• Title, Summary, Keyword: antimicrobial efficiency

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The efficiency of topical anesthetics as antimicrobial agents: A review of use in dentistry

  • Kaewjiaranai, Thanawat;Srisatjaluk, Ratchapin Laovanitch;Sakdajeyont, Watus;Pairuchvej, Verasak;Wongsirichat, Natthamet
    • Journal of Dental Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.223-233
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    • 2018
  • Topical anesthetics are commonly used in oral & maxillofacial surgery to control pain in the oral cavity mucosa before local anesthetic injection. These anesthetic agents come in many forms, developed for different usages, to minimize adverse reactions, and for optimal anesthetic efficiency. Earlier studies have revealed that these agents may also limit the growth of microorganisms in the area of anesthetic application. Many topical anesthetic agents show different levels of antimicrobial activity against various bacterial strains and Candida. The dosage of local anesthetic agent used in some clinical preparations is too low to show a significant effect on microbial activity. Efficiency of antimicrobial activity depends on the local anesthetic agent's properties of diffusion within the bloodstream and binding efficiency with cytoplasmic membrane, which is followed by disruption of the bacterial cell membrane. The antimicrobial properties of these agents may extend their usage in patients to both control pain and infection. To develop the topical local anesthetic optimal usage and antimicrobial effect, a collaborating antiseptic agent may be used to benefit the local anesthetic. However, more research is required regarding minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of topical local anesthetic agents with drug interaction between anesthetics and antiseptic agents.

Preparation of Ag-PS and Ag-PSS Particles by ${\gamma}$-Irradiation and Their Antimicrobial Efficiency against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538 and Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 4352

  • Oh Seong-Dae;Byun Bok-Soo;Lee Seung-Ho;Choi Seong-Ho
    • Macromolecular research
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.194-198
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    • 2006
  • Polystyrene, PS, particles of 450 nm diameter and poly(styrene-co-styrene sulfonate), PSS, particles of 140-160 nm diameter were prepared by emulsifier-free emulsion polymerization. The surfaces of the PS and PSS particles were coated with Ag nanoparticles for the application of antimicrobial agents by reduction of Ag ions using ${\gamma}$-irradiation. The Ag-PS and Ag-PSS were characterized by High-Resolution Transmittance Electron Microscopy (HR-TEM), Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM), and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDXS). The HR-TEM and EDXS data showed that the Ag nanoparticles were loaded on the surface of the PS and PSS particles, respectively. The antimicrobial efficiency of the Ag-PS and Ag-PSS particles (0.4 g) with ca. 100 ppm Ag, which was coated onto yam (KS K 0905-1996 rule), was tested against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538 and Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 4352 after 100 washing cycles (KS K 0432-1999 rule). The antimicrobial efficiency of the Ag-PS particles against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538 and Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 4352 was 99.9% after 100 cycles washing., confirming that the Ag-PS particles can be used as antimicrobial agents.

Enhancement of β-cyclodextrin Production and Fabrication of Edible Antimicrobial Films Incorporated with Clove Essential Oil/β-cyclodextrin Inclusion Complex

  • Farahat, Mohamed G.
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.48 no.1
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    • pp.12-23
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    • 2020
  • Edible films containing antimicrobial agents can be used as safe alternatives to preserve food products. Essential oils are well-recognized antimicrobials. However, their low water solubility, volatility and high sensitivity to oxygen and light limit their application in food preservation. These limitations could be overcome by embedding these essential oils in complexed product matrices exploiting the encapsulation efficiency of β-cyclodextrin. This study focused on the maximization of β-cyclodextrin production using cyclodextrin glucanotransferase (CGTase) and the evaluation of its encapsulation efficacy to fabricate edible antimicrobial films. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize CGTase production by Brevibacillus brevis AMI-2 isolated from mangrove sediments. This enzyme was partially purified using a starch adsorption method and entrapped in calcium alginate. Cyclodextrin produced by the immobilized enzyme was then confirmed using high performance thin layer chromatography, and its encapsulation efficiency was investigated. The clove oil/β-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes were prepared using the coprecipitation method, and incorporated into chitosan films, and subjected to antimicrobial testing. Results revealed that β-cyclodextrin was produced as a major product of the enzymatic reaction. In addition, the incorporation of clove oil/β-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes significantly increased the antimicrobial activity of chitosan films against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Salmonella Typhimurium, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans. In conclusion, B. brevis AMI-2 is a promising source for CGTase to synthesize β-cyclodextrin with considerable encapsulation efficiency. Further, the obtained results suggest that chitosan films containing clove oils encapsulated in β-cyclodextrin could serve as edible antimicrobial food-packaging materials to combat microbial contamination.

Antimicrobial Characterictics of Antimicrobial Agent (Antibiotics) and Reduction Effect on Mal-ordour. (항균제의 항균특성 및 악취제거 효과)

  • Shin, Choon-Hwan;Kim, Jong-Hyun;Han, Sun-Hong
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.157-164
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    • 1994
  • Various antimicrobial agents are widely used for the purpose of antimicrobial process. We investigated antimicrobial activity and reduction efficiency of mal-ordour by the diphenyl ether compound (2,4,4'- trichloro -2'- hydroxy diphenyl ether) against Sraphylocom aureus(S.aureus and Proton vulgaris(p.vulgaris causing the mal-ordour, Especially, the diphenyl ether compound is not restricted to the regulation of water-contamination. In this research, we found that the optimum concentration of diphenyl ether compound was 1.5w% for both strains and antimicrobial expressions were c0.38t= 2.56 for S.aureus, c0.38t=2.67 for P.vulgaris. We found also that -OH group played the role of antimicrobial functional group. Lastly, reduction effect of mal-ordour was more than 90% for both strain at the optimum conditions. Key Words : antimicrobial agents, antimicrobial activity, reduction effect of mal-ordour, antimicrobial expression, antimicrobial functional group.

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Survival of Microorganisms on Antimicrobial Filters and the Removal Efficiency of Bioaerosols in an Environmental Chamber

  • Kim, Sung Yeon;Kim, Misoon;Lee, Sunghee;Lee, JungEun;Ko, GwangPyo
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.22 no.9
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    • pp.1288-1295
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    • 2012
  • Exposure to bioaerosols causes various adverse health effects including infectious and respiratory diseases, and hypersensitivity. Controlling exposure to bioaerosols is important for disease control and prevention. In this study, we evaluated the efficacies of various functional filters coated with antimicrobial chemicals in deactivating representative microorganisms on filters or as bioaerosols. Tested functional filters were coated with different chemicals that included (i) Ginkgo and sumac, (ii) Ag-apatite and guanidine phosphate, (iii) $SiO_2$, ZnO, and $Al_2O_3$, and (iv) zeolite. To evaluate the filters, we used a model ventilation system (1) to evaluate the removal efficiency of bacteria (Escherichia coli and Legionella pneumophila), bacterial spores (Bacillus subtilis spore), and viruses (MS2 bacteriophage) on various functional filters, and (2) to characterize the removal efficiency of these bioaerosols. All experiments were performed at a constant temperature of $25^{\circ}C$ and humidity of 50%. Most bacteria (excluding B. subtilis) rapidly decreased on the functional filter. Therefore, we confirmed that functional filters have antimicrobial effects. Additionally, we evaluated the removal efficiency of various bioaerosols by these filters. We used a six-jet collision nebulizer to generate microbial aerosols and introduced it into the environmental chamber. We then measured the removal efficiency of functional filters with and without a medium-efficiency filter. Most bioaerosol concentrations did not significantly decrease by the functional filter only but decreased by a combination of functional and medium-efficiency filter. In conclusion, functional filters could facilitate biological removal of various bioaerosols, but physical removal of these by functional was minimal. Proper use of chemical-coated filter materials could reduce exposure to these agents.

Prevention from Microbial Post-harvest Injury of Fruits and Vegetables by Using Grapefruit Seed Extract, a Natural Antimicrobial Agent -Isolation of antimicrobial substance from grapefruit seed extract- (천연항균제처리에 의한 과채류의 선도유지 및 병해방지에 관한 연구 -Grapefruit 종자추출물로 부터 활성물질의 분리를 중심으로-)

  • Jo, Seong-Hwan;Kim, Gi-Ok;Lee, Geun-Hoe
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 1994
  • To investigate the effect of several bactericides and fungicides against fruit & vegetable decay grapefruit seed extract(GFSE) was tested in a dilution solution. GFSE was shown to be effective against decay and rind breakdown and to extend the shelf-life of fruits and vegetables during storage and tiansport. Antimicrobial efficiency of GFSE on a wide spectra of gram + & - bacteria, moulds and yeasts was demonstrated by the measurement of minimal inhibitory concentrations performed (Bacteria 10-500ppm, Fungi:250-1,000ppm, Yeasts:100-250ppm). GFSE was separated and extracted into water-soluble fraction, water-insoluble and non-dialyzed fraction to isolate the antimicrobial substances. The water-soluble fraction showed the most active antimicrobial effect. The antimicrobial substances were isolated by gas chromatography. As the result of the isolation using GC, Peak-D was found to be the antimicrobial compound in GFSE. The identification of the most antimicrobial substance was carried out by using GC-MS.

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Synergistic Antimicrobial Effect of Achyranthes japonica Nakai Extracts and Bifidobacterium Supernatants Against Clostridium difficile

  • Jung, Sun-Mi;Choi, Soo-Im;Park, Sang-Min;Heo, Tae-Ryeon
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.402-407
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    • 2008
  • The synergistic antimicrobial effect of Achyranthes japonica Nakai (AJN) and Bifidobacterium extracellular factors against Clostridium difficile were measured using a turbidity method. Each broth supernatant of Bifidobacterium infantis ($68.8{\pm}0.02%$) and Bifidobacterium adolescentis ($33.2{\pm}0.2%$) obtained by adding ethyl acetate soluble fractionate from A. japonica Nakai ethanolic extracts (AJNEA, 100 ppm, no inhibition) showed high synergistic antimicrobial activity against C. difficile. In addition, the antimicrobial activity in a laboratory medium and yogurt products against C. difficile were evaluated. In yogurt prepared with a starter 5 (Lactobacillus acidophilus: Streptococcus thermophilus: B. adolescentis =1 : 1 : 1) and a starter 4 (L. acidophilus: S. thermophilus: B. infantis=1 : 1 : 1) and 0.5% AJNEA powder, high antimicrobial effects were recorded that measured 79.0 and 65.2%, respectively. The results indicated the potential of AJN extract for use as an antimicrobial agent. In addition, the efficiency of the antimicrobial activity of the extracts was further improved in combination with lactic acid bacteria, which suggests that they have the potential to be used as a highly effective antibiotic-tolerant microorganism prevention system. Such a strategy can be used for alternative drugs or functional food additives for treatment of antibiotic-associated diarrhea.

Potential Antimicrobial Applications of Chitosan Nanoparticles (ChNP)

  • Rozman, Nur Amiera Syuhada;Yenn, Tong Woei;Ring, Leong Chean;Nee, Tan Wen;Hasanolbasori, Muhammad Ariff;Abdullah, Siti Zubaidah
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.29 no.7
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    • pp.1009-1013
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    • 2019
  • Polymeric nanoparticles are widely used for drug delivery due to their biodegradability property. Among the wide array of polymers, chitosan has received growing interest among researchers. It was widely used as a vehicle in polymeric nanoparticles for drug targeting. This review explored the current research on the antimicrobial activity of chitosan nanoparticles (ChNP) and the impact on the clinical applications. The antimicrobial activities of ChNP were widely reported against bacteria, fungi, yeasts and algae, in both in vivo and in vitro studies. For pharmaceutical applications, ChNP were used as antimicrobial coating for promoting wound healing, preventing infections and combating the rise of infectious disease. Besides, ChNP also exhibited significant inhibitory activities on foodborne microorganisms, particularly on fruits and vegetables. It is noteworthy that ChNP can be also applied to deliver antimicrobial drugs, which further enhance the efficiency and stability of the antimicrobial agent. The present review addresses the potential antimicrobial applications of ChNP from these few aspects.

Antimicrobial Activity of the Cell Organelles, Lysosomes, Isolated from Egg White

  • Yoon, Ji-Hee;Park, Jae-Min;Kim, Ki-Ju;Kim, Yang-Hoon;Min, Ji-Ho
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.19 no.11
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    • pp.1364-1368
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    • 2009
  • Lysosomes, as a cell organelle type, are safe biological control agents that may be possible replacements for chemical antimicrobial agents because they are simply isolated from egg white. In this study, it was found that the lysosomes isolated from egg white exhibited pH-dependent antimicrobial activity, with the optimal activity found at pH 6.0. The efficiency of lysosomes in inhibiting bacterial growth and activity was evaluated over a 12-h treatment period. Seven different microorganisms were used as bacterial strains, and the lysosomes showed a significant antimicrobial effect against all strains. In addition, the antimicrobial activity was maintained for 100 days, and there did not appear to be any resistance of E. coli to the lysosomal activity up to the eighth culture. However, the lysosomes did not affect the viability of mammalian cells, suggesting the biocompatibility of lysosomes. These highly effective lysosomes have a bright future in the application of novel antimicrobial sources as a cell organelle type.

A Study on the Characteristics of Pollutant Removal in Secondary Effluent from Wastewater Treatment Plant Using Silver Nanoparticles on Activated Carbon (은나노 활성탄에 의한 하수 2차 처리수 중의 오염물질 제거 특성에 관한 연구)

  • Seon, Yong-Ho
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.29 no.5
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    • pp.353-360
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    • 2014
  • This study targets the pollutant removal of secondary effluent from final clarifiers in wastewater treatment plant using silver nanoparticles on activated carbon. The removal efficiency and treatment characteristics of pollutant are anlayzed by perfoming experiments using granular activated carbon with silver nanoparticles and ordinary granular activated carbon. The specific surface area of granular activated carbon with silver nanoparticles is smaller than that of ordinary granular activated carbon. However, the removal efficiency of $COD_{Mn}$, T-N and T-P in experiments using activated carbon with silver nanoparticles are higher than that in experiment using ordinary granular activated carbon. That means the case of activated carbon with silver nanoparticles is much better at treatment activity. In addition, activated carbon with silver nanoparticles has antimicrobial activity because there is no microbe on the surface of it after experiments.