Hee;Yoo, Jong-Shin;Kim, Sung-Ho
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.31 no.9
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    • pp.2557-2560
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    • 2010
  • To assay for antioxidant capacity of natural products considered important in producing human health benefits, a practical and economical method using pellet techniques was developed. A standard visualizing reagent, 1,1diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH), was mixed with a water-miscible polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), serving as a solid phase support for the DPPH reagent. A DPPH pellet was prepared by dropping a small volume of the DPPH solution onto PET film, and drying in an oven. The PVA-based DPPH pellet was dissolved into water, in which the water-miscible PVA plays as a non-ionic surfactant to help the DPPH reagent to be dissolved into the solvent. Using the DPPH assay, the antioxidant capacity of water-soluble extracts of black soybean, barley, green tea, and green gram was examined. Among the natural products tested, green tea showed the highest antioxidant capacity. This PVA-based DPPH antioxidant assay can be further applied in the natural food, raw plant material, and health product inspection field.

Preparation and Characterization of Antioxidant Peptides from Fermented Goat Placenta

  • Hou, Yinchen;Zhou, Jiejing;Liu, Wangwang;Cheng, Yongxia;Wu, Li;Yang, Gongming
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.34 no.6
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    • pp.769-776
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    • 2014
  • The goat placenta was fermented by Bacillus subtilis and the optimal fermentation parameters of strongest antioxidant capacity of peptides were obtained using response surface methodology (RSM). The effects of fermentation time, initial pH value and glucose content on the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity of the goat peptides were well fitted to a quadric equation with high determination coefficients. According to the data analysis of design expert, the strongest DPPH radical scavenging capacity value was obtained with the following conditions: content of glucose was 2.23%, initial pH value was 7.00 and fermentation time was 32.15 h. The DPPH radical scavenging capacity commonly referring antioxidant activity showed a concentration dependency and increased with increasing peptide concentration. The effects of temperature and pH were assessed to determine the stability of antioxidant peptides prepared from goat placenta. Antioxidant peptides showed good stabilities when temperature was lower than $70^{\circ}C$. However, the antioxidant peptides lost antioxidant activities rapidly under alkaline and excessive acid condition. Ultrafiltration technique was performed to separate fermentation broth with different Mw (molecular weight). It was found that peptides in the range of < 3 KDa mainly accounted for the antioxidant activities.