• Title, Summary, Keyword: antioxidant

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Lipid oxidation and antioxidant mechanisms in different matrix (매질(matrix)에 따른 지방산화 및 산화방지능 메커니즘)

  • Yi, BoRa;Kim, Mi-Ja;Lee, JaeHwan
    • Food Science and Industry
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    • v.51 no.2
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    • pp.127-135
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    • 2018
  • The action of antioxidants was different depending on the environments where antioxidants were located. Although basic mechanisms of lipid oxidation and antioxidants were related each other, their contribution on the degree of oxidation was different. In thisreview, terminology on antioxidant properties were defined such as antioxidant activity and antioxidant capacities. In addition, antioxidant mechanisms including primary and secondary antioxidants or hydrogen donating or electron transferring antioxidants were introduced. Also, the impact of physical points of view and antioxidant polar paradox were introduced. Depending on the types of food matrice including bulk oil, oil-in-water emulsion (O/W), or solid state, antioxidant actions showed different degree and this point was explained in detail.

Comparison of Relative Antioxidant Capacity and Antiperoxidation Activity of Traditional Medicines in Vitro

  • Yeom Gee Bok;Lee Hyung Cheol;Ju Sung Min;Kim Kun Jung;Kim Won Sin;Lee Chae Ho;Jang Ho Yeon;Kang Jeong Ho;Park Shin Ki;Lee Key Sang;Jeon Byung Hun
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.17 no.6
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    • pp.1528-1532
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    • 2003
  • To investigate the antioxidant capacity of traditional Korean medicines, water extracts from 57 species were tested on their antioxidant activity using radical scavenging effects against ABTSㆍ+. Of which, Rhus javanica, Caesalpinia sappan, Rosa rugosa, Spatholobus suberectus, and Magnolia obovata showed strong antioxidant capacities at 10㎍ concentration. Therefore, antioxidant capacities of 5 traditional medicine extracts in the different concentration (1㎍, 5㎍, and 10㎍) were determined. The 5 traditional medicine extracts was detected in antioxidant capacity dose dependently. R. javanica was showed the highest antioxidant capacity, the antioxidant activity at 1 ㎍ of herbal extract being 0.85 mM TE. At the same time, the antiperoxidation effects of these 5 medicines were determined. Lipid peroxidation in brain homogenates induced by NADPH and ADP-Fe/sup 2+/ was strong inhibited by S, suberectus, R. rugosa, and M. obovata. Extract of C. sappan was showed the highest inhibition against lipid peroxidation compared with 4 herbal extracts in vitro. These traditional medicines are a potent antioxidant capacity and antiperoxidation activity, further investigation into the in vivo antioxidant therapeutic potential for treatment of human disorders such as Alzheimer's disease.

Antioxidant mechanism of black garlic extract involving nuclear factor erythroid 2-like factor 2 pathway

  • Ha, Ae Wha;Kim, Woo Kyoung
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.206-213
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    • 2017
  • BACKGROUN/OBJECTIVES: Although studies have revealed that black garlic is a potent antioxidant, its antioxidant mechanism remains unclear. The objective of this study was to determine black garlic's antioxidant activities and possible antioxidant mechanisms related to nuclear factor erythroid 2-like factor 2 (Nrf2)-Keap1 complex. METHODS/MATERIALS: After four weeks of feeding rats with a normal fat diet (NF), a high-fat diet (HF), a high-fat diet with 0.5% black garlic extract (HF+BGE 0.5), a high-fat diet with 1.0% black garlic extract (HF+BGE 1.0), or a high-fat diet with 1.5% black garlic extract (HF+BGE 1.5), plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin,homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were determined. As oxidative stress indices, plasma concentrations of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and 8-isoprostaglandin $F2{\alpha}$ (8-iso-PGF) were determined. To measure antioxidant capacities, plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and activities of antioxidant enzymes in plasma and liver were determined. The mRNA expression levels of antioxidant related proteins such as Nrf2, NAD(P)H: quinone-oxidoreductase-1 (NQO1), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione S-transferase alpha 2 (GSTA2) were examined. RESULTS: Plasma glucose level, plasma insulin level, and HOMA-IR in black garlic supplemented groups were significantly (P < 0.05) lower than those in the HF group without dose-dependent effect. Plasma TBARS concentration and TAC in the HF+BGE 1.5 group were significantly decreased compared to those of the HF group. The activities of catalase and glutathione peroxidase were significantly (P < 0.05) increased in the HF+BGE 1.0 and HF+BGE 1.5 groups compared to those of the HF group. The mRNA expression levels of hepatic Nrf2, NQO1, HO-1, and GSTA2 were significantly (P < 0.05) increased in the HF with BGE groups compared to those in the HF group. CONCLUSIONS: The improvements of blood glucose homeostasis and antioxidant systems in rats fed with black garlic extract were related to mRNA expression levels of Nrf2 related genes.

Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata) Phytochemicals with Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Potential

  • Rokayya, Sami;Li, Chun-Juan;Zhao, Yan;Li, Ying;Sun, Chang-Hao
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.11
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    • pp.6657-6662
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    • 2013
  • Background: The objective of this study was to investigate antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of cabbage phytochemicals. Materials and Methods: Color coordinates were evaluated by colorimetry, and the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities were analyzed by spectrophotometer for some common cabbage varieties. Results: Red heads had the highest total antioxidant contents followed by Savoy, Chinese and green heads. The Chinese variety had the highest ABTS (2,2-azino-di-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-sulfonic acid) antioxidant activity, was 5.72 ${\mu}mol$ TE/g fw (Trolox equivalent). The green variety had the highest DPPH (free radical scavenging activity) antioxidant activity, which was 91.2 ${\mu}mol$ TE/g fw. The red variety had the highest FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power) antioxidant activity, which was 80.8 ${\mu}mol$ TE/g fw. The total phenol amounts were 17.2-32.6 mM trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and the total flavonoid amounts were 40.0-74.2 mg quercetin per gram. Methanolic extracts of different cabbage heads showed different anti-inflammatory activity values. Chinese, Savoy and green heads had the highest anti-inflammatory activity, while red heads had the lowest. Conclusions: The results suggest that these varieties of cabbage heads could contribute as sources of important antioxidant and anti-inflammatory related to the prevention of chronic diseases associated to oxidative stress, such as in cancer and coronary artery disease.

Antioxidant potential of a soft cheese (paneer) supplemented with the extracts of date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) cultivars and its whey

  • Qureshi, Tahir Mahmood;Amjad, Aniqa;Nadeem, Muhammad;Murtaza, Mian Anjum;Munir, Masooma
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.32 no.10
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    • pp.1591-1602
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    • 2019
  • Objective: The present study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant potential of paneer, a soft cheese supplemented with various water soluble date extracts during storage. Further, the whey obtained from all the paneer samples was also investigated for its antioxidant potential. Methods: The date cultivars were evaluated for their physico-chemical characteristics and date extracts were assessed for their antioxidant potential. Physico-chemical evaluation, microbiological quality and further antioxidant potential of the prepared paneer were carried out during storage period (0 to 8 days, $5^{\circ}C$). Results: All the date extracts were found to have considerable antioxidant activity due to presence of total phenolics and flavonoids. Owing to the presence of phenolics and flavoinds in date extracts, supplemented paneer showed higher trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, reducing power and 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity than control paneer. Paneer supplemented with Rabi extracts had the highest total phenolics ($190.7{\mu}g$ gallic acid equivalent/g paneer), DPPH radical scavenging activity ($928.1{\mu}mol$ equivalent of Trolx/g paneer) and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity ($9.2{\mu}mol$ equivalent of Trolx/g paneer). The whey obtained from control paneer showed lower values of total phenolics, total flavonoids, DPPH, trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity and reducing power as compared to the values of whey obtained from paneer supplemented with date extracts. Conclusion: Paneer supplemented with date extracts and its whey may offer potent antioxidant activity.

The Antioxidant Activity of Ecklonia stolonifera

  • Lee, Ji-Hyeon;Park, Jong-Cheol;Choi, Jae-Sue
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.223-227
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    • 1996
  • The antioxidant activity of Ecklonia stolonifera was determined by measuring lipid peroxide produced when a mouse liver homogenate was exposed to the air at $37^{\circ}C$ using 2-thiobarbituric acid (TBA) and the radical scavenging effect on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. The methanol extract of Ecklonia stolonifera showed strong antioxidant activity. And the methanol extract was fractionated with several solvents. With regard their fractions, the antioxidative activity were in the order of ethyl acetate>dichloromethane insoluble intermediated phase>dichloromethane>n-butanol>water fraction. The ethyl acetate soluble fraction exhibiting the strongest antioxidant activity was further purified by repeated silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography. Antioxidant phloroglucinol was isolated and identified by$ ^1H-NMR\; and\; ^{13}C-NMR$. Its antioxidant activity was simlilar to that of L-ascorbic acid.

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Antioxidant Flavonoids and Chlorogenic Acid from the Leaves of Erobotrya japonica

  • Jung, Hyun-Ah;Park, Jong-Cheol;Chung, Hae-Young;Kim, Jong;Choi, Jae-Sue
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.213-218
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    • 1999
  • The antioxidant activity of Eriobotrya japonica was determined by measuring the radical scavenging effect on DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical and lipid peroxidation produced when mouse liver homogenate was exposed to the air at $37^{\circ}C$, using 2-thiobarbituric acid (TBA). The methanol extract and its factions of Eriobotrya japonica leaves showed strong antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activity of EtOAc and n-BuOH soluble fractions were stronger than the others, and were further purified by repeated silica gel, MCl gel CHP-20P, and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography. Antioxidant chlorogenic acid, quercetin-3-sambubioside from n-BuOH fraction and methyl chlorogenate, kaempferol- and quercetin-3-rhamnosides, together with the inactive ursolic acid and$ 2{\alpha}$-hydroxyursolic acid from EtOAc fraction were isolated. Antioxidant flavonoids and chlorogenic acid also showed prominent inhibitory activity against free radical generation in dichlorofluorescein (DCF) method.

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Oxidative stress and the antioxidant enzyme system in the developing brain

  • Shim, So-Yeon;Kim, Han-Suk
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.56 no.3
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    • pp.107-111
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    • 2013
  • Preterm infants are vulnerable to the oxidative stress due to the production of large amounts of free radicals, antioxidant system insufficiency, and immature oligodendroglial cells. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a pivotal role in the development of periventricular leukomalacia. The three most common ROS are superoxide ($O2^{\cdot-}$), hydroxyl radical ($OH^{\cdot}$), and hydrogen peroxide ($H_2O_2$). Under normal physiological conditions, a balance is maintained between the production of ROS and the capacity of the antioxidant enzyme system. However, if this balance breaks down, ROS can exert toxic effects. Superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase are considered the classical antioxidant enzymes. A recently discovered antioxidant enzyme family, peroxiredoxin (Prdx), is also an important scavenger of free radicals. Prdx1 expression is induced at birth, whereas Prdx2 is constitutively expressed, and Prdx6 expression is consistent with the classical antioxidant enzymes. Several antioxidant substances have been studied as potential therapeutic agents; however, further preclinical and clinical studies are required before allowing clinical application.

Glycation-induced Inactivation of Antioxidant Enzymes and Modulation of Cellular Redox Status in Lens Cells

  • Shin, Ai-Hyang;Oh, Chang-Joo;Park, Jeen-Woo
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.29 no.7
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    • pp.577-581
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    • 2006
  • Oxidative mechanisms are thought to have a major role in cataract formation and diabetic complications. Antioxidant enzymes play an essential role in the antioxidant system of the cells that work to maintain low steady-state concentrations of the reactive oxygen species. When HLE-B3 cells, a human lens cell line were exposed to 50-100 mM glucose for 3 days, decrease of viability, inactivation of antioxidant enzymes, and modulation of cellular redox status were observed. Significant increase of cellular oxidative damage reflected by lipid peroxidation and DNA damage were also found. The glycation-mediated inactivation of antioxidant enzymes may result in the perturbation of cellular antioxidant defense mechanisms and subsequently lead to a pro-oxidant condition and may contribute to various pathologies associated with the long term complications of diabetes.

Purification and Characterization of Thiol-Specific Antioxidant Protein from Human Liver: A Mer5-Like Human Isoenzyme

  • Cha, Mee-Kyung;Kim, Il-Han
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.29 no.3
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    • pp.236-240
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    • 1996
  • A 23-kDa molecular mass of antioxidant protein was purified from human liver. This protein exhibited the preventive effect against the inactivation of glutamine synthetase by a metal-catalyzed oxidation system. This antioxidant activity was supported by a thiol-reducing equivalent such as dithiothreitol in a similar manner to that of the 25-kDa thiol-specific antioxidant protein (TSA) from human red blood cells (HR). However, a thioredoxin-linked peroxidase activity of thiol-specific antioxidant protein of human liver (HLTSA) (0.91 ${\mu}mol/min/nmol$ of HLTSA) was much lower than that of thiol-specific antioxidant protein of human red blood cells (HRTSA) (16.4 ${\mu}mol/min/nmol$ of HRTSA). This HLTSA is also immnologically distinct from HRTSA Amino acid sequences of the three tryptic peptides (P1, P2, P3) of HLTSA were found to be completely homologous to segments of the known Mer5-like protein, which belongs to the known TSA family.

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